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Cydonia oblonga fruit and tree
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Genus: Cydonia
C. oblonga
Binomial name
Cydonia oblonga

C. vulgaris

The quince ( /ˈkwɪns/ ; Cydonia oblonga) is the sole member of the genus Cydonia in the family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits). It is a deciduous tree that bears a pome fruit, similar in appearance to a pear, and bright golden-yellow when mature. Throughout history the cooked fruit has been used as food, but the tree is also grown for its attractive pale pink blossoms and other ornamental qualities.

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family".

Rosaceae family of plants

Rosaceae, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants, including 4,828 known species in 91 genera.



Halved quince, with seeds and oxidation visible Quince (10928s).jpg
Halved quince, with seeds and oxidation visible

The tree grows 5 to 8 m (16 to 26 ft) high and 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) wide. The fruit is 7 to 12 cm (3 to 5 in) long and 6 to 9 cm (2 to 4 in) across.

The immature fruit is green with dense grey-white fine hair, most of which rubs off before maturity in late autumn when the fruit changes color to yellow with hard, strongly perfumed flesh. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6–11 cm (2–4 in) long, with an entire margin and densely pubescent with fine white hairs. The flowers, produced in spring after the leaves, are white or pink, 5 cm (2 in) across, with five petals.

Leaf organ of a vascular plant, composing its foliage

A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage". some of the leafs have colour or shaps

Flower Structure found in some plants; aka: blossom

A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants. The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing or allow selfing. Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds.

The seeds contain nitriles, which are common in the seeds of the rose family. In the stomach, enzymes or stomach acid or both cause some of the nitriles to be hydrolyzed and produce hydrogen cyanide, which is a volatile gas. The seeds are only likely to be toxic if a large quantity is eaten. [1]

A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group. The prefix cyano- is used interchangeably with the term nitrile in industrial literature. Nitriles are found in many useful compounds, including methyl cyanoacrylate, used in super glue, and nitrile rubber, a nitrile-containing polymer used in latex-free laboratory and medical gloves. Nitrile rubber is also widely used as automotive and other seals since it is resistant to fuels and oils. Organic compounds containing multiple nitrile groups are known as cyanocarbons.

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous and flammable liquid that boils slightly above room temperature, at 25.6 °C (78.1 °F). HCN is produced on an industrial scale and is a highly valuable precursor to many chemical compounds ranging from polymers to pharmaceuticals.


Four other species previously included in the genus Cydonia are now treated in separate genera. These are Pseudocydonia sinensis and the three flowering quinces of eastern Asia in the genus Chaenomeles. Another unrelated fruit, the bael, is sometimes called the "Bengal quince".

<i>Pseudocydonia</i> species of plant

Pseudocydonia sinensis, the Chinese quince, is a deciduous or semi-evergreen tree in the family Rosaceae, native to eastern Asia in China, and the sole species in the genus Pseudocydonia. It is closely related to the east Asian genus Chaenomeles, and is sometimes placed in Chaenomeles as C. sinensis, but notable differences are the lack of thorns, and that the flowers are produced singly, not in clusters. The Chinese quince is also closely related to the European Quince, Cydonia oblonga; notable differences include the serrated leaves, and lack of fuzz.

The modern name originated in the 14th century as a plural of quoyn, via Old French cooin from Latin cotoneum malum / cydonium malum, ultimately from Greek κυδώνιον μῆλον, kydonion melon "Kydonian apple".

Old French was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d'oïl, contrasting with the langue d'oc or Occitan language in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French, the language of the French Renaissance, specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France region.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Kydonia human settlement

Kydonia or Cydonia was an ancient city-state on the northwest coast of the island of Crete. It is at the site of the modern-day Greek city of Chania. In legend Cydonia was founded by King Cydon (Κύδων), a son of Hermes or Apollo and of Akakallis, the daughter of King Minos. According to Pausanias he was son of king Tegeates.

Cydonia is included in the subfamily Amygdaloideae. [2]

Amygdaloideae subfamily of plants

Amygdaloideae is a subfamily within the flowering plant family Rosaceae. It was formerly considered by some authors to be separate from Rosaceae, and the family names Prunaceae and Amygdalaceae have been used. Reanalysis from 2007 has shown that the previous definition of subfamily Spiraeoideae was paraphyletic. To solve this problem, a larger subfamily was defined that includes the former Amygdaloideae, Spiraeoideae, and Maloideae. This subfamily, however, is to be called Amygdaloideae rather than Spiraeoideae under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants as updated in 2011.

Distribution and habitat

Commercially grown quince Quince (10889s).jpg
Commercially grown quince
Quince foliage and ripening fruit Cydonia.jpg
Quince foliage and ripening fruit
Quince flowers Quince flowers.jpg
Quince flowers

Quince is native to rocky slopes and woodland margins in Western Asia, Armenia, Turkey, Georgia, northern Iran to Afghanistan, [3] [4] although it thrives in a variety of climates and can be grown successfully at latitudes as far north as Scotland. It should not be confused with its relatives, the Chinese quince, Pseudocydonia sinensis , or the flowering quinces of genus Chaenomeles , either of which is sometimes used as a culinary substitute.


The fruit was known to the Akkadians, who called it supurgillu; Arabic سفرجل al safarjal "quinces" (collective plural), [5] as well as in Judea of Israel during the Mishnaic era where it was called “Perishin” (פרישין collective plural, or sing. “Prish”); [6] quince flourished in the heat of the Mesopotamian plain, where apples did not. It was cultivated from an archaic period around the Mediterranean. The Greeks associated it with Cydonia on Crete, as the "Cydonian pome", and Theophrastus, in his Enquiry into Plants, noted that quince was one of many fruiting plants that do not come true from seed. [7] As a sacred emblem of Aphrodite, a quince figured in a lost poem of Callimachus that survives in a prose epitome: seeing his beloved in the courtyard of the temple of Aphrodite, Acontius plucks a quince from the "orchard of Aphrodite", inscribes its skin and furtively rolls it at the feet of her illiterate nurse, whose curiosity aroused, hands it to the girl to read aloud, and the girl finds herself saying "I swear by Aphrodite that I will marry Acontius". A vow thus spoken in the goddess's temenos cannot be broken. [8] Pliny the Elder mentions "numerous varieties" of quince in his Natural History and describes four. [9] The season of ripe quinces is brief: the Roman cookbook De re coquinaria of "Apicius" specifies in attempting to keep quinces, to select perfect unbruised fruits and keep stems and leaves intact, submerged in honey and reduced wine. [10]

Pests and diseases

Quince is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including brown-tail, Bucculatrix bechsteinella , Bucculatrix pomifoliella , Coleophora cerasivorella , Coleophora malivorella , green pug and winter moth.

While quince is a hardy shrub, it may develop fungal diseases in hot weather, resulting in premature leaf fall. [11] Quince leaf blight, caused by fungus Diplocarpon mespili, presents a threat in wet summers, causing severe leaf spotting and early defoliation, also affecting fruit to a lesser extent. It may also affect other Rosaceae plants such as hawthorn and medlar, but is typically less damaging than on quince. [12] Cedar-quince rust, caused by Gymnosporangium clavipes , requires two hosts to complete the fungal lifecycle, one being a cedar (most commonly a juniper, Juniperus virginiana ) and the other a rosacea. Appearing as red excrescence on various parts of the plant, it may affect quinces grown in vicinity of junipers. [13]


Quince is a hardy, drought-tolerant shrub which adapts to many soils of low to medium pH. It tolerates both shade and sun, but sunlight is required in order to produce larger flowers and ensure fruit ripening. It is an incredibly tough plant that does not require much maintenance, and tolerates years without pruning or major insect and disease problems. [11]

Quince is cultivated on all continents in warm-temperate and temperate climates. It requires a cooler period of the year, with temperatures under 7 °C (45 °F), to flower properly. Propagation is done by cuttings or layering; the former method produces better plants, but they take longer to mature than by the latter. Named cultivars are propagated by cuttings or layers grafted on quince rootstock. Propagation by seed is not used commercially. Quince forms thick bushes, which must be pruned and reduced into a single stem in order to grow fruit-bearing trees for commercial use. The tree is self-pollinated, but it produces better yields when cross-pollinated. [11]

Fruits are typically left on the tree to ripen fully. In warmer climates, it may become soft to the point of being edible, but additional ripening may be required in cooler climates. They are harvested in late autumn, before first frosts. [11]

Quince is also used as rootstock for certain pear cultivars. [11] The resultant chimera is called + Pirocydonia danielii.

In Europe, quinces are commonly grown in central and southern areas where the summers are sufficiently hot for the fruit to fully ripen. They are not grown in large amounts; typically one or two quince trees are grown in a mixed orchard with several apples and other fruit trees. In the 18th-century New England colonies, for example, there was always a quince at the lower corner of the vegetable garden, Ann Leighton notes in records of Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Newburyport, Massachusetts. [14] Charlemagne directed that quinces be planted in well-stocked orchards. Quinces in England are first recorded in about 1275, when Edward I had some planted at the Tower of London. [15]


  • 'Aromatnaya'
  • 'Bereczki'
  • 'Champion'
  • 'Cooke's Jumbo' (syn. 'Jumbo')
  • 'Dwarf Orange'
  • 'Gamboa'
  • 'Iranian'
  • 'kashmiri Bumm tchoont'
  • 'Isfahan'
  • 'Le Bourgeaut'
  • 'Lescovacz'
  • 'Ludovic'
  • 'Maliformis'
  • 'Meeches Prolific'
  • 'Morava'
  • 'Orange' (syn. 'Apple quince')
  • 'Perfume'
  • 'Pineapple'
  • 'Portugal' (syn. 'Lusitanica')
  • 'Shams'
  • 'Siebosa'
  • 'Smyrna'
  • 'Van Deman'
  • 'Vrajna' (syn. 'Bereczki') [16]
Quince production – 2017
Country tonnes
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan
Source: UN FAOSTAT [17]

The cultivar 'Vranja' Nenadovic has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. [18]


In 2017, world production of quinces was 692,262 tonnes, led by Turkey and China combined with 41% of the world total (table).


Quinces, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 238 kJ (57 kcal)
15.3 g
Dietary fiber 1.9 g
0.1 g
0.4 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Thiamine (B1)
0.02 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.03 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.2 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.081 mg
Vitamin B6
0.04 mg
Folate (B9)
3 μg
Vitamin C
15 mg
Minerals Quantity%DV
11 mg
0.7 mg
8 mg
17 mg
197 mg
4 mg
0.04 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water84 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Quinces are appreciated for their intense aroma, flavor, and tartness. However, most varieties of quince are too hard and tart to be eaten raw; even ripe fruits should be subjected to bletting by frost or decay to be suitable for consumption. However, they may be cooked or roasted and used for jams, marmalade, jellies, or pudding. [11]

As food

Some varieties of quince, such as 'Aromatnaya' and 'Kuganskaya' do not require cooking and can be eaten raw. [19] However, most varieties of quince are too hard, astringent and sour to eat raw unless "bletted" (softened by frost and subsequent decay). [20] High in pectin, they are used to make jam, jelly and quince pudding, or they may be peeled, then roasted, baked or stewed; pectin levels diminish as the fruit ripens. [21] The flesh of the fruit turns red after a long cooking with sugar by formation of anthocyanins. [22] The very strong perfume means they can be added in small quantities to apple pies and jam to enhance the flavor. Adding a diced quince to apple sauce will enhance the taste of the apple sauce with the chunks of relatively firm, tart quince. The term "marmalade", originally meaning a quince jam, derives from marmelo , the Portuguese word for this fruit. [23] [24] [25]

Quince cheese Dulce de Membrillo.jpg
Quince cheese

Quince cheese is firm, sticky, sweet reddish hard paste made from the quince fruit, and originating from the Iberian peninsula. It is known as marmelada across the Portuguese-speaking world and as dulce de membrillo across the Spanish-speaking world, where it is used in a variety of recipes, eaten in sandwiches and with cheese, traditionally manchego cheese, or accompanying fresh curds. In Chile, boiled quince is popular in desserts such as the murta con membrillo that combines Chilean guava with quince.


A raw quince is 84% water, 15% carbohydrates, and contains negligible fat and protein (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, the fruit provides 57 calories and a moderate amount of vitamin C (18% of the Daily Value), but no other micronutrients of significant quantity.

As drink

In the Balkans and elsewhere, quince eau-de-vie (rakija) is made. For a quince rakija, ripe fruits of sweeter varieties are washed and cleared from rot and seeds, then crushed or minced, mixed with cold or boiling sweetened water and winemaking yeast, and left for several weeks to ferment. Fermented mash is distilled twice to obtain an approximately 60% alcohol-by-volume (ABV) liquor. It may be diluted with distilled water to obtain the final product, containing 42-43% ABV. [26]

In the Alsace region of France and the Valais region of Switzerland, liqueur de coing made from quince is used as a digestif .

In Carolina in 1709, John Lawson allowed that he was "not a fair judge of the different sorts of Quinces, which they call Brunswick, Portugal and Barbary", but he noted "of this fruit they make a wine or liquor which they call Quince-Drink, and which I approve of beyond any that their country affords, though a great deal of cider and perry is there made, The Quince-Drink most commonly purges." [27]


Quince is one of the most popular species for deciduous bonsai specimens, [11] along with related Chinese quince and Japanese quince, native to Eastern Asia.

Cultural associations

See also

Related Research Articles

Kumquat genus of plants

Kumquats are a group of small fruit-bearing trees in the flowering plant family Rutaceae. They were previously classified as forming the now historical genus Fortunella, or placed within Citrus sensu lato.

Pear genus of plants

The pear tree and shrub are a species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae, bearing the pomaceous fruit of the same name. Several species of pear are valued for their edible fruit and juices while others are cultivated as trees.

The MaloideaeC.Weber was the apple subfamily, a grouping used by some taxonomists within the rose family, Rosaceae. Recent molecular phylogenetic evidence has shown that the traditional Spiraeoideae and Amygdaloideae form part of the same clade as the traditional Maloideae, and the correct name for this group is Amygdaloideae. Earlier circumscriptions of Maloideae are more-or-less equivalent to subtribe Malinae or to tribe Maleae. The group includes a number of plants bearing commercially important fruits, such as apples and pears, while others are cultivated as ornamentals.

Carambola Fruit

Carambola, or star fruit, is the fruit of Averrhoa carambola, a species of tree native to Indonesia, the Philippines, and throughout Malesia. The fruit is commonly consumed throughout Southeast Asia, the South Pacific, Micronesia, and parts of East Asia. The tree is cultivated throughout tropical areas.

Persimmon Edible fruit

The persimmon is the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros. The most widely cultivated of these is the Asian or Japanese persimmon, Diospyros kaki. Diospyros is in the family Ebenaceae, and a number of non-persimmon species of the genus are grown for ebony timber.

Guava tropical fruit

Guava is a common tropical fruit cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions. Psidium guajava is a small tree in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), native to Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America. Although related species may also be called guavas, they belong to other species or genera, such as the "pineapple guava" Acca sellowiana. In 2016, India was the largest producer of guavas with 41% of the world total.

<i>Chaenomeles</i> genus of plants

Chaenomeles is a genus of three species of deciduous spiny shrubs, usually 1–3 m tall, in the family Rosaceae. They are native to Japan, Korea, China, Bhutan, and Burma. These plants are related to the quince and the Chinese quince, differing in the serrated leaves that lack fuzz, and in the flowers, borne in clusters, having deciduous sepals and styles that are connate at the base.

Loquat species of plant, Loquat

The loquat is a species of flowering plant in the family Rosaceae, a native to the cooler hill regions of China to south-central China. It is also quite common in Japan, Korea, hilly Regions of India (Himachal), Potohar and foothill regions of Pakistan and some can be found in some Northern part of the Philippines, and hill country in Sri Lanka. It can also be found in some southern European countries such as Turkey, Cyprus, Malta, Italy, Spain and Portugal; and several Middle Eastern countries including Morocco Algeria, Syria, Iraq, Israel and Lebanon.

<i>Mespilus germanica</i> species of plant

Mespilus germanica, known as the medlar or common medlar, is a large shrub or small tree, and the name of the fruit of this tree. The fruit has been cultivated since Roman times, and is unusual in being available in winter, and in being eaten when bletted. It is eaten raw and in a range of dishes. When the genus Mespilus is included in the genus Crataegus, the correct name for this species is Crataegus germanica (Kuntze).

<i>Diospyros virginiana</i> species of plant

Diospyros virginiana is a persimmon species commonly called the American persimmon, common persimmon, eastern persimmon, simmon, possumwood, possum apples, or sugar plum. It ranges from southern Connecticut/Long Island to Florida, and west to Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Iowa. The tree grows wild but has been cultivated for its fruit and wood since prehistoric times by Native Americans.

Tamarillo species of plant

The tamarillo is a small tree or shrub in the flowering plant family Solanaceae. It is best known as the species that bears the tamarillo, an egg-shaped edible fruit. It is also known as the tree tomato, tomate de árbol, tomate andino, tomate serrano, tomate de yuca, tomate de españa, sachatomate, berenjena, and tamamoro in South America. They are popular globally, especially in New Zealand, Ecuador,Australia, and America.

Bletting is a process of softening that certain fleshy fruits undergo, beyond ripening. There are some fruits that are either sweeter after some bletting, such as sea buckthorn, or for which most varieties can be eaten raw only after bletting, such as medlars, persimmons, quince, service tree fruit, and wild service tree fruit ("chequers"). The rowan or mountain ash fruit must be bletted and cooked to be edible, to break down the toxic parasorbic acid (hexenollactone) into sorbic acid.

Rhode Island Greening

The 'Rhode Island Greening' is an old, historic American apple variety and the official fruit of the state of Rhode Island.

<i>Chaenomeles japonica</i> species of plant

Chaenomeles japonica, known as Maule's quince, is a species of flowering quince. It is a thorny deciduous shrub that is commonly cultivated. It is shorter than another commonly cultivated species C. speciosa, growing to only about 1 m in height. The fruit is called Kusa-boke in Japanese. It is best known for its colorful spring flowers of red, white, pink or multi. It produces apple-shaped fruit that are a golden-yellow color containing red-brown seeds. The fruit is edible, but hard and astringent-tasting, unless bletted. The fruit is occasionally used in jam, jelly and pie making as a substitute for its cousin, the true quince, Cydonia oblonga. C. japonica is also popularly grown in bonsai.

<i>Malus florentina</i> species of plant

Malus florentina is a species of apple known by the common names Florentine crabapple and hawthorn-leaf crabapple. It is native to the Balkan Peninsula and Italy, and it is grown elsewhere as an ornamental tree.

Quince cheese fruit preserves

Quince cheese,, is a sweet, thick jelly made of the pulp of the quince fruit. It is a common confection in several countries.

Maleae tribe of plants

The Maleae are the apple tribe in the rose family, Rosaceae. The group includes a number of plants bearing commercially important fruits, such as apples and pears, while others are cultivated as ornamentals. Older taxonomies separated some of this group as tribe Crataegeae, as the Cydonia group, or some genera were placed in family Quillajaceae.

Malinae subtribe of plants

Malinae is the name for the apple subtribe in the rose family, Rosaceae. This name is required by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, which came into force in 2011 for any group at the subtribe rank that includes the genus Malus but not either of the genera Rosa or Amygdalus. The group includes a number of plants bearing commercially important fruits, such as apples and pears, while others are cultivated as ornamentals.


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  2. Potter, D., et al. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43. [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"]
  3. Daniel Zohary, Maria Hopf, Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of Cultivated Plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley, Oxford University Press, 2000
  4. RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN   1405332964.
  5. Olivier Lauffenburger, 2006. The Hittite Grammar Homepage, Akkadian dictionary, entry for supurgillu
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  7. Theophrastus: "Quince produces wild quince" Enquiry ii.2.5
  8. Marilyn B. Skinner, Catullus in Verona: a Reading of the Elegiac Libellus 2003, "Carmina Battiadae" pp 15ff.
  9. Natural History xv.10.11 .
  10. LacusCurtius: Apicius, I.21.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Carlton, Deb (25 April 2013). Cumo, Christopher (ed.). Encyclopedia of Cultivated Plants: From Acacia to Zinnia [3 Volumes]: From Acacia to Zinnia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 885–858. ISBN   978-1-59884-775-8.
  12. "Quince leaf blight". Royal Horticultural Society. 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  13. "Cedar-Quince Rust". RMissouri Botanical Garden. 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  14. Leighton 1986:243.
  15. Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall. "Quince recipes - Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall". the Guardian.
  16. "Agroforestry news quince cydonia oblonga". agroforestry.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2006-10-06.
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  18. "Cydonia oblonga 'Vranja' Nenadovic". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  19. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/acc/search.pl?accid=%20CCYD+131 (20 February 2011)
  20. "Quince". herbs2000.com.
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  22. "On Food and Cooking" 2004 H. McGee, Hodder & Stoughton P357
  23. Wilson, C. Anne. The Book of Marmalade: Its Antecedents, Its History and Its Role in the World Today (Together with a Collection of Recipes for Marmalades and Marmalade Cookery), University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Revised Edition 1999. ISBN   0-8122-1727-6
  24. "Marmalade" in Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper apud Dictionary.com
  25. Ferraz, Rafaela (5 December 2018). "Why Portugal's Marmelada Tastes Nothing Like Marmalade". Gastro Obscura. Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
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  28. Cyclopaedia of Biblical, theological, and ecclesiastical literature, Volume 1 By James Strong
  29. Wikisource: Lives by Plutarch, translated by John Dryden: Solon