Germplasm Resources Information Network

Last updated

Germplasm Resources Information Network or GRIN is an online USDA National Genetic Resources Program software project to comprehensively manage the computer database for the holdings of all plant germplasm collected by the National Plant Germplasm System. [1]

Germplasm

Germplasm are living genetic resources such as seeds or tissues that are maintained for the purpose of animal and plant breeding, preservation, and other research uses. These resources may take the form of seed collections stored in seed banks, trees growing in nurseries, animal breeding lines maintained in animal breeding programs or gene banks, etc. Germplasm collections can range from collections of wild species to elite, domesticated breeding lines that have undergone extensive human selection. Germplasm collection is important for the maintenance of biological diversity and food security.

Contents

GRIN has extended its role to manage information on the germplasm reposits of insect (invertebrate), microbial, and animal species (see Sub-Projects). [2]

Invertebrate Animals without a vertebrate column

Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column, derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include arthropods, mollusks, annelids, and cnidarians.

Description

The site is a resource for identifying taxonomic information (scientific names) as well as common names [3] on more than 500,000 accessions (distinct varieties, cultivars etc.) of plants covering 10,000 species; [4] [5] both economically important ones [3] and wild species. It profiles plants that are invasive or noxious weeds, [3] threatened or endangered, [3] giving out data on worldwide distribution [3] of its habitat; as well as passport information. [6] GRIN also incorporates an Economic Plants Database. [3]

Taxonomy (biology) The science of identifying, describing, defining and naming groups of biological organisms

In biology, taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms.

In botanical nomenclature, variety is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies, but above that of form. As such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name. It is sometimes recommended that the subspecies rank should be used to recognize geographic distinctiveness, whereas the variety rank is appropriate if the taxon is seen throughout the geographic range of the species.

The network is maintained by GRIN's Database Management Unit (GRIN/DBMU). [2] GRIN is under the oversight of National Germplasm Resources Laboratory (NGRL) in Beltsville, Maryland, [6] which in 1990 replaced its forerunner, the Germplasm Services Laboratory (GSL), [2] that had formerly run GRIN). [7]

Beltsville, Maryland CDP in Maryland

Beltsville is a census-designated place (CDP) in northern Prince George's County, Maryland, United States. The community was named for Truman Belt, a local landowner. The population was 16,772 at the 2010 census. Beltsville includes the unincorporated community of Vansville.

Sub-projects

A stated mission of GRIN is to support the following projects: [8]

The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) is a cooperative effort by U.S. state and federal government and private organizations to preserve the genetic diversity of plants.

The National Animal Germplasm Program, or NAGP, is a program of the United States Department of Agriculture that captures and cryogenically preserves germplasm from plants and animals it considers important to agriculture for the purpose of preserving biodiversity and to provide economic benefits to the agriculture industry. Germplasm consists of semen, embryos, and other tissues that contain genetic information. The online Germplasm Resources Information Network contains information from the NAGP, along with related projects such as the USDA's National Plant Germplasm System.

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Petteria</i> genus of plants

Petteria ramentacea, commonly known as Dalmatian Laburnum, is a species of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae. It is the only member of the genus Petteria.

<i>Ampelopsis</i> genus of plants

Ampelopsis, commonly known as peppervine or porcelainberry, is a genus of climbing shrubs, in the grape family Vitaceae. The name is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἅμπελος (ampelos), which means "vine". The genus was named in 1803. It is disjunctly distributed in eastern Asia and eastern North America extending to Mexico. Ampelopsis is primarily found in mountainous regions in temperate zones with some species in montane forests at mid-altitudes in subtropical to tropical regions. Ampelopsis glandulosa is a popular garden plant and an invasive weed.

<i>Xanthocercis</i> genus of plants

Xanthocercis is a tree genus in the family Fabaceae. Species include:

<i>Prosopis glandulosa</i> species of plant

Prosopis glandulosa, commonly known as honey mesquite, is a species of small to medium-sized, thorny shrub or tree in the legume family (Fabaceae).

<i>Subularia</i> genus of plants

Subularia is a genus in the mustard family, Brassicaceae. Subularia species are annual herbs that grow in moist or even flooded soils. There are only two species of the genus: Subularia aquatica, which is widespread in North America and Europe; and Subularia monticola, from Africa mountains. Awlwort is a common name for plants in this genus.

Bobgunnia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae. The genus is named for Charles R. Gunn who was the director of the U.S. National Seed Herbarium for many years before his retirement.

Candolleodendron brachystachyum is a species of flowering plant in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the sub family Faboideae. It is the only member of the genus Candolleodendron.

<i>Cyathostegia</i> genus of plants

Cyathostegia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the sub family Faboideae. It is often considered to be a monotypic genus containing only Cyathostegia mathewsii. Some sources include Cyathostegia weberbaueri.

Erichsenia uncinata is a species of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae. It is the only member of the genus Erichsenia.

Euchilopsis linearis is a species of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae. It is the only member of the genus Euchilopsis.

<i>Hypocalyptus</i> genus of plants

Hypocalyptus is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae and is the only genus found in Tribe Hypocalypteae.

Mildbraediodendron excelsum is a species of flowering plant in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the sub family Faboideae. The genus was named in honor of the German botanist Johannes Mildbraed.

Myrospermum frutescens, the cercipo, is a species of flowering plant in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae. It is the only member of the genus Myrospermum.

<i>Piptanthus</i> genus of plants

Piptanthus is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, and the subfamily Faboideae.

Ptychosema is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae.

<i>Aframomum corrorima</i> aframomum citratum

Aframomum corrorima is a species in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. The spice, known as Ethiopian cardamom, false cardamom, or korarima, is obtained from the plant's seeds, and is extensively used in Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine. It is an ingredient in berbere, mitmita, awaze, and other spice mixtures, and is also used to flavor coffee. In Ethiopian herbal medicine, the seeds are used as a tonic, carminative, and laxative.

Cucurbita galeottii is a plant species of the genus Cucurbita. It is native to Oaxaca, Mexico. It has not been domesticated. There is very little known about this species. Nee reports that the species is a xerophyte and that Bailey only saw the species in photographs. It is only known from specimens that "lack roots, female flowers, fruits and seeds".

Genesys is an online, global portal about plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. It is a gateway from which germplasm accessions from gene banks around the world can be easily found and ordered.

References

  1. National Research Council (U.S.); Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Imperatives (1991). The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. National Academies Press. p. 139. ISBN   9780309043908.
  2. 1 2 3 "About us". Agricultural Resource Service. May 11, 2009. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lipscomb, Barney L.; Pipoly, John James; Sanders, Roger William (2000). Floristics in the New Millennium: Proceedings of the Flora of the Southeast US Symposium. 18. BRIT Press. p. 90. ISBN   9781889878041.
  4. Miller, William; Pellen, Rita M. (2006). Evolving Internet Reference Resources. 1. Psychology Press. p. 386. ISBN   9780789030252. It gives 450,000 accessions (outdated; GRIN gives 500,000 as of June 2012).
  5. "Accession Area Queries". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2012. It gives 500,000 accessions.
  6. 1 2 Ullrich, Steven E. (2011). Barley: Production, Improvement, and Uses. John Wiley & Sons. p. 149. ISBN   9780813801230.
  7. National Research Council (U.S.).; Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Imperatives (1991). The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. National Academies Press. pp. 6, 96. ISBN   9780309043908.
  8. "About GRIN". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2012.