Trade

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Two traders in 16th century Germany Kaufmann-1568.png
Two traders in 16th century Germany
The San Juan de Dios Market in Guadalajara, Jalisco. MercadodeSanJuandeDios.jpg
The San Juan de Dios Market in Guadalajara, Jalisco.
The Liberty to Trade as Buttressed by National Law (1909) by George Howard Earle, Jr. Earle, Liberty to Trade as Buttressed by National Law, 1909 Title.jpg
The Liberty to Trade as Buttressed by National Law (1909) by George Howard Earle, Jr.

Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. A system or network that allows trade is called a market.

Goods and services outcome of human efforts to meet the wants and needs of people

Goods are items that are usually tangible, such as pens, salt, apples, and hats. Services are activities provided by other people, who include doctors, lawn care workers, dentists, barbers, waiters, or online servers, a book, a digital videogame or a digital movie. Taken together, it is the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services which underpins all economic activity and trade. According to economic theory, consumption of goods and services is assumed to provide utility (satisfaction) to the consumer or end-user, although businesses also consume goods and services in the course of producing other goods and services.

Money Object or record accepted as payment

Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts, such as taxes, in a particular country or socio-economic context. The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value and sometimes, a standard of deferred payment. Any item or verifiable record that fulfils these functions can be considered as money.

A system is a group of interacting or interrelated entities that form a unified whole. A system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning. Systems are the subjects of study of systems theory.

Contents

An early form of trade, barter, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services. [1] [ need quotation to verify ] Barter involves trading things without the use of money. [1] Later, one bartering party started to involve precious metals, which gained symbolic as well as practical importance.[ citation needed ] Modern traders generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade involving more than two traders is called multilateral trade.

Barter Exchange of goods

In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money. Economists distinguish barter from gift economies in many ways; barter, for example, features immediate reciprocal exchange, not delayed in time. Barter usually takes place on a bilateral basis, but may be multilateral. In most developed countries, barter usually only exists parallel to monetary systems to a very limited extent. Market actors use barter as a replacement for money as the method of exchange in times of monetary crisis, such as when currency becomes unstable or simply unavailable for conducting commerce.

Precious metal rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic and cultural value

A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value. Chemically, the precious metals tend to be less reactive than most elements. They are usually ductile and have a high lustre. Historically, precious metals were important as currency but are now regarded mainly as investment and industrial commodities. Gold, silver, platinum, and palladium each have an ISO 4217 currency code.

In one modern view, trade exists due to specialization and the division of labor, a predominant form of economic activity in which individuals and groups concentrate on a small aspect of production, but use their output in trades for other products and needs. [2] Trade exists between regions because different regions may have a comparative advantage (perceived or real) in the production of some trade-able commodity—including production of natural resources scarce or limited elsewhere, or because different regions' sizes may encourage mass production. In such circumstances, trade at market prices between locations can benefit both locations.

In an economic model, agents have a comparative advantage over others in producing a particular good if they can produce that good at a lower relative opportunity cost or autarky price, i.e. at a lower relative marginal cost prior to trade. Comparative advantage describes the economic reality of the work gains from trade for individuals, firms, or nations, which arise from differences in their factor endowments or technological progress. The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage.

Commodity marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs

In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

Mass production production of large amounts of standardized products

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch production, it is one of the three main production methods.

Retail trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a very fixed location [3] (such as a department store, boutique or kiosk), online or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption or use by the purchaser. [4] Wholesale trade is defined[ by whom? ] as traffic in goods that are sold as merchandise to retailers, or to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.

Retail Sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to the end-user

Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The term "retailer" is typically applied where a service provider fills the small orders of a large number of individuals, who are end-users, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, corporate or government clientele. Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase.

Sales act of selling a product or service in return for money or other compensation

Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods or services sold in a given time period.

Department store Retail establishment; building which offers a wide range of consumer goods

A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments". In modern major cities, the department store made a dramatic appearance in the middle of the 19th century, and permanently reshaped shopping habits, and the definition of service and luxury. Similar developments were under way in London, in Paris and in New York.

Historically, openness to free trade substantially increased from 1815 to the outbreak of World War I. Trade openness increased again during the 1920s, but collapsed (in particular in Europe and North America) during the Great Depression. Trade openness increased substantially again from the 1950s onwards (albeit with a slowdown during the oil crisis of the 1970s). Economists and economic historians contend that current levels of trade openness are the highest they have ever been. [5] [6] [7]

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo. The embargo was targeted at nations perceived as supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War. The initial nations targeted were Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States with the embargo also later extended to Portugal, Rhodesia and South Africa. By the end of the embargo in March 1974, the price of oil had risen nearly 400%, from US$3 per barrel to nearly $12 globally; US prices were significantly higher. The embargo caused an oil crisis, or "shock", with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy. It was later called the "first oil shock", followed by the 1979 oil crisis, termed the "second oil shock".

Etymology

Trade is from Middle English trade ("path, course of conduct"), introduced into English by Hanseatic merchants, from Middle Low German trade ("track, course"), from Old Saxon trada ("spoor, track"), from Proto-Germanic *tradō ("track, way"), and cognate with Old English tredan ("to tread").

Proto-Germanic language Ancestor of the Germanic languages

Proto-Germanic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French. This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English.

Commerce is derived from the Latin commercium, from cum "together" and merx, "merchandise." [8]

History

Prehistory

Trade originated with human communication in prehistoric times. Trading was the main facility of prehistoric people,[ citation needed ] who bartered goods and services from each other before the innovation of modern-day currency. Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. [9]

In the Mediterranean region the earliest contact between cultures involved members of the species Homo sapiens, principally using the Danube river, at a time beginning 35,000–30,000 BP. [10] [11] [12] [13] [ need quotation to verify ]

Some[ who? ] trace the origins of commerce to the very start of transactions in prehistoric times. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other.

The caduceus, traditionally associated which Mercury (the Roman patron-god of merchants), continues in use as a symbol of commerce. Caduceus.svg
The caduceus, traditionally associated which Mercury (the Roman patron-god of merchants), continues in use as a symbol of commerce.

Ancient history

Ancient Etruscan "aryballoi" terracota vessels unearthed in the 1860s at Bolshaya Bliznitsa tumulus near Phanagoria, South Russia (formerly part of the Bosporan Kingdom of Cimmerian Bosporus, present-day Taman Peninsula); on exhibit at the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg. Attic red-figure Pottery in the Eremitage Sankt Petersburg.jpg
Ancient Etruscan "aryballoi" terracota vessels unearthed in the 1860s at Bolshaya Bliznitsa tumulus near Phanagoria, South Russia (formerly part of the Bosporan Kingdom of Cimmerian Bosporus, present-day Taman Peninsula); on exhibit at the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg.

Trade is believed[ by whom? ] to have taken place throughout much[ quantify ] of recorded human history. There is evidence of the exchange of obsidian and flint during the stone age. Trade in obsidian is believed[ by whom? ] to have taken place in New Guinea from 17,000 BCE. [15] [16]

The earliest use of obsidian in the Near East dates to the Lower and Middle paleolithic. [17]

Robert Carr Bosanquet investigated trade in the Stone Age by excavations in 1901. [18] [19] Trade is believed[ by whom? ] to have first begun in south west Asia. [20] [21]

Archaeological evidence of obsidian use provides data on how this material was increasingly the preferred choice rather than chert from the late Mesolithic to Neolithic, requiring exchange as deposits of obsidian are rare in the Mediterranean region. [22] [23] [24]

Obsidian is thought[ by whom? ] to have provided the material to make cutting utensils or tools, although since other more easily obtainable materials were available, use was found[ by whom? ] exclusive to the higher status of the tribe using "the rich man's flint". [25]

Obsidian was traded at distances of 900 kilometres within the Mediterranean region. [26]

Trade in the Mediterranean during the Neolithic of Europe was greatest in this material. [22] [27] Networks were in existence at around 12,000 BCE [28] Anatolia was the source primarily for trade with the Levant, Iran and Egypt according to Zarins study of 1990. [29] [30] [31] Melos and Lipari sources produced among the most widespread trading in the Mediterranean region as known to archaeology. [32]

The Sari-i-Sang mine in the mountains of Afghanistan was the largest source for trade of lapis lazuli. [33] [34] The material was most largely traded during the Kassite period of Babylonia beginning 1595 BCE. [35] [36]

Later trade

Mediterranean and Near East

Ebla was a prominent trading centre during the third millennia, with a network reaching into Anatolia and north Mesopotamia. [32] [37] [38] [39]

A map of the Silk Road trade route between Europe and Asia. Silk route copy.jpg
A map of the Silk Road trade route between Europe and Asia.

Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since 3000 BCE. Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. The Phoenicians were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea, and as far north as Britain for sources of tin to manufacture bronze. For this purpose they established trade colonies the Greeks called emporia. [40]

From the beginning of Greek civilization until the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, a financially lucrative trade brought valuable spice to Europe from the far east, including India and China. Roman commerce allowed its empire to flourish and endure. The latter Roman Republic and the Pax Romana of the Roman empire produced a stable and secure transportation network that enabled the shipment of trade goods without fear of significant piracy, as Rome had become the sole effective sea power in the Mediterranean with the conquest of Egypt and the near east. [41]

In ancient Greece Hermes was the god of trade [42] [43] (commerce) and weights and measures, [44] for Romans Mercurius also god of merchants, whose festival was celebrated by traders on the 25th day of the fifth month. [45] [46] The concept of free trade was an antithesis to the will and economic direction of the sovereigns of the ancient Greek states. Free trade between states was stifled by the need for strict internal controls (via taxation) to maintain security within the treasury of the sovereign, which nevertheless enabled the maintenance of a modicum of civility within the structures of functional community life. [47] [48]

The fall of the Roman empire, and the succeeding Dark Ages brought instability to Western Europe and a near collapse of the trade network in the western world. Trade however continued to flourish among the kingdoms of Africa, Middle East, India, China and Southeast Asia. Some trade did occur in the west. For instance, Radhanites were a medieval guild or group (the precise meaning of the word is lost to history) of Jewish merchants who traded between the Christians in Europe and the Muslims of the Near East. [49]

Indo-Pacific

Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean Austronesian maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean.png
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean

The first true maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean was by the Austronesian peoples of Island Southeast Asia, [50] who built the first ocean-going ships. [51] They established trade routes with Southern India and Sri Lanka as early as 1500 BC, ushering an exchange of material culture (like catamarans, outrigger boats, sewn-plank boats, and paan) and cultigens (like coconuts, sandalwood, bananas, and sugarcane); as well as connecting the material cultures of India and China. Indonesians, in particular were trading in spices (mainly cinnamon and cassia) with East Africa using catamaran and outrigger boats and sailing with the help of the Westerlies in the Indian Ocean. This trade network expanded to reach as far as Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in the Austronesian colonization of Madagascar by the first half of the first millennium AD. It continued up to historic times, later becoming the Maritime Silk Road. [50] [52] [53] [54] [55]

Mesoamerica

Tajadero or axe money used as currency in Mesoamerica. It had a fixed worth of 8,000 cacao seeds, which were also used as currency. Dinero azada de Mexico (siglos XIV-XV).jpg
Tajadero or axe money used as currency in Mesoamerica. It had a fixed worth of 8,000 cacao seeds, which were also used as currency.

The emergence of exchange networks in the Pre-Columbian societies of and near to Mexico are known to have occurred within recent years before and after 1500 BCE. [57]

Trade networks reached north to Oasisamerica. There is evidence of established maritime trade with the cultures of northwestern South America and the Caribbean.

Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages, commerce developed in Europe by trading luxury goods at trade fairs. Wealth became converted into movable wealth or capital. Banking systems developed where money on account was transferred across national boundaries. Hand to hand markets became a feature of town life, and were regulated by town authorities.

Western Europe established a complex and expansive trade network with cargo ships being the main workhorse for the movement of goods, Cogs and Hulks are two examples of such cargo ships. [58] Many ports would develop their own extensive trade networks. The English port city of Bristol traded with peoples from what is modern day Iceland, all along the western coast of France, and down to what is now Spain. [59]

A map showing the main trade routes for goods within late medieval Europe. Late Medieval Trade Routes.jpg
A map showing the main trade routes for goods within late medieval Europe.

During the Middle Ages, Central Asia was the economic center of the world. [60] The Sogdians dominated the East-West trade route known as the Silk Road after the 4th century CE up to the 8th century CE, with Suyab and Talas ranking among their main centers in the north. They were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia.

From the 8th to the 11th century, the Vikings and Varangians traded as they sailed from and to Scandinavia. Vikings sailed to Western Europe, while Varangians to Russia. The Hanseatic League was an alliance of trading cities that maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, between the 13th and 17th centuries.

The Age of Sail and the Industrial Revolution

Vasco da Gama pioneered the European Spice trade in 1498 when he reached Calicut after sailing around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of the African continent. Prior to this, the flow of spice into Europe from India was controlled by Islamic powers, especially Egypt. The spice trade was of major economic importance and helped spur the Age of Discovery in Europe. Spices brought to Europe from the Eastern world were some of the most valuable commodities for their weight, sometimes rivaling gold.

From 1070 onward, kingdoms in West Africa became significant members of global trade. [61] This came initially through the movement of gold and other resources sent out by Muslim traders on the Trans-Saharan trading network. [61] Later, West Africa exported gold, spices, cloth, and slaves to European traders such as the Portuguese, Dutch, and English. [61] This was often in exchange for cloth, iron, or cowrie shells which were used locally as currency. [61]

Founded in 1352, the Bengal Sultanate was a major trading nation in the world and often referred to by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with. [62]

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Portuguese gained economic advantage in the Kingdom of Kongo due to different philosophies of trade. [61] Whereas Portuguese traders concentrated on the accumulation of capital, in Kongo spiritual meaning was attached to many objects of trade. According to economic historian Toby Green, in Kongo "giving more than receiving was a symbol of spiritual and political power, and privilege." [61]

In the 16th century, the Seventeen Provinces were the centre of free trade, imposing no exchange controls, and advocating the free movement of goods. Trade in the East Indies was dominated by Portugal in the 16th century, the Dutch Republic in the 17th century, and the British in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire developed regular trade links across both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.

Danzig in the 17th century, a port of the Hanseatic League. Wojciech Gerson - Gdansk in the XVII century.jpg
Danzig in the 17th century, a port of the Hanseatic League.

In 1776, Adam Smith published the paper An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . It criticised Mercantilism, and argued that economic specialisation could benefit nations just as much as firms. Since the division of labour was restricted by the size of the market, he said that countries having access to larger markets would be able to divide labour more efficiently and thereby become more productive. Smith said that he considered all rationalisations of import and export controls "dupery", which hurt the trading nation as a whole for the benefit of specific industries.

In 1799, the Dutch East India Company, formerly the world's largest company, became bankrupt, partly due to the rise of competitive free trade.

Berber trade with Timbuktu, 1853. Berber Trade with Timbuktu 1300s.jpg
Berber trade with Timbuktu, 1853.

19th century

In 1817, David Ricardo, James Mill and Robert Torrens showed that free trade would benefit the industrially weak as well as the strong, in the famous theory of comparative advantage. In Principles of Political Economy and Taxation Ricardo advanced the doctrine still considered the most counterintuitive in economics:

When an inefficient producer sends the merchandise it produces best to a country able to produce it more efficiently, both countries benefit.

The ascendancy of free trade was primarily based on national advantage in the mid 19th century. That is, the calculation made was whether it was in any particular country's self-interest to open its borders to imports.

John Stuart Mill proved that a country with monopoly pricing power on the international market could manipulate the terms of trade through maintaining tariffs, and that the response to this might be reciprocity in trade policy. Ricardo and others had suggested this earlier. This was taken as evidence against the universal doctrine of free trade, as it was believed that more of the economic surplus of trade would accrue to a country following reciprocal, rather than completely free, trade policies. This was followed within a few years by the infant industry scenario developed by Mill promoting the theory that government had the duty to protect young industries, although only for a time necessary for them to develop full capacity. This became the policy in many countries attempting to industrialise and out-compete English exporters. Milton Friedman later continued this vein of thought, showing that in a few circumstances tariffs might be beneficial to the host country; but never for the world at large. [63]

20th century

The Great Depression was a major economic recession that ran from 1929 to the late 1930s. During this period, there was a great drop in trade and other economic indicators.

The lack of free trade was considered by many as a principal cause of the depression causing stagnation and inflation. [64] Only during the World War II the recession ended in the United States. Also during the war, in 1944, 44 countries signed the Bretton Woods Agreement, intended to prevent national trade barriers, to avoid depressions. It set up rules and institutions to regulate the international political economy: the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (later divided into the World Bank and Bank for International Settlements). These organisations became operational in 1946 after enough countries ratified the agreement. In 1947, 23 countries agreed to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to promote free trade. [65]

The European Union became the world's largest exporter of manufactured goods and services, the biggest export market for around 80 countries. [66]

21st century

Today, trade is merely a subset within a complex system of companies which try to maximize their profits by offering products and services to the market (which consists both of individuals and other companies) at the lowest production cost. A system of international trade has helped to develop the world economy but, in combination with bilateral or multilateral agreements to lower tariffs or to achieve free trade, has sometimes harmed third-world markets for local products.

Free trade

Free trade advanced further in the late 20th century and early 2000s:

Perspectives

Protectionism

Protectionism is the policy of restraining and discouraging trade between states and contrasts with the policy of free trade. This policy often takes of form of tariffs and restrictive quotas. Protectionist policies were particularly prevalent in the 1930s, between the Great Depression and the onset of World War II.

Religion

Islamic teachings encourage trading (and condemn usury or interest). [67] [68]

Judeao-Christian teachings prohibit fraud and dishonest measures, and historically also forbade the charging of interest on loans. [69] [70]

Development of money

A Roman denarius. Maximinus denarius - transparent background.PNG
A Roman denarius.

The first instances of money were objects with intrinsic value. This is called commodity money and includes any commonly available commodity that has intrinsic value; historical examples include pigs, rare seashells, whale's teeth, and (often) cattle. In medieval Iraq, bread was used as an early form of money. In Mexico under Montezuma cocoa beans were money.

Currency was introduced as a standardised money to facilitate a wider exchange of goods and services. This first stage of currency, where metals were used to represent stored value, and symbols to represent commodities, formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years.

Numismatists have examples of coins from the earliest large-scale societies, although these were initially unmarked lumps of precious metal. [71]

Doha rounds

The Doha round of World Trade Organization negotiations aimed to lower barriers to trade around the world, with a focus on making trade fairer for developing countries. Talks have been hung over a divide between the rich developed countries, represented by the G20, and the major developing countries. Agricultural subsidies are the most significant issue upon which agreement has been hardest to negotiate. By contrast, there was much agreement on trade facilitation and capacity building. The Doha round began in Doha, Qatar, and negotiations were continued in: Cancún, Mexico; Geneva, Switzerland; and Paris, France and Hong Kong.[ citation needed ]

China

Beginning around 1978, the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) began an experiment in economic reform. In contrast to the previous Soviet-style centrally planned economy, the new measures progressively relaxed restrictions on farming, agricultural distribution and, several years later, urban enterprises and labor. The more market-oriented approach reduced inefficiencies and stimulated private investment, particularly by farmers, that led to increased productivity and output. One feature was the establishment of four (later five) Special Economic Zones located along the South-east coast.[ citation needed ]

The reforms proved spectacularly successful in terms of increased output, variety, quality, price and demand. In real terms, the economy doubled in size between 1978 and 1986, doubled again by 1994, and again by 2003. On a real per capita basis, doubling from the 1978 base took place in 1987, 1996 and 2006. By 2008, the economy was 16.7 times the size it was in 1978, and 12.1 times its previous per capita levels. International trade progressed even more rapidly, doubling on average every 4.5 years. Total two-way trade in January 1998 exceeded that for all of 1978; in the first quarter of 2009, trade exceeded the full-year 1998 level. In 2008, China's two-way trade totaled US$2.56 trillion. [72]

In 1991 China joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation group, a trade-promotion forum.<https://www.apec.org/About-Us/About-APEC/Member-Economies> In 2001, it also joined the World Trade Organization.<https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/countries_e/china_e.htm>

International trade

International trade is the exchange of goods and services across national borders. In most countries, it represents a significant part of GDP. While international trade has been present throughout much of history (see Silk Road, Amber Road), its economic, social, and political importance have increased in recent centuries, mainly because of Industrialization, advanced transportation, globalization, multinational corporations, and outsourcing.[ citation needed ]

Empirical evidence for the success of trade can be seen in the contrast between countries such as South Korea, which adopted a policy of export-oriented industrialization, and India, which historically had a more closed policy. South Korea has done much better by economic criteria than India over the past fifty years, though its success also has to do with effective state institutions.[ citation needed ]

Trade sanctions

Trade sanctions against a specific country are sometimes imposed, in order to punish that country for some action. An embargo, a severe form of externally imposed isolation, is a blockade of all trade by one country on another. For example, the United States has had an embargo against Cuba for over 40 years. [73]

Trade barriers

International trade, which is governed by the World Trade Organization, can be restricted by both tariff and non-tariff barriers. International trade is usually regulated by governmental quotas and restrictions, and often taxed by tariffs. Tariffs are usually on imports, but sometimes countries may impose export tariffs or subsidies. Non-tariff barriers include Sanitary and Phytosanitary rules, labeling requirements and food safety regulations. All of these are called trade barriers . If a government removes all trade barriers, a condition of free trade exists. A government that implements a protectionist policy establishes trade barriers. There are usually few trade restrictions within countries although a common feature of many developing countries is police and other road blocks along main highways, that primarily exist to extract bribes.[ citation needed ]

Fair trade

The "fair trade" movement, also known as the "trade justice" movement, promotes the use of labour, environmental and social standards for the production of commodities, particularly those exported from the Third and Second Worlds to the First World. Such ideas have also sparked a debate on whether trade itself should be codified as a human right. [74] .

Importing firms voluntarily adhere to fair trade standards or governments may enforce them through a combination of employment and commercial law. Proposed and practiced fair trade policies vary widely, ranging from the common prohibition of goods made using slave labour to minimum price support schemes such as those for coffee in the 1980s. Non-governmental organizations also play a role in promoting fair trade standards by serving as independent monitors of compliance with labeling requirements.[ citation needed ] As such, it is a form of Protectionism.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Samuelson, P (1939). "The Gains from International Trade". The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science. 5 (2): 195–205. doi:10.2307/137133. JSTOR   137133.
  2. Dollar, D; Kraay, A (2004). "Trade, Growth, and Poverty" (PDF). The Economic Journal. 114 (493): F22–F49. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.509.1584 . doi:10.1111/j.0013-0133.2004.00186.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-03-07. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  3. Compare peddling and other types of retail trade:Hoffman, K. Douglas, ed. (2005). Marketing principles and best practices (3 ed.). Thomson/South-Western. p. 407. ISBN   978-0-324-22519-8 . Retrieved 2018-05-03. Five types of nonstore retailing will be discussed: street peddling, direct selling, mail-order, automatic-merchandising machine operators, and electronic shopping.
  4. "Distribution Services". Foreign Agricultural Service. 2000-02-09. Archived from the original on 2006-05-15. Retrieved 2006-04-04.
  5. Federico, Giovanni; Tena-Junguito, Antonio (2019). "WORLD TRADE, 1800-1938: A NEW SYNTHESIS". Revista de Historia Economica - Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History. 37 (1): 9–41. doi:10.1017/S0212610918000216. ISSN   0212-6109.
  6. Federico, Giovanni; Tena-Junguito, Antonio (2018-07-28). "The World Trade Historical Database". VoxEU.org. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  7. Bown, C. P.; Crowley, M. A. (2016-01-01), Bagwell, Kyle; Staiger, Robert W. (eds.), "Chapter 1 - The Empirical Landscape of Trade Policy", Handbook of Commercial Policy, North-Holland, 1, pp. 3–108, retrieved 2019-10-07
  8. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Commerce"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 766.
  9. Watson (2005), Introduction.
  10. D Abulafia; O Rackham; M Suano (2008-07-31), The Mediterranean in History, Getty Publications, 1 Mar 2011, ISBN   978-1-60606-057-5 , retrieved 2019-09-07, [...] the Danube played an extremely important role in connecting East and West before the Mediterranean became the main link between these regions. This period runs for about 25,000 years, from 35,000/30,000 to around 10,000/8,000 before the present.
  11. Compare: Barbier, Edward (2015). "The Origins of Economic Wealth". Nature and Wealth: Overcoming Environmental Scarcity and Inequality. Springer. ISBN   9781137403391 . Retrieved 7 September 2019. Even before domestication of plants and animals occurred, long-distance trading networks were prominent among some hunter-gathering societies, such as the Natufians and other sedentary populations who inhabited the Eastern Mediterranean around 12,000-10,000 BC.
  12. V Stefansson. Great Adventures and Explorations: From the Earliest Times to the Present As Told by the Explorers Themselves Kessinger Publishing, 30 May 2005 ISBN   1-4179-9090-2 Retrieved 2012-06-26 [ dead link ]
  13. National Maritime Historical Society. Sea History, Issues 13-25 published by National Maritime Historical Society 1979. Retrieved 2012-06-26
  14. Hans Biedermann, James Hulbert (trans.), Dictionary of Symbolism - Cultural Icons and the Meanings behind Them, p. 54.
  15. (secondary)Gary George Lowder – Studies in volcanic petrology: I. Talasea, New Guinea. II. Southwest Utah University of California, 1970 Retrieved 2012-06-28
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  63. Price theory Milton Friedman
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  68. "O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities; but let there be among you traffic and trade by mutual good-will." Quran   4:29 and "Allah has allowed trading and forbidden usury." Quran   2:275
  69. Leviticus 19:13
  70. Leviticus 19:35
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Bibliography

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