Ferdinand Magellan

Last updated

Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan.jpg
Ferdinand Magellan, in a 16/17th century anonymous portrait
Born
Fernão de Magalhães

(1480-02-04)4 February 1480
Died27 April 1521(1521-04-27) (aged 41)
Chiefdom of Mactan
Nationality Portuguese (renounced in 1517) [1] [2]
Known for
Signature
Magellan Signature.svg

Ferdinand Magellan ( /məˈɡɛlən/ [3] or /məˈɛlən/ ; [4] Portuguese : Fernão de Magalhães, IPA:  [fɨɾˈnɐ̃w dɨ mɐɣɐˈʎɐ̃jʃ] ; Spanish: Fernando de Magallanes, IPA:  [feɾˈnando ðe maɣaˈʎanes] ; 4 February 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer and a subject of the Hispanic Monarchy from 1518. He is best known for having planned and led the 1519 Spanish expedition to the East Indies across the Pacific Ocean to open a maritime trade route, during which he discovered the interoceanic passage bearing thereafter his name and achieved the first European navigation from the Atlantic to Asia. While on this voyage, Magellan was killed in the Battle of Mactan in 1521 in the present-day Philippines, but some of the expedition's surviving members, in one of the two remaining ships, subsequently completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth when they returned to Spain in 1522. [5] [6]

Contents

Born 4 February 1480 into a family of minor Portuguese nobility, Magellan became a skilled sailor and naval officer in service of the Portuguese Crown in Asia. King Manuel I of Portugal refused to support Magellan's plan to reach the Maluku Islands (the "Spice Islands") by sailing westwards around the American continent. Facing some criminal offences, Magellan left Portugal and proposed the same expedition to King Charles I of Spain, who accepted it. Consequently, many in Portugal considered him a traitor and he never returned. [7] [8] He adopted the name of Fernando de Magallanes and settled in Seville. There, he married, fathered two children, and organised the expedition. [9] For his allegiance to the Hispanic Monarchy, in 1518, Magellan was appointed admiral of the Spanish Fleet and given command of the expedition – the five-ship Armada of Molucca. He was also made Commander of the Order of Santiago, one of the highest military ranks of the Spanish Empire. [10]

Granted special powers and privileges by the King, he led the Armada from Sanlucar de Barrameda, southwest across the Atlantic Ocean, to the eastern coast of South America, and down to Patagonia. Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the expedition successfully passed through the Strait of Magellan into the Mar del Sur, which Magellan renamed the "Peaceful Sea" (the modern Pacific Ocean). [11] The expedition reached Guam and, shortly after, the Philippine islands. There Magellan was killed in the Battle of Mactan in April 1521. Under the command of captain Juan Sebastian Elcano, the expedition later reached the Spice Islands. To navigate back to Spain and avoid seizure by the Portuguese, the expedition's two remaining ships split, one attempting, unsuccessfully, to reach New Spain by sailing eastwards across the Pacific, while the other, commanded by Elcano, sailed westwards via the Indian Ocean and up the Atlantic coast of Africa, finally arriving at the expedition's port of departure and thereby completing the first complete circuit of the globe.

While in the Kingdom of Portugal's service, Magellan had already reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east (from 1505 to 1511–1512). By visiting this area again but now traveling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. [12] [13]

Early life and travels

House where Magellan lived, in Sabrosa, Portugal Sabrosa- Casa de Fernao Magalhaes.jpg
House where Magellan lived, in Sabrosa, Portugal

Magellan was born in the Portuguese town of Sabrosa on 4 February 1480. [14] His father, Pedro de Magalhães, was a minor member of Portuguese nobility [14] and mayor of the town. His mother was Alda de Mezquita. [15] Magellan's siblings included Diego de Sosa and Isabel Magellan. [16] He was brought up as a page of Queen Eleanor, consort of King John II. In 1495 he entered the service of Manuel I, John's successor. [17]

In March 1505, at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa, Cochin and Quilon. He participated in several battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu. [18]

Effigy of Ferdinand Magellan in the Monument of the Discoveries, in Lisbon, Portugal. Fernao de Magalhaes - Padrao dos Descobrimentos.png
Effigy of Ferdinand Magellan in the Monument of the Discoveries, in Lisbon, Portugal.

He later sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin. [19] In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, warning Sequeira and risking his life to rescue Francisco Serrão and others who had landed. [20] [21]

In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, Magellan and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized, Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512 or 1513. [22] Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the "Spice Islands" in the Moluccas, where he remained. He married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories. [23] [24]

After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp. He was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proven false, but he received no further offers of employment after 15 May 1514. Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship, but rejected this. In 1517 after a quarrel with King Manuel I, who denied his persistent demands to lead an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east (i.e., while sailing westwards, seeking to avoid the need to sail around the tip of Africa [25] ), he left for Spain. In Seville he befriended his countryman Diogo Barbosa and soon married the daughter of Diogo's second wife, Maria Caldera Beatriz Barbosa. [26] They had two children: Rodrigo de Magallanes [27] and Carlos de Magallanes, both of whom died at a young age. His wife died in Seville around 1521.

Meanwhile, Magellan devoted himself to studying the most recent charts, investigating, in partnership with cosmographer Rui Faleiro, a gateway from the Atlantic to the South Pacific and the possibility of the Moluccas being Spanish according to the demarcation of the Treaty of Tordesillas.

Voyage of circumnavigation

Background and preparations

Victoria, the sole ship of Magellan's fleet to complete the circumnavigation. Detail from a map by Ortelius, 1590. Detail from a map of Ortelius - Magellan's ship Victoria.png
Victoria , the sole ship of Magellan's fleet to complete the circumnavigation. Detail from a map by Ortelius, 1590.

After having his proposed expeditions to the Spice Islands repeatedly rejected by King Manuel of Portugal, Magellan renounced his Portuguese nationality and turned to Charles I, the young King of Spain (and future Holy Roman Emperor). Under the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal controlled the eastern routes to Asia that went around Africa. Magellan instead proposed reaching the Spice Islands by a western route, a feat which had never been accomplished. Hoping that this would yield a commercially useful trade route for Spain, Charles approved the expedition, and provided most of the funding.

King Manuel I of Portugal saw this as an act of insult, and he did everything in his power to disrupt Magellan’s arrangements for the voyage. The Portuguese king allegedly ordered that Magellan’s properties be vandalized as it was the Coat of arms of the Magellan displayed at the family house's façade in Sabrosa, his home town; and may have even requested the assassination of the navigator. When Magellan eventually sailed to the open seas in August 1519, a Portuguese fleet was sent after him though failed to capture him. [28] [ better source needed ]

Magellan's fleet consisted of five ships, carrying supplies for two years of travel. The crew consisted of about 270 men of different origins, though the numbers may vary downwards among scholars based on contradicting data from the many documents available. About 60 per cent of the crew were Spaniards issued from virtually all regions of Castile. Portuguese and Italian followed with 28 and 27 seamen respectively, while mariners from France (15), Greece (8), Flanders (5), Germany (3), Ireland (2), England and Malaysia (one each) and other people of unidentified origin completed the crew. [29] [30] [31]

Voyage

Magellan's voyages; the double line represents Magellan's trip from Portugal to the Moluccas. The single line traces his long, continuous voyage from Spain to the Philippines. Voyages of Magellan.png
Magellan's voyages; the double line represents Magellan's trip from Portugal to the Moluccas. The single line traces his long, continuous voyage from Spain to the Philippines.

The fleet left Spain on 20 September 1519, sailing west across the Atlantic toward South America. In December, they made landfall at Rio de Janeiro. From there, they sailed south along the coast, searching for a way through or around the continent. After three months of searching (including a false start in the estuary of Río de la Plata), weather conditions forced the fleet to stop their search to wait out the winter. They found a sheltered natural harbor at the port of Saint Julian, and remained there for five months. Shortly after landing at St. Julian, there was a mutiny attempt led by the Spanish captains Juan de Cartagena, Gaspar de Quesada and Luis de Mendoza. Magellan barely managed to quell the mutiny, despite at one point losing control of three of his five ships to the mutineers. Mendoza was killed during the conflict, and Magellan sentenced Quesada and Cartagena to being beheaded and marooned, respectively. Lower-level conspirators were made to do hard labor in chains over the winter, but later freed. [32]

During the winter, one of the fleet's ships, the Santiago, was lost in a storm while surveying nearby waters, though no men were killed. Following the winter, the fleet resumed their search for a passage to the Pacific in October 1520. Three days later, they found a bay which eventually led them to a strait, now known as the Strait of Magellan, which allowed them passage through to the Pacific. While exploring the strait, one of the remaining four ships, the San Antonio, deserted the fleet, returning east to Spain. The fleet reached the Pacific by the end of November 1520. Based on the incomplete understanding of world geography at the time, Magellan expected a short journey to Asia, perhaps taking as little as three or four days. [33] In fact, the Pacific crossing took three months and twenty days. The long journey exhausted their supply of food and water, and around 30 men died, mostly of scurvy. [34] Magellan himself remained healthy, perhaps because of his personal supply of preserved quince.

On 6 March 1521, the exhausted fleet made landfall at the island of Guam and were met by native Chamorro people who came aboard the ships and took items such as rigging, knives, and a ship's boat. The Chamorro people may have thought they were participating in a trade exchange (as they had already given the fleet some supplies), but the crew interpreted their actions as theft. [35] Magellan sent a raiding party ashore to retaliate, killing several Chamorro men, burning their houses, and recovering the stolen goods. [36]

On 16 March, the fleet sighted the island of Samar ("Zamal") in the eastern Philippine Islands. They weighed anchor in the small (then uninhabited) island of Homonhon ("Humunu"), where they would remain for a week while their sick crew members recuperated. Magellan befriended the tattooed locals of the neighboring island of Suluan ("Zuluan") and traded goods and supplies and learned of the names of neighboring islands and local customs. [37]

After resting and resupplying, Magellan sailed on deeper into the Visayas Islands. On 28 March, they anchored off the island of Limasawa ("Mazaua") where they encountered a small outrigger boat ("boloto"). After talking with the crew of the boat via Enrique of Malacca (Magellan's slave-interpreter who was originally from Sumatra), they were met by the two large balangay warships ("balanghai") of Rajah Kulambo ("Colambu") of Butuan, and one of his sons. They went ashore to Limasawa where they met Kulambo's brother, another leader, Rajah Siawi ("Siaui") of Surigao ("Calagan"). The rulers were on a hunting expedition on Limasawa. They received Magellan as their guest and told him of their customs and of the regions they controlled in northeastern Mindanao. The tattooed rulers and the locals also wore and used a great amount of golden jewelry and golden artifacts, which piqued Magellan's interest. On 31 March, Magellan's crew held the first Mass in the Philippines, planting a cross on the island's highest hill. Before leaving, Magellan asked the rulers for the next nearest trading ports. They recommended he visit the Rajahnate of Cebu ("Zubu"), because it was the largest. They set off for Cebu, accompanied by the balangays of Rajah Kulambo and reached its port on 7 April. [37] :141–150

Magellan set about converting the locals to Christianity. Most accepted the new religion readily, but the island of Mactan resisted. On 27 April, Magellan and members of his crew attempted to subdue the Mactan natives by force, but in the ensuing battle, the Europeans were overpowered and Magellan was killed.

Following his death, Magellan was initially succeeded by co-commanders Juan Serrano and Duarte Barbosa (with a series of other officers later leading). The fleet left the Philippines (following a bloody betrayal by former ally Rajah Humabon) and eventually made their way to the Moluccas in November 1521. Laden with spices, they attempted to set sail for Spain in December, but found that only one of their remaining two ships, the Victoria, was seaworthy. The Victoria, captained by Juan Sebastián Elcano, finally returned to Spain by 6 September 1522, completing the circumnavigation. Of the 270 men who left with the expedition, only 18 or 19 survivors returned. [38]

Death

A depiction of the Battle of Mactan in the Magellan shrine in Mactan, Philippines MactanShrinePainting2.jpg
A depiction of the Battle of Mactan in the Magellan shrine in Mactan, Philippines

After several weeks in the Philippines, Magellan had converted as many as 2,200 locals to Christianity, including Rajah Humabon of Cebu and most leaders of the islands around Cebu. [39] However, Lapulapu, the leader of Mactan, [40] resisted conversion. [41] [42] In order to gain the trust of Rajah Humabon, [43] [44] Magellan sailed to Mactan with a small force on the morning of 27 April 1521. During the resulting battle against Lapulapu's troops, Magellan was struck by a bamboo spear, and later surrounded and finished off with other weapons. [45]

Antonio Pigafetta and Ginés de Mafra provided written documents of the events culminating in Magellan's death:

When morning came forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two crossbow flights before we could reach the shore. The boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the boats. When we reached land, those men had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred persons. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries ... The musketeers and crossbowmen shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly; for the shots only passed through the shields ... Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice ... An Indian hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the Indian's body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide.

Antonio Pigafetta [45] :173–177

Nothing of Magellan's body survived, that afternoon the grieving rajah-king, hoping to recover his remains, offered Mactan's victorious chief a handsome ransom of copper and iron for them but Datu Lapulapu refused. He intended to keep the body as a war trophy. Since his wife and child died in Seville before any member of the expedition could return to Spain, it seemed that every evidence of Ferdinand Magellan's existence had vanished from the earth.

Ginés de Mafra [46]

Reputation following circumnavigation

In the immediate aftermath of the circumnavigation, few celebrated Magellan for his accomplishments, and he was widely discredited and reviled in Spain and his native Portugal. [47] [48] The Portuguese regarded Magellan as a traitor for having sailed for Spain. In Spain, Magellan's reputation suffered due to the largely unflattering accounts of his actions given by the survivors of the expedition.

The first news of the expedition came from the crew of the San Antonio, led by Estêvão Gomes, which deserted the fleet in the Strait of Magellan and returned to Seville 6 May 1521. The deserters were put on trial, but eventually exonerated after producing a distorted version of the mutiny at Saint Julian, and depicting Magellan as disloyal to the king. The expedition was assumed to have perished. [49] The Casa de Contratación withheld Magellan's salary from his wife, Beatriz "considering the outcome of the voyage", and she was placed under house arrest with their young son on the orders of Archbishop Fonseca. [50]

The 18 survivors who eventually returned aboard the Victoria in September 1522 were also largely unfavourable to Magellan. Many, including the captain, Juan Sebastián Elcano, had participated in the mutiny at Saint Julian. On the ship's return, Charles summoned Elcano to Valladolid, inviting him to bring two guests. He brought sailors Francisco Albo and Hernándo de Bustamante, pointedly not including Antonio Pigafetta, the expedition's chronicler. Under questioning by Valladolid's mayor, the men claimed that Magellan refused to follow the king's orders (and gave this as the cause for the mutiny at Saint Julian), and that he unfairly favoured his relatives among the crew, and disfavoured the Spanish captains. [51]

One of the few survivors loyal to Magellan was Antonio Pigafetta. Though not invited to testify with Elcano, Pigafetta made his own way to Valladolid and presented Charles with a hand-written copy of his notes from the journey. He would later travel through Europe giving copies to other royals including John III of Portugal, Francis I of France, and Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. After returning to his home of Venice, Pigafetta published his diary (as Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo) around 1524. Scholars have come to view Pigafetta's diary as the most thorough and reliable account of the circumnavigation, and its publication helped to eventually counter the misinformation spread by Elcano and the other surviving mutineers. [52] In an often-cited passage following his description of Magellan's death in the Battle of Mactan, Pigafetta eulogizes the captain-general:

Magellan's main virtues were courage and perseverance, in even the most difficult situations; for example he bore hunger and fatigue better than all the rest of us. He was a magnificent practical seaman, who understood navigation better than all his pilots. The best proof of his genius is that he circumnavigated the world, none having preceded him. [53]

Legacy

A 1561 map of America showing Magellan's name for the Pacific, Mare pacificum, and the Strait of Magellan, labelled Frenum Magaliani Map of America by Sebastian Munster.JPG
A 1561 map of America showing Magellan's name for the Pacific, Mare pacificum, and the Strait of Magellan, labelled Frenum Magaliani

Magellan has come to be renowned for his navigational skill and tenacity. The first circumnavigation has been called "the greatest sea voyage in the Age of Discovery", [54] and even "the most important maritime voyage ever undertaken". [55] Appreciation of Magellan's accomplishments may have been enhanced over time by the failure of subsequent expeditions which attempted to retrace his route, beginning with the Loaísa expedition in 1525 (which featured Juan Sebastián Elcano as second-in-command). [56] The next expedition to successfully complete a circumnavigation, led by Francis Drake, would not occur until 1580, 58 years after the return of the Victoria. [57]

Magellan named the Pacific Ocean (which was also often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century [58] ), and lends his name to the Strait of Magellan. His name has also since been applied to a variety of other entities, including the Magellanic Clouds (two dwarf galaxies visible in the night sky of the southern hemisphere), Project Magellan (a Cold-War era US Navy project to circumnavigate the world by submarine), and NASA's Magellan spacecraft.

Quincentenary

Even though Magellan did not survive the trip, he has received more recognition for the expedition than Elcano has, since Magellan was the one who started it, Portugal wanted to recognize a Portuguese explorer, and Spain feared Basque nationalism. In 2019, the 500th anniversary of the voyage, Spain and Magellan’s native Portugal submitted a new joint application to UNESCO to honour the circumnavigation route. [59] Commemorations of the circumnavigation include:

See also

Related Research Articles

Battle of Mactan 1521 battle between the forces of explorer Ferdinand Magellan and those of Datu Lapulapu

The Battle of Mactan was a fierce clash fought in the archipelago of the Philippines on 27 April 1521. The warriors of Lapulapu, one of the Datus of Mactan, overpowered and defeated a Spanish force fighting for Rajah Humabon of Cebu under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who was killed in the battle. The outcome of the battle resulted in the departure of the Spanish crew from the archipelago of the Philippines.

Juan Sebastián Elcano Basque seafarer and circumnavigator

Juan Sebastián Elcano was a Castilian navigator of Basque origin best known for having completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth in the ship Victoria on the Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands. He received recognition for his achievement by the emperor Charles V with the coat of arms reading "primus circumdedisti me".

Lapulapu Datu of Mactan in the Visayas

Lapulapu or Lapu-Lapu, whose name was first recorded as Çilapulapu, was a datu of Mactan in the Visayas. He is best known for the Battle of Mactan that happened at dawn on April 27, 1521, where he and his warriors defeated the forces of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and his native allies Rajah Humabon and Datu Zula. Magellan's death ended his voyage of circumnavigation and delayed the Spanish occupation of the islands by over forty years until the expedition of Miguel López de Legazpi in 1564. Legazpi continued the expeditions of Magellan, leading to the colonization of the Philippines for 333 years.

Enrique of Malacca Portuguese slave

Enrique of Malacca, was a Malay member of the Magellan–Elcano expedition that completed the first circumnavigation of the world in 1519–1522. He was acquired as a slave by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1511 at the age of 14 years, probably in the early stages of the Siege of Malacca (1511). Although Magellan's will calls him "a native of Malacca", Antonio Pigafetta states that he was a native of Sumatra. Magellan later took him to Europe, where he accompanied the circumnavigation expedition in 1519. According to many historians, there is a possibility that he is the first person to circumnavigate the globe.

Antonio Pigafetta 16th-century Italian explorer

Antonio Pigafetta was an Italian scholar and explorer. He joined the expedition to the Spice Islands led by explorer Ferdinand Magellan under the flag of the emperor Charles V and after Magellan's death in the Philippine Islands, the subsequent voyage around the world. During the expedition, he served as Magellan's assistant and kept an accurate journal, which later assisted him in translating the Cebuano language. It is the first recorded document concerning the language.

Duarte Barbosa Portuguese explorer and writer

Duarte Barbosa was a Portuguese writer and officer from Portuguese India. He was a christian pastor and scrivener in a feitoria in Kochi, and an interpreter of the local language, Malayalam. Barbosa wrote the Book of Duarte Barbosa c. 1516, making it one of the earliest examples of Portuguese travel literature. In 1519, Barbosa embarked on the first expedition to circumnavigate the world, led by his brother-in-law Ferdinand Magellan.

<i>Victoria</i> (ship) Carrack used in Ferdinand Magellans expeditions; first ship to circumnavigate the globe

Victoria was a carrack and the first ship to successfully circumnavigate the world. Victoria was part of a Spanish expedition commanded by the explorer Ferdinand Magellan, and after his death during the voyage, by Juan Sebastián Elcano. The expedition began on 10 August 1519 with five ships. However, Victoria was the only ship to complete the voyage, returning on 6 September 1522. Magellan was killed in the Philippines.

Rui (Ruy) Faleiro[ˈʁuj fɐˈlɐjɾu], also known as Ruy de Faleira, was a Portuguese cosmographer, astrologer, and astronomer who was the principal scientific organizer behind Ferdinand Magellan's circumnavigation of the world.

Estêvão Gomes Portuguese explorer

Estêvão Gomes, also known by the Spanish version of his name, Esteban Gómez, was a Portuguese cartographer and explorer. He sailed at the service of Castile (Spain) in the fleet of Ferdinand Magellan, but deserted the expedition when they had reached the Strait of Magellan, and returned to Spain in May 1521. In 1524 he explored present-day Nova Scotia. While historical accounts vary, Gomes may have entered New York Harbor and seen the Hudson River. Because of his expedition, the 1529 Diogo Ribeiro world map outlines the East coast of North America almost perfectly.

Ginés de Mafra (1493–1546) was a Portuguese or Spanish explorer who sailed to the Philippines in the 16th century. De Mafra was a member of the expeditions of Fernão de Magalhães of 1519–1521 and Ruy López de Villalobos of 1542–1545.

Magellan expedition 16th-century Spanish maritime expedition

The Magellan expedition, also known as the Magellan-Elcano expedition, resulted in the first recorded circumnavigation of the Earth in 1522. It is considered by many as one of the most important events in history for its scientific, socio-economic, political, philosophic and theological consequences.

Rajah Humabon, later baptized as Don Carlos, was the Rajah of Cebu. Humabon was Rajah at the time of the arrival of Portuguese-born, Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan in the Philippines in 1521. There is no official record of his existence before the Spanish contact in 1521. The existing information was written by Magellan's Italian voyage chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta on Humabon and the indigenous Philippine peoples that existed prior to Spanish colonization.

Andrés de San Martín was the chief pilot-cosmographer (astrologer) of the Armada del Maluco, the fleet commanded by Ferdinand Magellan in 1519. He is presumed to have died during that expedition in Cebu.

Francisco Combés was a Spanish priest who established Christian monasteries in the Philippines in the 17th century.

Trinidad was the flagship of Ferdinand Magellan's voyage of circumnavigation. Unlike Elcano's Victoria, which returned to Spain sailing across the Indian Ocean, Trinidad tried and failed to sail east across the Pacific to New Spain or modern-day Mexico. Trinidad was a nao (ship) of 100 tons with square sails on the fore and main masts and a lateen mizzen. Its original crew was 61. After Magellan's death and the burning of the Concepcion, Victoria and Trinidad reached Tidore on 8 November 1521. In mid-December both ships attempted to depart loaded with cloves, but Trinidad almost immediately began to leak badly. Inspection showed that the problem was serious. It was agreed that Victoria would leave for Spain and Trinidad would remain for repairs.

Timeline of the Magellan expedition

The Magellan expedition was the first voyage around the world in human history. It was a Spanish expedition that sailed from Seville in 1519 under the command of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese-born explorer but naturalized (nationalised) Spanish, in search of a maritime path to East Asia through the Americas and across the Pacific Ocean, and was concluded by Spanish navigator Juan Sebastian Elcano in 1522. Elcano and the 18 survivors of the expedition were the first men to circumnavigate the globe in a single expedition.

Juan de Cartagena was a Spanish accountant and captain of one of the five ships led by Ferdinand Magellan in his expedition of the first circumnavigation of the earth. Cartagena frequently argued with Magellan during the voyage and questioned his authority. Following a failed mutiny attempt of which Cartagena was the principal organizer, Magellan marooned Cartagena on a remote island in Patagonia in 1520, before continuing on to the Strait of Magellan.

First Mass in the Philippines First Catholic mass in the Philippines

The first documented Catholic Mass in the Philippines was held on March 31, 1521, Easter Sunday. It was conducted by Father Pedro de Valderrama of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition along the shores of what was referred to in the journals of Antonio Pigafetta as "Mazaua".

<i>Over the Edge of the World</i> Book by Laurence Bergreen

Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe is a book written by biographer Laurence Bergreen, first published by William Morrow and Company in 2003.

<i>Elcano & Magellan: The First Voyage Around the World</i> 2019 Spanish film

Elcano & Magellan: The First Voyage Around the World is a 2019 Spanish computer-animated adventure film directed by Ángel Alonso and written by José Antonio Vitoria and Garbiñe Losana. The film retells the story of 1519 circumnavigation led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and Spanish navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano.

References

  1. "Ferdinand Magellan". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  2. 1 2 Smith, Lucy Humphrey (1920). "Magellan". St. Nicholas Magazine . Vol. 48 no. 1. p.  498 via Scribner.
  3. "Magellan". Collins English Dictionary . Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  4. "Magellan". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary . Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  5. Pigafetta, Antonio. Magellan's Voyage: A Narrative Account of the First Circumnavigation, trans. and ed. Skelton, R.A. (2 vols., New Haven, CT, 1969).
  6. Mitchell, Mairin. Elcano: The First Circumnavigator (London, 1958)
  7. A typical evaluation of Magellan by a contemporary Portuguese historian is that given by Damião de Goes, Crónica do felicissimo rei Dom Emanuel, edited by Texeira de Carvalho e Lopes (4 vols., Coimbra, 1926; originally published 1556), IV, 83-84, who considered Magellan “a disgruntled man who planned the voyage for Castile principally to spite the Portuguese sovereign Manuel.”
  8. Torodash, Martin (1971). "Magellan Historiography". Hispanic American Historical Review. 51 (2): 313–335. doi: 10.1215/00182168-51.2.313 .
  9. Kinsella, Pat (27 April 2021). "Dire straits: the story of Ferdinand Magellan's fatal voyage of discovery". BBC History Magazine. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  10. Castro, Xavier de (dir.); Carmen Bernand; Hamon, Jocelyne et Thomaz, Luiz Filipe (2010). Le voyage de Magellan (1519–1522). La relation d'Antonio Pigafetta et autres témoignages (in French). Paris: Éditions Chandeigne, collection " Magellane ". ISBN 978-2915540-57-4.
  11. Hartig, Otto (1 October 1910). "Ferdinand Magellan". Catholic Encyclopedia . 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company . Retrieved 31 October 2010 via NewAdvent.org.
  12. Miller, Gordon (2011). Voyages: To the New World and Beyond (1st ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 30. ISBN   978-0-295-99115-3.
  13. Dutch, Steve (21 May 1997). "Circumnavigations of the Globe to 1800". University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  14. 1 2 Bergreen 2003, p. 17.
  15. Hartig, Otto (1913). "Ferdinand Magellan"  . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  16. Ocampo 2019.
  17. Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Magellan, Ferdinand". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  18. James A. Patrick, Renaissance and Reformation, p. 787, Marshall Cavendish, 2007, ISBN   0-7614-7650-4
  19. William J. Bernstein, A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World, pp. 183–185, Grove Press, 2009, ISBN   0-8021-4416-0
  20. Zweig, Stefan, "Conqueror of the Seas – The Story of Magellan", pp. 44–45, Read Books, 2007, ISBN   1-4067-6006-4
  21. Joyner 1992, pp. 42–43.
  22. Joyner 1992, p. 50.
  23. Zweig, Stefan, "Conqueror of the Seas – The Story of Magellan", p. 51, Read Books, 2007, ISBN   1-4067-6006-4
  24. R.A. Donkin, "Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices up to the Arrival of Europeans", p. 29, Volume 248 of Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, Diane Publishing, 2003 ISBN   0-87169-248-1
  25. Mervyn D. Kaufman (2004), Ferdinand Magellan, Capstone Press, pp.  13, ISBN   978-0-7368-2487-3
  26. "Beatriz Barbosa, 1495". Geneall.net.
  27. Noronha 1921.
  28. Galván, Javier (7 September 2020). "That small superpower where Magellan was born". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  29. Nancy Smiler Levinson (2001), Magellan and the First Voyage Around the World, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, p. 39, ISBN   978-0-395-98773-5 , retrieved 31 July 2010, Personnel records are imprecise. The most accepted total number is 270.
  30. Serrano, Tomás Mazón (2020). "T. Elcano, Journey to History".
  31. Bergreen 2003, p. 61.
  32. "Ferdinand Magellan - Allegiance to Spain". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  33. Cameron 1974, p. 145.
  34. Bergreen 2003, p. 215.
  35. George Bryan Souza, Jeffrey S. Turley (2016). The Boxer Codex Transcription and Translation of an Illustrated Late Sixteenth-Century Spanish Manuscript Concerning the Geography, History and Ethnography of the Pacific, South-East and East Asia. Brill. p. 303. ISBN   978-90-04-29273-4. OCLC   932684337.
  36. Bergreen 2003, pp. 224–231.
  37. 1 2 Nowell, C.E. (1962). "Antonio Pigafetta's account". Magellan's Voyage Around the World. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. hdl:2027/mdp.39015008001532. OCLC   347382.
  38. Cameron 1974, p. 209.
  39. Bergreen 2003, p. 271.
  40. ABS-CBN News (1 May 2019). "It's Lapulapu: Gov't committee weighs in on correct spelling of Filipino hero's name". ABS-CBN News . ABS-CBN Corporation . Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  41. David, Hawthorne (1964). Ferdinand Magellan. Doubleday & Company, Inc.
  42. "Battle of Mactan Marks Start of Organized Filipino Resistance Vs. Foreign Aggression" . Retrieved 9 April 2009.
  43. Ocampo, Ambeth (13 November 2019). "Lapu-Lapu, Magellan and blind patriotism". Inquirer.net . Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  44. Mojarro, Jorge (10 November 2019). "[OPINION] The anger toward the 'Elcano & Magellan' film is unjustified". Rappler . Rappler Inc. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  45. 1 2 Pigafetta, Antonio (1906). Magellan's Voyage Around the World (1906 ed.). tr. James Alexander Robertson
  46. Manchester, William (1993). A World Lit Only by Fire. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN   978-0-316-54556-3.[ page needed ]
  47. Bergreen 2003, p. 406.
  48. Cameron 1974, p. 210.
  49. Bergreen 2003, p. 299.
  50. Bergreen 2003, p. 305.
  51. Bergreen 2003, pp. 399–402.
  52. Bergreen 2003, pp. 403–405.
  53. Cameron 1974, p. 215.
  54. Bergreen 2003, p. 414.
  55. Bergreen 2003, p. 2.
  56. Bergreen 2003, p. 412.
  57. Bergreen 2003, p. 413.
  58. Camino, Mercedes Maroto. Producing the Pacific: Maps and Narratives of Spanish Exploration (1567–1606), p. 76. 2005.
  59. Minder, Raphael (20 September 2019). "Who First Circled the Globe? Not Magellan, Spain Wants You to Know". The New York Times.
  60. "King and Queen of Spain open commemorative exhibition on first circumnavigation by Magellan and Elcano". 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  61. "Pigafetta: cronista de la primera vuelta al mundo Magallanes Elcano".

Sources

Online sources

Further reading

Primary sources

Secondary sources