Talent management

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Talent management (TM) refers to the anticipation of required human capital for an organization and the planning to meet those needs. [1] The field has been growing in significance and gaining interest among practitioners as well as in the scholarly debate over the past 10 years, [2] particularly after McKinsey's 1997 research [3] and the 2001 book on The War for Talent. [4] Talent management in this context does not refer to the management of entertainers.


Talent management is the science of using strategic human resource planning to improve business value and to make it possible for companies and organizations to reach their goals. Everything done to recruit, retain, develop, reward and make people perform forms a part of talent management as well as strategic workforce planning. A talent-management strategy should link to business strategy and to local context to function more appropriately (Tyskbo, 2019) [5]


The precursor to "talent management" seen extensively in firms during the latter part of the 20th century was centered around internal talent development. An overemphasis was placed on the training and evaluation of managerial positions creating an excess supply of middle-management talent. Poor business forecasting of economic downturn in the 1970s combined with no-layoff policies for white-collar workers resulted in corporate bloat. Recession throughout the 1980s saw large increases in unemployment as firms restructured, placing less importance on internal development. As a result the hiring of outside talent largely replaced the internal development schemes seen in businesses earlier in the century and by the late 1990s had reached its limit. Firms found they were both attracting and losing experienced employees at the same rate and needed to explore new ways of retaining and nurturing incumbent employees. [6]

The term was coined by McKinsey & Company following a 1997 study. [3] The following year in 1998 "talent management" was entered in a paper. Written by Elizabeth G. Chambers, Mark Foulon, Helen Handfiled-Jones, Steven M. Hankin, and Eduard G. Micheals III. However, the connection between human resource development and organizational effectiveness has been established since the 1970s. [7]


The profession that supports talent management became increasingly formalized in the early 2000s. While some authors defined the field as including nearly everything associated with human resources,[ citation needed ] the NTMN defined the boundaries of the field through surveys of those in corporate talent management departments in 2009–2011. Those surveys indicated that activities within talent management included succession planning, assessment, development, and high potential management. Activities such as performance management and talent acquisition (recruiting) were less frequently included in the remit of corporate talent management practitioners. Compensation was not a function associated with talent management. Lastly, the strategy of using talent management help organizations with workforce during WWII.


[ need quotation to verify ] A talent management system is suggested to be used in business strategy and implemented in daily processes throughout the company as a whole. It cannot be left solely to the human resources department to attract and retain employees, but rather be practiced at all levels of an organization. The business strategy must include responsibilities for line managers to develop the skills of their immediate subordinates. Divisions within the company should be openly sharing information with other departments in order for employees to gain knowledge of the overall organizational objectives. [8] The issue with many companies and the military today is that their organizations put tremendous effort into attracting employees to their company, but spend little time into retaining and developing talent.

The talent management strategy may be supported by technology such as HRIS (HR Information Systems) or HRMS (HR Management Systems).

Talent management

Talent management is an organization's ability to recruit, retain, and produce the most talented employees available in the job market. Talent consistently uncovers benefits in these critical economic areas: revenue, customer satisfaction, quality, productivity, cost, cycle time, and market capitalization. Having good talent management is when one has good skills, knowledge, cognitive abilities, and the potential to do well. Talent management is also an important and necessary skill for people in the workforce to acquire. Finding good and talented people is not a hard thing to do, but making sure that they want to stay working for the same business is the challenge. If someone has so much talent and they are good at what they do, businesses will want them to stay and work there forever. However, most of those people are either satisfied with the job they have, or they go out and look for better opportunities.

Talent recruitment

The importance of recruitment of the proper talent is crucial to the overall long term success of the organization. Recruitment processes are vital because if people don’t appreciate the initial process, they will not be willing to stay with the organization. Technology has advanced greatly giving many corporations the ability to locate the correct people for the task at hand. Nearly, all multinational enterprises (MNEs) are faced with the challenge of curating a formidable arsenal of its workforce. It has been reported that nearly 75% of the CEOs of the world have pointed out the unavailability of the required skills and capabilities as the main obstacle faced by organizations aiming for their growth (Sen, 2019) [9] Companies need to decide whether it is correct to "buy" or "make" employees. Making an employee refers to teaching the individual certain skills needed for the job. However, it has to be determined whether or not the employee has the potential to learn the skills. Buying an employee is hiring an individual that already possesses the required skills needed for the job. If the person has the required skills, their starting wage will likely have to reflect the talent. [10]


From a talent management standpoint, employee evaluations concern two major areas of measurement: performance and potential. Current employee performance within a specific job has always been a standard evaluation measurement tool of the profitability of an employee. However, talent management also seeks to focus on an employee’s potential, meaning an employee’s future performance, if given the proper development of skills and increased responsibility. What goes into these dimensions has been showed to differ depending on local organizational contexts (Tyskbo, 2019) [11]


This term "talent management" is usually associated with competency-based management. Talent management decisions are often driven by a set of organizational core competencies as well as position-specific competencies. The competency set may include knowledge, skills, experience, and personal traits (demonstrated through defined behaviors). Older competency models might also contain attributes that rarely predict success (e.g. education, tenure, and diversity factors that are illegal to consider in relation to job performance in many countries and unethical within organizations). New techniques involve creating a competency architecture for the organization that includes a competency dictionary to hold the competencies in order to build job descriptions. Companies like Southwest Airlines, Microsoft, and General Electric all use talent management.

Talent marketplace

A talent marketplace is an employee training and development strategy that is set in place within an organization. It is found to be most beneficial for companies where the most productive employees can pick and choose the projects and assignments that are ideal for the specific employee. An ideal setting is where productivity is employee-centric and tasks are described as “judgment-based work,” for example, in a law firm. The point of activating a talent marketplace within a department is to harness and link individuals’ particular skills (project management or extensive knowledge in a particular field) with the task at hand. Examples of companies that implement the talent marketplace strategy are American Express and IBM. [12] In today´s globalized economy, cultural agility is a behavioral trait that international enterprises especially value in job applicants at the time of hiring. [13]

Employee retention

The process of retaining employees to work in the organization on a long-term basis is defined as employee retention (Sen, 2019). Organizational resources are used to train new employees into skilled workers. This gives options to businesses that want to hold onto employees as long as they can. (Sen,2019). By keeping a healthy long term relationship between employees and management, companies benefit from a skilled and talented staff that will cohesively work together to achieve long term goals. The most important factors involved in employee retention are compensation, workplace environment, growth options, and the support structure of the company (Sen,2019). [14] One of the greatest drivers of employee engagement and retention are intangible assets, that are mostly related to the way a manager treats their employees. [15] The proper and fair treatment of all employees will increase their engagement levels and in the long run result in less of a need for micromanaging. [16] The main cause for talented people leaving their jobs is due to the fact they are not being allowed to do as much as they would like to do for their organizations. The right employees want to feel impactful and have a feeling of importance as they go about their daily work. Employees are more likely to stay if they have a good relationship and open communication with their immediate boss and have a feeling of importance in the workplace. [17] This is the main reason why frontline leaders should develop their employee retention skills as retention rates are likely to feature prominently in annual reports in the future. If management can hire and keep the right employees on board it will translate into positive and sustainable success in the future. [18]

Current applications

In adverse economic conditions, many companies feel the need to cut expenses. This should be the ideal environment to execute a talent management system as a means of optimizing the performance of each employee and the organization. Selection offers are large return on investments. Job analysis and assessment validation help enhance the predictive power of selection tools. Data points such as cost-per-placement or average time to recruit are critical in predictive analytics for talent management. These evaluation methods use historical data to provide insight.[ citation needed ] However, within many companies the concept of human capital management has just begun to develop. With more companies in the process of deepening their global footprints, [19] more questions have been asked about new strategies and products, but very few on the kind of leadership structure [20] [21] that will bring them success in their globalization process. [22] [23] “In fact, only 5 percent of organizations say they have a clear talent management strategy and operational programs in place today.” [24] The impact of globalization on talent management practices is specifically covered in several recent books. [25] [26]

See also

Related Research Articles

Human resources is the set of people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, industry, or economy. A narrower concept is human capital, the knowledge and skills which the individuals command. Similar terms include manpower, labor, personnel, associates or simply: people.

Succession planning is a process for identifying and developing new leaders who can replace old leaders when they leave, retire or die. Here the planning is usually a close process, so that those who have been selected are not likely to know that they are on a succession list or chat. Succession planning can be defined as the process of identifying critical roles in a company and the core skills associated with those roles, and then identifying possible internal candidates to assume those jobs when the incumbents leave

Career Development or Career Development Planning refers to the process an individual may undergo to evolve their occupational status. It is the process of making decisions for long term learning, to align personal needs of physical or psychological fulfillment with career advancement opportunities. Career Development can also refer to the total encompassment of an individual's work-related experiences, leading up to the occupational role they may hold within an organization.

Recruitment refers to the overall process of identifying, attracting, screening, shortlisting, and interviewing candidates for jobs within an organization. Recruitment can also refer to the processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid roles. Managers, human resource generalists and recruitment specialists may be tasked with carrying out recruitment, but in some cases public-sector employment, commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies are used to undertake parts of the process. Internet-based technologies which support all aspects of recruitment have become widespread, including the use of artificial intelligence (AI).

Human resource management is the strategic approach to the effective and efficient management of people in a company or organization such that they help their business gain a competitive advantage. It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. Human resource management is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and systems. HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee-benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and reward management, such as managing pay and Employee benefits benefit systems. HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, or the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and governmental laws.

Competence is the set of demonstrable characteristics and skills that enable and improve the efficiency or performance of a job. The term "competence" first appeared in an article authored by R.W. White in 1959 as a concept for performance motivation. In 1970, Craig C. Lundberg defined the concept in "Planning the Executive Development Program". The term gained traction when in 1973, David McClelland wrote a seminal paper entitled, "Testing for Competence Rather Than for Intelligence". It has since been popularized by Richard Boyatzis and many others, such as T.F. Gilbert (1978) who used the concept in relationship to performance improvement. Its use varies widely, which leads to considerable misunderstanding.

A chief human resources officer (CHRO) or chief people officer (CPO) is a corporate officer who oversees all aspects of human resource management and industrial relations policies, practices and operations for an organization. Similar job titles include: chief people officer, chief personnel officer, executive vice president of human resources and senior vice president of human resources. Roles and responsibilities of a typical CHRO can be categorized as follows: workforce strategist, organizational and performance conductor, HR service delivery owner, compliance and governance regulator, and coach and adviser to the senior leadership team and the board of directors. CHROs may also be involved in board member selection and orientation, executive compensation, and succession planning. In addition, functions such as communications, facilities, public relations and related areas may fall within the scope of the CHRO role. Increasingly, CHROs report directly to chief executive officers and are members of the most senior-level committees of a company.

A job description or JD is a written narrative that describes the general tasks, or other related duties, and responsibilities of a position. It may specify the functionary to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications or skills needed by the person in the job, information about the equipment, tools and work aids used, working conditions, physical demands, and a salary range. Job descriptions are usually narrative, but some may comprise a simple list of competencies; for instance, strategic human resource planning methodologies may be used to develop a competency architecture for an organization, from which job descriptions are built as a shortlist of competencies.

Training and development involves improving the effectiveness of organizations and the individuals and teams within them. Training may be viewed as related to immediate changes in organizational effectiveness via organized instruction, while development is related to the progress of longer-term organizational and employee goals. While training and development technically have differing definitions, the two are oftentimes used interchangeably and/or together. Training and development has historically been a topic within applied psychology but has within the last two decades become closely associated with human resources management, talent management, human resources development, instructional design, human factors, and knowledge management.

The war for talent is a term coined by Steven Hankin of McKinsey & Company in 1997, and a book by Ed Michaels, Helen Handfield-Jones, and Beth Axelrod, Harvard Business Press, 2001 ISBN 978-1-57851-459-5. The war for talent refers to an increasingly competitive landscape for recruiting and retaining talented employees. In the book, Michaels, et al., describe not a set of superior Human Resources processes, but a mindset that emphasizes the importance of talent to the success of organizations.

Employee retention refers to the ability of an organization to retain its employees. Employee retention can be represented by a simple statistic. However, many consider employee retention as relating to the efforts by which employers attempt to retain the employees in their workforce. In this sense, retention becomes the strategies rather than the outcome.

Competency-based recruitment is a process of recruitment based on the ability of candidates to produce anecdotes about their professional experience which can be used as evidence that the candidate has a given competency. Candidates demonstrate competencies on the application form, and then in the interview, which in this case is known as a competency-based interview.

Human resource planning is a process that identifies current and future human resources needs for an organization to achieve its goals. Human resource planning should serve as a link between human resource management and the overall strategic plan of an organization. Ageing workers population in most western countries and growing demands for qualified workers in developing economies have underscored the importance of effective human resource planning.

Human Resource (HR) metrics are measurements used to determine the value and effectiveness of HR initiatives, typically including such areas as turnover, training, return on human capital, costs of labor, and expenses per employee.

Kenexa American employment services company

Kenexa, an IBM Company, provides employment and retention services. This includes recruitment process outsourcing onboarding tools, employee assessment, abilities assessment for employment candidates ; and Kenexa Interview Builder, a structured interview archive with example questions.

Potential analysis describes the structural examination of specific characteristics and competencies. Potential analyses provide information about abilities of employees, future events, methods or organizations. Due to that the analysis of the branch of production, the financial sphere, the research & development and the Human resources is differentiated.

Human Asset Management (HAM) is the part of the company that manages human assets. It is the management of employees as assets, combining many conceptual elements of an employee's life cycle through an organization focusing on that people are a company's most important assets. Many elements are included in the Human Asset Management area, including employer branding, recruitment, onboarding, retention, development, culture, career management, mobility, succession planning, talent management, performance management, employee administration and legal issues.

A human resources management system (HRMS) or human resources information system (HRIS) or human capital management (HCM) is a form of human resources (HR) software that combines a number of systems and processes to ensure the easy management of human resources, business processes and data. Human resources software is used by businesses to combine a number of necessary HR functions, such as storing employee data, managing payroll, recruitment, benefits administration, time and attendance, employee performance management, and tracking competency and training records.

Workforce Nationalization is a government initiative that can be described as the recruitment and employee development to encourage or often require the employment of native-born population in certain jobs or industry sectors, thus reducing a country‘s dependency on an expatriate workforce. These efforts have been defined as a multi-level process through which reliance on the expatriate workforce is reduced and native-born population is prepared to take up jobs performed by expatriates. Such preparation enables native-born employees to perform their jobs equally as well as, if not better than, expatriates in the shortest possible period.

Paula Caligiuri is an American psychologist, academician, talent management specialist, book author, and entrepreneur. She works as a Distinguished Professor of International Business and Strategy at D'Amore-McKim School of Business, Northeastern University. Her published contributions in the field of international human resource management have won academic distinctions, and been endorsed in scholarly literature and in wider professional circles. Among her books, Get a Life, Not a Job, Managing the Global Workforce, and Cultural Agility: Building a Pipeline of Successful Global Professionals, received attention by qualified media.


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