International Plant Names Index

Last updated
International Plant Names Index
IPNI logo4 1.png
Type of site
Database
OwnerPlant Names Project
Created byThe Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Harvard University Herbarium, and the Australian National Herbarium
Website ipni.org
Alexa rankIncrease Negative.svg 469,881 (April 2014) [1]
CommercialNo
RegistrationNot required
Launched1999

The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) describes itself as "a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of seed plants, ferns and lycophytes." Coverage of plant names is best at the rank of species and genus. [2] It includes basic bibliographical details associated with the names. Its goals include eliminating the need for repeated reference to primary sources for basic bibliographic information about plant names. [3] [4]

Database organized collection of data

A database is an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal design and modeling techniques.

Fern group of plants

A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers. They differ from mosses by being vascular, i.e., having specialized tissues that conduct water and nutrients and in having life cycles in which the sporophyte is the dominant phase. Ferns have complex leaves called megaphylls, that are more complex than the microphylls of clubmosses. Most ferns are leptosporangiate ferns, sometimes referred to as true ferns. They produce coiled fiddleheads that uncoil and expand into fronds. The group includes about 10,560 known extant species.

In biology, a species ( ) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species. Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is potentially a microspecies.

Contents

The IPNI also maintains a list of standardized author abbreviations. These were initially based on Brummitt & Powell (1992), but new names and abbreviations are continually added.

In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name, i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). In cases where a species is no longer in its original generic placement, both the author(s) of the original genus placement and those of the new combination are given.

Authors of Plant Names by Richard Kenneth Brummitt and C. E. Powell, 1992, is a print database of accepted standardized abbreviations used for citing the author who validly published the name of a taxon. The database is now maintained online at the International Plant Names Index. The book provides recommended abbreviations for authors' names that help to distinguish authors with the same surname when giving the full name of a taxon. It deals authors who validly published the name of a flowering plant, gymnosperm, fern, bryophyte, algae, fungi or fossil plants. Prior to its publication in 1992, many abbreviations for authors to be cited could be found in Taxonomic literature. A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types. by F. A. Stafleu & R. F. Cowen, 1976-1988.

Description

IPNI is the product of a collaboration between The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Index Kewensis), The Harvard University Herbaria (Gray Herbarium Index), and the Australian National Herbarium (APNI). The IPNI database is a collection of the names registered by the three cooperating institutions and they work towards standardizing the information. The standard of author abbreviations recommended by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants is Brummitt and Powell’s Authors of Plant Names . A digital and continually updated list of authors and abbreviations can be consulted online at IPNI.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew non-departmental public body in the UK

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. An internationally important botanical research and education institution, it employs 723 staff (FTE). Its board of trustees is chaired by Marcus Agius, a former chairman of Barclays.

The Index Kewensis (IK), maintained by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is a publication that aims to register all botanical names for seed plants at the rank of species and genera. It later came to include names of taxonomic families and ranks below that of species.

Harvard University Herbaria herbarium at Harvard University

The Harvard University Herbaria and Botanical Museum are institutions located on the grounds of Harvard University at 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Botanical Museum is one of three which comprise the Harvard Museum of Natural History.

The IPNI provides names that have appeared in scholarly publications, with the objective of providing an index of published names rather than prescribing the accepted botanical nomenclature. [3]

Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy. Plant taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants; botanical nomenclature then provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for modern botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus' Species Plantarum of 1753. Botanical nomenclature is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), which replaces the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Fossil plants are also covered by the code of nomenclature.

See also

Plants of the World Online is an online database published by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. It was launched in March 2017 with the ultimate aim being "to enable users to access information on all the world's known seed-bearing plants by 2020". The initial focus was on tropical African Floras, particularly Flora Zambesiaca, Flora of West Tropical Africa and Flora of Tropical East Africa.

The Plant List is a list of botanical names of species of plants created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden and launched in 2010. It was intended to be a comprehensive record of all known names of plant species over time.

Index Fungorum is an international project to index all formal names in the fungus kingdom. As of 2015 the project is based at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, one of three partners along with Landcare Research and the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Related Research Articles

William Aiton Scottish botanist

William Aiton was a Scottish botanist.

Benjamin Daydon Jackson British botanist

Benjamin Daydon Jackson was a pioneering botanist and taxonomer who wrote the first volume of Index Kewensis to include all the flowering plants.

Robert Desmond Meikle OBE is an Irish botanist from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. He became most notable for his two-volume work Flora of Cyprus, the first comprehensive contribution about the almost 1750 plant taxa from Cyprus. Other works including parts of the encyclopedia Flora Europaea, Willows and Poplars of Great Britain and Ireland from 1984 and Garden Plants from 1963. He has written articles for the Irish Naturalists' Journal since the 1940s and he is editor of the Draft index of author abbreviations compiled at the Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew from 1980. This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation Meikle when citing a botanical name.

Jinzō Matsumura Japanese botanist

Jinzō Matsumura was a Japanese botanist. The standard author abbreviation Matsum. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.

François Crépin Belgian botanist

François Crépin was an important botanist of the 19th century and director of the National Botanic Garden of Belgium.

The Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) is an online database of all published names of Australian vascular plants. It covers all names, whether current names, synonyms or invalid names. It includes bibliographic and typification details, information from the Australian Plant Census including distribution by state, links to other resources such as specimen collection maps and plant photographs, and the facility for notes and comments on other aspects.

Rune Bertil Nordenstam is a Swedish botanist and professor emeritus at the Swedish Museum of Natural History in the Department of Phanerogamic Botany. He has worked with Colchicaceae, Senecioneae and Calenduleae, was the editor of Compositae Newsletter newsletter since 1990, and is a Tribal Coordinator for The International Compositae Alliance with responsibility for the tribes Calenduleae and Senecioneae.

Robert Elias Fries Swedish biologist

(Klas) Robert Elias Fries, the youngest son of Theodor Magnus Fries (1832–1913) and grandson of Elias Magnus Fries(1794–1878) and an expert on mushrooms. A Swedish botanist who was a member of the British Mycological Society and involved with The Botanical Museum (UPS), Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Natural History Museum (BM), the National Botanic Garden of Belgium (BR), Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève (G), Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K),the Swedish Museum of Natural History Department of Phanerogamic Botany (S) and the United States National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution (US).

Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Pappe German-born physician and botanist

Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Pappe was a German-born physician and botanist.

Jisaburo Ohwi was Japanese botanist. He was a distinguished member of the Faculty of Science of Kyoto Imperial University. He is perhaps best known for his 1953 Flora of Japan.

Ren-Chang Ching, courtesy name Zinong, was a Chinese botanist who specialised in ferns.

Gwendoline Joyce Lewis (1909–1967) was a South African botanist.

Mary Letitia (Green) Sprague (1886-1978) was a British botanist and bibliographer at Kew Gardens. In 1938 she married Scottish botanist Thomas Archibald Sprague, the Deputy Keeper of the Kew Herbarium, and together they compiled several supplements to the Index Kewensis. She was an expert on Loranthaceae. The standard author abbreviation M.L.Green is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.

Almut Gitter Jones was a German-American botanist and plant taxonomist known for her work researching the genus Aster and for her work as Curator of the University of Illinois herbarium. She was married to fellow botanist George Neville Jones. She described over fifty species. The standard author abbreviation A.G.Jones is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.

References

  1. "Ipni.org Site Info". Alexa Internet . Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  2. "Index Kewensis". International Plant Name Index. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  3. 1 2 Lughadha, Eimear Nic (29 April 2004). "Towards a working list of all known plant species". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 359 (1444): 681–687. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1446. PMC   1693359 . PMID   15253353 . Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  4. Croft, J.; Cross, N.; Hinchcliffe, S.; Lughadha, E. Nic; Stevens, P. F.; West, J. G.; Whitbread, G. (May 1999). "Plant Names for the 21st Century: The International Plant Names Index, a Distributed Data Source of General Accessibility". Taxon. 48 (2): 317. doi:10.2307/1224436. JSTOR   1224436.