Last updated

Dried bark strips, bark powder and flowers of the small tree Cinnamomum verum Cinnamomum verum spices.jpg
Dried bark strips, bark powder and flowers of the small tree Cinnamomum verum

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum . Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snack foods, bagels, teas, and traditional foods. The aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents including eugenol.


Cinnamomum verum, from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Cinnamomum verum - Kohler-s Medizinal-Pflanzen-182.jpg
Cinnamomum verum , from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887)
Close-up view of raw cinnamon bark Baton de cannelle.jpg
Close-up view of raw cinnamon bark

Cinnamon is the name for several species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. Cinnamomum verum (AKA C. zeylanicum), known as "Ceylon cinnamon" after its origins in Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), is considered to be "true cinnamon", [1] but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from four other species, usually and more correctly referred to as "cassia": C. burmannii (Indonesian cinnamon or Padang cassia), C. cassia (Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi (Saigon cinnamon or Vietnamese cassia), and the less common C. citriodorum (Malabar cinnamon). [1] [2] [3] In 2018, Indonesia and China produced 70% of the world's supply of cinnamon, Indonesia producing nearly 40% and China 30%. [4]


The English word "cinnamon", attested in English since the 15th century, deriving from the Ancient Greek κιννάμωμον (kinnámōmon, later κίνναμον : kínnamon), via Latin and medieval French intermediate forms. The Greek was borrowed from a Phoenician word, which was similar to the related Hebrew word קנמון (qinnāmōn). [5] [6]

The name "cassia", first recorded in late Old English from Latin, ultimately derives from the Hebrew word קציעהqetsīʿāh, a form of the verb קצעqātsaʿ, "to strip off bark". [7] [8]

Early Modern English also used the names canel and canella, similar to the current names of cinnamon in several other European languages, which are derived from the Latin word cannella, a diminutive of canna, "tube", from the way the bark curls up as it dries. [9]


Cinnamon tree Cinnamon tree.jpg
Cinnamon tree

Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. [10] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC, but those who reported that it had come from China had confused it with Cinnamomum cassia, a related species. [3] Cinnamon was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs [10] and even for a deity; an inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. [11] Its source was kept a trade secret in the Mediterranean world for centuries by those in the spice trade, in order to protect their monopoly as suppliers. [12]

Cinnamomum verum, which translates from Latin as "true cinnamon", is native to India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Myanmar. [13] Cinnamomum cassia (cassia) is native to China. Related species, all harvested and sold in the modern era as cinnamon, are native to Vietnam ("Saigon cinnamon"), Indonesia and other southeast Asian countries with warm climates.

In Ancient Egypt, cinnamon was used to embalm mummies. [14] From the Ptolemaic Kingdom onward, Ancient Egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia. The gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cassia and cinnamon.

The first Greek reference to κασία : kasía is found in a poem by Sappho in the 7th century BC. According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grew in Arabia, together with incense, myrrh and labdanum, and were guarded by winged serpents. [15] Herodotus, Aristotle and other authors named Arabia as the source of cinnamon; they recounted that giant "cinnamon birds" collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests. [15] :111

Pliny the Elder wrote that cinnamon was brought around the Arabian peninsula on "rafts without rudders or sails or oars", taking advantage of the winter trade winds. [16] He also mentioned cassia as a flavouring agent for wine, [17] and that the tales of cinnamon being collected from the nests of cinnamon birds was a traders' fiction made up to charge more. However, the story remained current in Byzantium as late as 1310. [18]

According to Pliny the Elder, a Roman pound (327 grams [11.5 oz]) of cassia, cinnamon (serichatum), cost up to 1,500 denarii , the wage of fifty months' labour. [19] Diocletian's Edict on Maximum Prices [20] from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denarii for a pound of cassia, while an agricultural labourer earned 25 denarii per day. Cinnamon was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in AD 65. [21]

Middle Ages

Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon remained a mystery to the Western world. From reading Latin writers who quoted Herodotus, Europeans had learned that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but where it came from was less than clear. When the Sieur de Joinville accompanied his king, Louis IX of France to Egypt on the Seventh Crusade in 1248, he reported—and believed—what he had been told: that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world (i.e., Ethiopia). Marco Polo avoided precision on the topic. [22]

The first mention that the spice grew in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-'ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") about 1270. [23] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino in a letter of about 1292. [24]

Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon directly from the Moluccas to East Africa (see also Rhapta), where local traders then carried it north to Alexandria in Egypt. [25] [26] [27] Venetian traders from Italy held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe, distributing cinnamon from Alexandria. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. [28]

Early modern period

During the 1500s, Ferdinand Magellan was searching for spices on behalf of Spain, and in the Philippines found Cinnamomum mindanaense, which was closely related to C. zeylanicum, the cinnamon found in Sri Lanka. This cinnamon eventually competed with Sri Lankan cinnamon, which was controlled by the Portuguese. [29]

In 1638, Dutch traders established a trading post in Sri Lanka, took control of the manufactories by 1640, and expelled the remaining Portuguese by 1658. "The shores of the island are full of it," a Dutch captain reported, "and it is the best in all the Orient. When one is downwind of the island, one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea." [30] The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.

In 1767, Lord Brown of the British East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in the Kannur district of Kerala, India. It later became Asia's largest cinnamon estate. The British took control of Ceylon from the Dutch in 1796.


Leaves from a wild cinnamon tree CinnamonLeaves.jpg
Leaves from a wild cinnamon tree
Cinnamon flowers CINNAMON BUDS.jpg
Cinnamon flowers

Cinnamon is an evergreen tree characterized by oval-shaped leaves, thick bark and a berry fruit. When harvesting the spice, the bark and leaves are the primary parts of the plant used. [14] Cinnamon is cultivated by growing the tree for two years, then coppicing it, i.e., cutting the stems at ground level. The following year, about a dozen new shoots form from the roots, replacing those that were cut. A number of pests such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Diplodia species and Phytophthora cinnamomi (stripe canker) can affect the growing plants. [31]

The stems must be processed immediately after harvesting while the inner bark is still wet. The cut stems are processed by scraping off the outer bark, then beating the branch evenly with a hammer to loosen the inner bark, which is then pried off in long rolls. Only 0.5 mm (0.02 in) of the inner bark is used; [32] [lower-alpha 1] the outer, woody portion is discarded, leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. The processed bark dries completely in four to six hours, provided it is in a well-ventilated and relatively warm environment. Once dry, the bark is cut into 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in) lengths for sale.

A less than ideal drying environment encourages the proliferation of pests in the bark, which may then require treatment by fumigation with sulphur dioxide. In 2011, the European Union approved the use of sulphur dioxide at a concentration of up to 150 mg/kg (0.0024 oz/lb) for the treatment of C. verum bark harvested in Sri Lanka. [33]


A number of species are often sold as cinnamon: [34]

Cassia induces a strong, spicy flavour and is often used in baking, especially associated with cinnamon rolls, as it handles baking conditions well. Among cassia, Chinese cinnamon is generally medium to light reddish-brown in colour, hard and woody in texture, and thicker (2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) thick), as all of the layers of bark are used. Ceylon cinnamon, using only the thin inner bark, has a lighter brown colour and a finer, less dense, and more crumbly texture. It is subtle and more aromatic in flavour than cassia and it loses much of its flavour during cooking.

The barks of the species are easily distinguished when whole, both in macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Ceylon cinnamon sticks (quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder, whereas cassia sticks are much harder. Indonesian cinnamon is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer, capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. Saigon cinnamon (C. loureiroi) and Chinese cinnamon (C. cassia) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark, as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills.

The powdered bark is harder to distinguish, but if it is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch), little effect is visible with pure Ceylon cinnamon, but when Chinese cinnamon is present, a deep-blue tint is produced. [10] [35] [36]


The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups:

These groups are further divided into specific grades. For example, Mexican is divided into M00000 special, M000000 and M0000, depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kilogram. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm (4.2 in) long are categorized as quillings. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Chips are trimmings of quills, outer and inner bark that cannot be separated, or the bark of small twigs.


Cinnamon production – 2020
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 91,242
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 72,531
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 31,429
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 22,910
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations [37]

In 2020, four countries accounted for 98% of the world production of cinnamon, a total of 222,122 tonnes: Indonesia, China, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. [37]


True cinnamon from C. verum bark can be mixed with cassia (C. cassia) as counterfeit and falsely marketed as authentic cinnamon. In one analysis, authentic Ceylon cinnamon bark contained 12-143 mg/kg of coumarin a phenolic typically low in content in true cinnamon but market samples contained coumarin with levels as high as 3462 mg/kg, indicating probable contamination with cassia in the counterfeit cinnamon. [38] found the same problem in a 2020 analysis; "a supplement that contained the highest amount of coumarin was labeled as Ceylon cinnamon". [39]

Food uses

Uncooked cinnamon rolls Uncooked cinnamon roll buns, March 2010.jpg
Uncooked cinnamon rolls

Cinnamon bark is used as a spice. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavouring material. It is used in the preparation of chocolate, especially in Mexico. Cinnamon is often used in savoury dishes of chicken and lamb. In the United States and Europe, cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavour cereals, bread-based dishes such as toast, and fruits, especially apples; a cinnamon and sugar mixture (cinnamon sugar) is sold separately for such purposes. It is also used in Portuguese and Turkish cuisine for both sweet and savoury dishes. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling, and in Christmas drinks such as eggnog. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in enhancing the flavour of Persian cuisine, used in a variety of thick soups, drinks and sweets. [40]

Nutrient composition

Cinnamon, spice, ground
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,035 kJ (247 kcal)
80.6 g
Sugars 2.2 g
Dietary fiber 53.1 g
1.2 g
4 g
Vitamins Quantity
Vitamin A equiv.
15 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.02 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.04 mg
Niacin (B3)
1.33 mg
Vitamin B6
0.16 mg
Folate (B9)
6 μg
Vitamin C
3.8 mg
Vitamin E
2.3 mg
Vitamin K
31.2 μg
Minerals Quantity
1002 mg
8.3 mg
60 mg
64 mg
431 mg
10 mg
1.8 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water10.6 g

Source: USDA Database [41]
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Ground cinnamon is 11% water, 81% carbohydrates (including 53% dietary fiber), 4% protein and 1% fat.



Quills of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum, left) and Indonesian cinnamon (C. burmannii, right) Cinnamomum Verum vs Cinnamomum Burmannii.jpg
Quills of Ceylon cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum , left) and Indonesian cinnamon ( C. burmannii , right)

Ceylon cinnamon may be crushed into small pieces by hand while Indonesian cinnamon requires a powerful blender.

Flavour, aroma and taste

The flavour of cinnamon is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.5 to 1% of its composition. This essential oil can be prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in sea water, and then quickly distilling the whole. It is of a golden-yellow colour, with the characteristic odour of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamaldehyde (about 90% of the essential oil from the bark) and, by reaction with oxygen as it ages, it darkens in colour and forms resinous compounds. [10] [42]

Cinnamon constituents include some 80 aromatic compounds, [43] including eugenol, found in the oil from leaves or bark of cinnamon trees. [44]

Alcohol flavourant

Cinnamon is used as a flavouring in cinnamon liqueur, [45] such as cinnamon-flavoured whiskey in the United States, and rakomelo , a cinnamon brandy popular in parts of Greece.

Cinnamon has a long history of use in traditional medicine as a digestive aid, however, contemporary studies are unable to find evidence of any significant medicinal or therapeutic effect. [46]

Reviews of clinical trials reported lowering of fasting plasma glucose and inconsistent effects on hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c, an indicator of chronically elevated plasma glucose). [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] Four of the reviews reported a decrease in fasting plasma glucose, [47] [48] [49] [51] only two reported lower HbA1c, [47] [49] and one reported no change to either measure. [50] The Cochrane review noted that trial durations were limited to 4 to 16 weeks, and that no trials reported on changes to quality of life, morbidity or mortality rate. The Cochrane authors' conclusion was: "There is insufficient evidence to support the use of cinnamon for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus." [50] Citing the Cochrane review, the U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health stated: "Studies done in people don't support using cinnamon for any health condition." [46] However, the results of the studies are difficult to interpret because it is often unclear what type of cinnamon and what part of the plant were used. [52]

A meta-analysis of cinnamon supplementation trials with lipid measurements reported lower total cholesterol and triglycerides, but no significant changes in LDL-cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol. [53] Another reported no change to body weight or insulin resistance. [51]


A systematic review of adverse events as a result of cinnamon use reported gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions as the most frequently reported side effects. [54]

In 2008, the European Food Safety Authority considered the toxicity of coumarin, a component of cinnamon, and confirmed a maximum recommended tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg of coumarin per kg of body weight. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations and metabolic effect in humans with CYP2A6 polymorphism. [55] [56] Based on this assessment, the European Union set a guideline for maximum coumarin content in foodstuffs of 50 mg per kg of dough in seasonal foods, and 15 mg per kg in everyday baked foods. [57] The maximum recommended TDI of 0.1 mg of coumarin per kg of body weight equates to 5 mg of coumarin (or 5.6 g C. verum with 0.9 mg coumarin per gram) for a body weight of 50 kg. C as shown in the table below:

C. cassia C. verum
mg coumarin/g cinnamon [58] 0.085 mg/g12.18 mg/g (He et al., 2005) [59] 0.007 mg/g0.9 mg/g
TDI cinnamon at 50 kg body weight (bw)58.8 g/bw0.4 g/bw714.3 g/bw5.6 g/bw

Due to the variable amount of coumarin in C. cassia, usually well over 1.0 mg of coumarin per g of cinnamon and sometimes up to 12 times that, C. cassia has a low safe-intake-level upper limit to adhere to the above TDI. [59] In contrast, C. verum has only trace amounts of coumarin. [60]

See also


  1. Cassia is thicker than Sri Lankan cinnamon.[ citation needed ]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bay leaf</span> Aromatic leaf

The bay leaf is an aromatic leaf commonly used in cooking. It can be used whole, either dried or fresh, in which case it is removed from the dish before consumption, or less commonly used in ground form. It may come from several species of tree, the bay laurel and the California bay tree being the most common. The flavor that a bay leaf imparts to a dish has not been universally agreed upon, but most agree it is a subtle addition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clove</span> Spice, flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum

Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice, flavoring or fragrance in consumer products, such as toothpaste, soaps, or cosmetics. Cloves are available throughout the year owing to different harvest seasons across various countries.

<i>Cinnamomum cassia</i> Species of tree

Cinnamomum cassia, called Chinese cassia or Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree originating in southern China and widely cultivated there and elsewhere in South and Southeast Asia. It is one of several species of Cinnamomum used primarily for its aromatic bark, which is used as a spice. The buds are also used as a spice, especially in India, and were used by the ancient Romans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coumarin</span> Aromatic chemical compound

Coumarin or 2H-chromen-2-one is an aromatic organic chemical compound with formula C9H6O2. Its molecule can be described as a benzene molecule with two adjacent hydrogen atoms replaced by a lactone-like chain −(CH)=(CH)−(C=O)−O−, forming a second six-membered heterocycle that shares two carbons with the benzene ring. It can be placed in the benzopyrone chemical class and considered as a lactone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sri Lankan cuisine</span> Culinary traditions of Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan cuisine is known for its particular combinations of herbs, spices, fish, vegetables, rices, and fruits. The cuisine is highly centered around many varieties of rice, as well as coconut which is a ubiquitous plant throughout the country. Seafood also plays a significant role in the cuisine, be it fresh fish or preserved fish. As a country that was a hub in the historic oceanic silk road, contact with foreign traders brought new food items and cultural influences in addition to the local traditions of the country's ethnic groups, all of which have helped shape Sri Lankan cuisine. Influences from Indian, Indonesian and Dutch cuisines are most evident with Sri Lankan cuisine sharing close ties to other neighbouring South and Southeast Asian cuisines.

<i>Cinnamomum</i> Genus of flowering plants

Cinnamomum is a genus of evergreen aromatic trees and shrubs belonging to the laurel family, Lauraceae. The species of Cinnamomum have aromatic oils in their leaves and bark. The genus contains approximately 250 species, distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, Oceania, and Australasia. The genus includes a great number of economically important trees.

Cassia typically refers to cassia bark, the spice made from the bark of East Asian evergreen trees.

<i>Cinnamomum tamala</i> Species of tree

Cinnamomum tamala, Indian bay leaf, also known as tejpat, tejapatta,Malabar leaf, Indian bark, Indian cassia, or malabathrum, is a tree in the family Lauraceae that is native to India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and China. It can grow up to 20 m (66 ft) tall. Its leaves have a clove-like aroma with a hint of peppery taste; they are used for culinary and medicinal purposes. It is thought to have been one of the major sources of the medicinal plant leaves known in classic and medieval times as malabathrum.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saigon cinnamon</span> Species of flowering plant

Saigon cinnamon is an evergreen tree indigenous to mainland Southeast Asia. Saigon cinnamon is more closely related to cassia than to Ceylon cinnamon, though in the same genus as both. Saigon cinnamon has 1-5% essential oil content and 25% cinnamaldehyde in essential oil. Consequently, among the species, Saigon cinnamon commands a relatively high price.

Cinnamon is a spice regionally made from several different plants.

<i>Cinnamomum burmannii</i> Species of flowering plant

Cinnamomum burmannii, also known as Indonesian cinnamon, Padang cassia, Batavia cassia, or korintje, is one of several plants in the genus Cinnamomum whose bark is sold as the spice cinnamon. The most common and cheapest type of cinnamon in the US is made from powdered C. burmannii. C. burmannii oil contains no eugenol, but higher amounts of coumarin than C. cassia and Ceylon cinnamon with 2.1 g/kg in an authenticated sample, and a mean of 5.0 g/kg in 8 samples tested. It is also sold as quills of one layer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Agriculture in Sri Lanka</span>

The primary form of agriculture in Sri Lanka is rice production. Rice is cultivated during Maha and Yala seasons. Tea is cultivated in the central highlands and is a major source of foreign exchange. Vegetables, fruits and oilseed crops are also cultivated in the country. There are two Agriculture Parks abbreviated as A. Parks established by the Department of Agriculture. Out of the total population in Sri Lanka, 27.1% engages in agricultural activities. Agriculture accounted for 7.4% of the GDP in 2020.

<i>Cinnamomum osmophloeum</i> Species of tree

Cinnamomum osmophloeum, commonly known as pseudocinnamomum or indigenous cinnamon, is a medium-sized evergreen tree in the genus Cinnamomum. It is native to broad-leaved forests of central and northern Taiwan.

Cinnamomum citriodorum is a species of flowering plant in the family Lauraceae. It is endemic to Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. It is commonly known as Malabar Cinnamon. It has a characteristic smell of lemon grass. C. citriodorum has 45% Cinnamaldehyde compared to 80% for C. cassia.

<i>Cinnamomum verum</i> Species of tree

Cinnamomum verum, called true cinnamon tree or Ceylon cinnamon tree, is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae, native to Sri Lanka. The inner bark of several other Cinnamomum species are also used to make cinnamon, but C. verum has a more subtle flavor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cinnamtannin B1</span> Chemical compound

Cinnamtannin B1 is a condensed tannin found in Cinnamomum verum. It is a type A proanthocyanidin.

<i>Cinnamomum malabatrum</i> Species of flowering plant

Cinnamomum malabatrum, wild cinnamon, country cinnamon also known as malabathrum, is a tree in the family Lauraceae that is endemic to Western Ghats of India. It can grow up to 15 m (49 ft) tall. It has aromatic leaves that are used for culinary and medicinal purposes. It is thought to have been one of the major sources of the medicinal plant leaves known in classic and medieval times as malabathrum. It is locally known as Edana, Therali or Vazhana in Kerala.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cinnamyl acetate</span> Chemical compound

Cinnamyl acetate is a chemical compound of the cinnamyl ester family, in which the variable R group is substituted by a methyl group. As a result of the non-aromatic carbon-carbon double bond, cinnamyl acetate can exist in a Z and an E configuration:

Leucopholis pinguis is a species of scarab beetle found in Sri Lanka.


  1. 1 2 Encyclopaedia Britannica article on Cinnamon, plant and spice
  2. Iqbal, Mohammed (1993). "International trade in non-wood forest products: An overview". FO: Misc/93/11 – Working Paper. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  3. 1 2 Bell, Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat (2009). A history of food. Translated by Anthea (New expanded ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN   978-1405181198. Cassia, also known as cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree that has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour
  4. "CINNAMON MARKET - GROWTH, TRENDS, AND FORECAST (2020 - 2025)". Mordor Intelligence. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  5. "cinnamon". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989.
  6. Harper, Douglas. "cinnamon". Online Etymology Dictionary .
  7. "cassia". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989.
  8. Harper, Douglas. "cassia". Online Etymology Dictionary .
  9. "canella; canel". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989.
  10. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cinnamon". Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 376.
  11. Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 437
  12. Mohammadifar, Shamameh (23 August 2010). "The Origin, History and Trade Route of Cinnamon". Journal for the History of Science. 8 (1): 37–51. ISSN   1735-0573.
  13. "Cinnamon". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2008. ISBN   978-1-59339-292-5. (species Cinnamomum zeylanicum), bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Malabar Coast of India, Sri Lanka (Ceylon) Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma).
  14. 1 2 Burlando, B.; Verotta, L.; Cornara, L.; Bottini-Massa, E. (2010). Herbal principles in cosmetics: properties and mechanisms of action. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 121. ISBN   978-1-4398-1214-3.
  15. 1 2 Herodotus, Book 3, sections 3.107-113. Wheeler, James Talboys (1852). An Analysis and Summary of Herodotus: With a Synchronistical Table of Principal Events; Tables of Weights, Measures, Money, and Distances; an Outline of the History and Geography; and the Dates Completed from Gaisford, Baehr, Etc. H. G. Bohn. p. 110. Retrieved 9 January 2019. The incense trees are guarded by winged serpents[...] The cassia trees, which grow by a shallow lake, are guarded by fierce winged animals like bats
  16. Pliny the Elder; Bostock, J.; Riley, H. T. (1855). "42, Cinnamomum. Xylocinnamum". Natural History of Pliny, book XII, The Natural History of Trees. Vol. 3. London: Henry G. Bohn. pp. 137–140.
  17. Pliny the Elder (1938). Natural History. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN   978-0-674-99433-1.
  18. Manuel Philes repeated the tale in a treatise of c.1310 prepared for emperor Michael IX Palaiologos: Tennent, James Emerson (1860). Ceylon: an account of the island. Vol. 1. London: Longman. p. 600.
  19. Pliny the Elder (1855). Natural History. Vol. 3. London, UK: Taylor & Francis. p. 140 via Internet Archive. The right of regulating the sale of the cinnamon belongs solely to the king of the Gebanitæ, who opens the market for it by public proclamation. The price of it was formerly as much as a thousand denarii per pound; which was afterwards increased to half as much again, in consequence, it is said, of the forests having been set on fire by the barbarians, from motives of resentment[...]
  20. Graser, E. R. (1940). "A text and translation of the Edict of Diocletian". In Frank, Tenney (ed.). An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome. Vol. V: Rome and Italy of the Empire. Johns Hopkins Press. ISBN   978-0374928483.
  21. Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 437f.
  22. Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report.
  23. Tennent, James Emerson (1860). Account of the Island of Ceylon. Vol. 1. Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  24. Yule, Henry. "Cathay and the Way Thither" . Retrieved 15 July 2008.
  25. "The life of spice; cloves, nutmeg, pepper, cinnamon". UNESCO Courier . 1984. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  26. Woods, Sean (4 March 2004). "Discovery: Sailing the Cinnamon Route". Independent Online. Archived from the original on 8 April 2005. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  27. Gray, E. W.; Miller, J. I. (1970). "The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire 29 B.C. – A.D. 641". The Journal of Roman Studies . 60: 222–224. doi:10.2307/299440. JSTOR   299440.
  28. Hess, Andrew C. (1973). "The Ottoman Conquest of Egypt (1517) and the Beginning of the Sixteenth-Century World War". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 4 (1): 55–76. doi:10.1017/S0020743800027276. ISSN   0020-7438. JSTOR   162225. S2CID   162219690.
  29. Mallari, Francisco (December 1974). "The Mindanao Cinnamon". Philippine Quarterly of Culture & Society . 2 (4): 190–194. JSTOR   29791158.
  30. Braudel, Fernand (1984). The Perspective of the World: Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century. Vol. 3. University of California Press. p. 15. ISBN   978-0-520-08116-1.
  31. "Cinnamon". Plant Village, Pennsylvania State University. 2017. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  32. Heath, Henry B. (September 1981). Source Book of Flavors. AVI Sourcebook and Handbook Series. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 233. ISBN   9780870553707 . Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  33. European Commission (22 October 2010). "Commission Directive 2010/69/EU of 22 October 2010". Official Journal of the European Union . L (Legislation) (279). Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  34. Chen, P.; Sun, J.; Ford, P. (March 2014). "Differentiation of the four major species of cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) using a flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry . 62 (12): 2516–2521. doi:10.1021/jf405580c. PMC   3983393 . PMID   24628250.
  35. Grieve, M. "A Modern Herbal – Cassia (Cinnamon)". Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  36. Pereira, Jonathan (1854). The Elements of materia medica and therapeutics. Vol. 2. p. 390.
  37. 1 2 "Global cinnamon production in 2020; Crops/Regions/World Regions/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  38. Ananthakrishnan, R.; Chandra, Preeti; Kumar, Brijesh; Rameshkumar, K. B. (1 January 2018). "Quantification of coumarin and related phenolics in cinnamon samples from south India using UHPLC-ESI-QqQLIT-MS/MS method". International Journal of Food Properties. 21: 50–57. doi:10.1080/10942912.2018.1437629. S2CID   104289832.
  39. "Tests Suggest Caution With Cinnamon". 11 December 2020.
  40. Czarra, Fred (1 May 2009). Spices: A Global History . Reaktion Books. pp. 10–12. ISBN   9781861896827.
  41. "Spices, cinnamon, ground". FoodData Central, US Department of Agriculture. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  42. Yokomi, Naoka; Ito, Michiho (1 July 2009). "Influence of composition upon the variety of tastes in Cinnamomi cortex". Journal of Natural Medicines. 63 (3): 261–266. doi:10.1007/s11418-009-0326-8. ISSN   1861-0293. PMID   19291358. S2CID   9792599.
  43. Jayaprakasha, G. K.; Rao, L. J. (2011). "Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 51 (6): 547–62. doi:10.1080/10408391003699550. PMID   21929331. S2CID   34530542.
  44. "Oil of cinnamon". Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET). 6 August 2002. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  45. Willard, Haley (16 December 2013). "11 Cinnamon-Flavored Liquors for the Holidays". The Daily Meal . Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  46. 1 2 "Cinnamon". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health . National Institutes of Health. 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  47. 1 2 3 Costello, Rebecca B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Saldanha, Leila; Bailey, Regan L.; Merkel, Joyce; Wambogo, Edwina (2016). "Do Cinnamon Supplements Have a Role in Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes? A Narrative Review". Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics . 116 (11): 1794–1802. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2016.07.015. PMC   5085873 . PMID   27618575.
  48. 1 2 Allen, Robert W.; Schwartzman, Emmanuelle; Baker, William L.; Coleman, Craig I.; Phung, Olivia J. (2013). "Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis". The Annals of Family Medicine . 11 (5): 452–459. doi:10.1370/afm.1517. PMC   3767714 . PMID   24019277.
  49. 1 2 3 Akilen, Rajadurai; Tsiami, Amalia; Devendra, Devasenan; Robinson, Nicola (20 April 2012). "Cinnamon in glycaemic control: Systematic review and meta analysis". Clinical Nutrition . 31 (5): 609–615. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2012.04.003. PMID   22579946.
  50. 1 2 3 Leach, Matthew J.; Kumar, Saravana (12 September 2012). "Cinnamon for diabetes mellitus". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2012 (9): CD007170. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007170.pub2. PMC   6486047 . PMID   22972104.
  51. 1 2 3 Namazi, Nazli; Khodamoradi, Kajal; Khamechi, Seyed Peyman; Heshmati, Javad; Ayati, Mohammad Hossein; Larijani, Bagher (April 2019). "The impact of cinnamon on anthropometric indices and glycemic status in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials". Complementary Therapies in Medicine . 43: 92–101. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2019.01.002. PMID   30935562. S2CID   81727505.
  52. "Cinnamon".
  53. Maierean SM, Serban MC, Sahebkar A, Ursoniu S, Serban A, Penson P, Banach M (2017). "The effects of cinnamon supplementation on blood lipid concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis" (PDF). J Clin Lipidol. 11 (6): 1393–1406. doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2017.08.004. PMID   28887086.
  54. Hajimonfarednejad, M.; Ostovar, M.; Raee, M. J.; Hashempur, M. H.; Mayer, J. G.; Heydari, M. (1 April 2019). "Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events". Clinical Nutrition . 38 (2): 594–602. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2018.03.013. PMID   29661513. S2CID   4942968.
  55. Harris, Emily. "German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger". National Public Radio . Retrieved 1 May 2007.
  56. "Coumarin in flavourings and other food ingredients with flavouring properties - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)". EFSA Journal . 6 (10): 793. 7 October 2008. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2008.793 .
  57. Russell, Helen (20 December 2013). "Cinnamon sparks spicy debate between Danish bakers and food authorities". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  58.{{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  59. 1 2 Ballin, Nicolai Z.; Sørensen, Ann T. (2014). "Coumarin content in cinnamon containing food products on the Danish market" (PDF). Food Control. 38: 198–203. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.10.014.
  60. Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N. P. Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A. (2013). "Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States" (PDF). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry . 61 (18): 4470–4476. doi:10.1021/jf4005862. PMID   23627682. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2019.

Further reading