Missouri Botanical Garden

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Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden - Seiwa-en.JPG
A view of Seiwa-en, the largest Japanese garden in North America
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Location St. Louis, Missouri
Coordinates 38°36′45″N90°15′35″W / 38.61250°N 90.25972°W / 38.61250; -90.25972 Coordinates: 38°36′45″N90°15′35″W / 38.61250°N 90.25972°W / 38.61250; -90.25972
Built1859
ArchitectMultiple
Architectural styleLate Victorian
NRHP reference No. 71001065 [1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPNovember 19, 1971
Designated NHLDDecember 8, 1976 [2]
A manicured garden of Victorian style plantings at the Missouri Botanical Garden Missouribotanicalgarden.jpg
A manicured garden of Victorian style plantings at the Missouri Botanical Garden
The Climatron greenhouse at the Missouri Botanical Garden simulates the climate of a rainforest for conservational and educational purposes. Climatron, Missouri Botanical Gardens.jpg
The Climatron greenhouse at the Missouri Botanical Garden simulates the climate of a rainforest for conservational and educational purposes.

The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri. It is also known informally as Shaw's Garden for founder and philanthropist Henry Shaw. Its herbarium, with more than 6.6 million specimens, [3] is the second largest in North America, behind that of the New York Botanical Garden. The Index Herbariorum code assigned to the herbarium is MO [4] and it is used when citing housed specimens.

Contents

History

The land that is currently the Missouri Botanical Garden was previously the land of businessman Henry Shaw.

Founded in 1859, the Missouri Botanical Garden is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States and a National Historic Landmark. It is also listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

In 1983, the botanical garden was added as the fourth subdistrict of the Metropolitan Zoological Park and Museum District.

Stereoscopic view of statuary and flowers at Shaw's Garden by Truman Ward Ingersoll Flowers and statuary, Shaw's Garden, St. Louis, by Ingersoll, T. W. (Truman Ward), 1862-1922.png
Stereoscopic view of statuary and flowers at Shaw's Garden by Truman Ward Ingersoll

The garden is a center for botanical research and science education of international repute, as well as an oasis in the city of St. Louis, with 79 acres (32 ha) of horticultural display. It includes a 14-acre (5.7 ha) Japanese strolling garden named Seiwa-en; the Climatron geodesic dome conservatory; a children's garden, including a pioneer village; a playground; a fountain area and a water locking system, somewhat similar to the locking system at the Panama Canal; an Osage camp; and Henry Shaw's original 1850 estate home. It is adjacent to Tower Grove Park, another of Shaw's legacies. [5]

For part of 2006, the Missouri Botanical Garden featured "Glass in the Garden", with glass sculptures by Dale Chihuly placed throughout the garden. Four pieces were purchased to remain at the gardens. In 2008 sculptures of the French artist Niki de Saint Phalle were placed throughout the garden. In 2009, the 150th anniversary of the garden was celebrated, including a floral clock display.

After 40 years of service to the garden, Dr. Peter Raven retired from his presidential post on September 1, 2010. Dr. Peter Wyse Jackson replaced him as President. [6]

Leaders of the garden

Cultural festivals

The garden is a place for many annual cultural festivals, such as the Japanese Festival and the Chinese Culture Days by the St. Louis Chinese Culture Days Committee. [7] During this time, there are showcases of the culture's botanics as well as cultural arts, crafts, music and food. The Japanese Festival features sumo wrestling, taiko drumming, koma-mawashi top spinning, and kimono fashion shows. The garden is known for its bonsai growing, which can be seen all year round but is highlighted during the multiple Asian festivals.

Gardens

Major garden features include:

Tower Grove House seen here behind a hedge maze Missouri Botanical Garden.jpg
Tower Grove House seen here behind a hedge maze

Douglas Trumbull, the director of the 1972 science fiction classic film Silent Running , stated that the geodesic domes on the spaceship Valley Forge were based on the Missouri Botanical Garden's Climatron dome. [8]

Butterfly House

Missouri Botanical Garden also operates the Sophia M. Sachs Butterfly House in Chesterfield. The Butterfly House includes an 8,000-square-foot (740 m2) indoor butterfly conservatory as well as an outdoor butterfly garden.

EarthWays Center

The EarthWays Center is a group at the Missouri Botanical Garden that provides resources on and educates the public about green practices, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and other sustainability matters. [9]

Shaw Nature Reserve

The Shaw Nature Reserve was started by the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1925 as a place to store plants away from the pollution of the city. The air in St. Louis later cleared up, and the reserve has continued to be open to the public for enjoyment, research, and education ever since. The 2,400-acre (9.7 km2) reserve is located in Gray Summit, Missouri, 35 miles (56 km) away from the city. [10]

The Plant List

The Plant List is an Internet encyclopedia project to compile a comprehensive list of botanical nomenclature, created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and the Missouri Botanical Garden. [11] The Plant List has 1,040,426 scientific plant names of species rank, of which 298,900 are accepted species names. In addition, the list has 620 plant families and 16,167 plant genera. [12]

Living Earth Collaborative

In September 2017 the Missouri Botanical Garden teamed up with the St. Louis Zoo and Washington University in St. Louis in a conservation effort known as the Living Earth Collaborative. [13] The collaborative, run by Washington University scientist Jonathan Losos, seeks to promote further understanding of the ways humans can help to preserve the varied natural environments that allow plants, animals and microbes to survive and thrive. [14]

Sponsorship

Monsanto had donated $10 million to the Missouri Botanical Garden since the 1970s, which named its 1998 plant science facility the "Monsanto Center". [15] The center has since been renamed to the "Bayer Center" following Monsanto's acquisition by Bayer. [16]

Publications

See also

Related Research Articles

Botanical garden Garden used for scientific study, conservation and public display

A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation, preservation and display of an especially wide range of plants, which are typically labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Most are at least partly open to the public, and may offer guided tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

New York Botanical Garden Botanical garden in the Bronx, New York

The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) is a botanical garden at Bronx Park in the Bronx, New York City. Established in 1891, it is located on a 250-acre (100 ha) site that contains a landscape with over one million living plants; the Enid A. Haupt Conservatory, a greenhouse containing several habitats; and the LuEsther T. Mertz Library, which contains one of the world's largest collections of botany-related texts. As of 2016, over a million people visit the New York Botanical Garden annually.

Herbarium Scientific collection of dried plants

A herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study.

Australian National Botanic Gardens Botanical garden in Acton, Canberra

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Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh Botanical garden in Edinburgh, Scotland

The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) is a scientific centre for the study of plants, their diversity and conservation, as well as a popular tourist attraction. Founded in 1670 as a physic garden to grow medicinal plants, today it occupies four sites across Scotland—Edinburgh, Dawyck, Logan and Benmore—each with its own specialist collection. The RBGE's living collection consists of more than 13,302 plant species, whilst the herbarium contains in excess of 3 million preserved specimens.

Climatron Geodesic dome greenhouse in St. Louis, MO

The Climatron is a greenhouse enclosed in a geodesic dome that is part of the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. Initiated by then Garden director Frits W. Went, the dome is the world's first completely air-conditioned greenhouse and the first geodesic dome to be enclosed in rigid Plexiglass (Perspex) panels. Completed in 1960, it was designed by T. C. Howard, of Synergetics, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina. The broad climatic range within the dome, which recreates a lowland rain forest, is achieved by sophisticated climate controls without using interior partitions.

Peter H. Raven American botanist

Peter Hamilton Raven is an American botanist and environmentalist, notable as the longtime director, now President Emeritus, of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

Arnold Arboretum Botanical garden in Boston, Massachusetts

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is a botanical research institution and free public park, located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale neighborhoods of Boston, Massachusetts. Established in 1872, it is the oldest public arboretum in North America. The landscape was designed by Charles Sprague Sargent and Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace. The Arnold Arboretum's collection of temperate trees, shrubs, and vines has a particular emphasis on the plants of the eastern United States and eastern Asia, where arboretum staff and colleagues are actively sourcing new material on plant collecting expeditions. The arboretum supports research in its landscape and in its Weld Hill Research Building.

Peter Wyse Jackson

Peter Sherlock Wyse Jackson is an Irish botanist and environmentalist. He is president of the Missouri Botanical Garden, and holder of the George Engelmann chair in botany at Washington University in St. Louis.

<i>Liatris aspera</i> Species of flowering plant

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<i>Eurybia macrophylla</i> Species of flowering plant

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Queensland Herbarium

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Kew Gardens Botanic garden in London, England

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National Herbarium of New South Wales Centre for plant research in Sydney, Australia

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<i>Petrorhagia saxifraga</i> Species of flowering plant

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References

  1. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
  2. "Missouri Botanical Garden". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
  3. "Herbarium". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  4. "Index Herbariorum". Steere Herbarium, New York Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  5. "National Register of Historic Places – Nomination Form" (PDF). Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  6. "MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN BOARD OF TRUSTEES APPOINTS DR. PETER WYSE JACKSON AS SUCCESSOR TO GARDEN PRESIDENT DR. PETER H. RAVEN" (PDF). Mobot.org. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  7. [ dead link ]
  8. Commentary accompanying the DVD release of the film Silent Running.
  9. "Conservation in Action: the EarthWays Center". Missouribotanicalgarden.org. Archived from the original on April 26, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  10. "Shaw Nature Reserve". Shawnature.org. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  11. "Discovery News: World's Largest Plants Database Assembled". News.discovery.com. December 29, 2010. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  12. CBC: US, British scientists draw up comprehensive list of world's known land plants [ dead link ]
  13. Jost, Ashley. "Washington U., St. Louis Zoo and Missouri Botanical Garden team up to tackle conservation". stltoday.com. Retrieved August 2, 2019.[ verification needed ]
  14. "Our Mission". Living Earth Collaborative. September 1, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2019.[ verification needed ]
  15. Press release Missouri Botanical Garden receives $3 million gift from Monsanto Company toward development of a World Flora Online. Missouri Botanical Garden, June 5, 2012
  16. No official announcements or press, but the difference can be seen on the Garden's website before and after Monsanto acquisition by Bayer (difference in name in caption for second photo); before: https://web.archive.org/web/20130822224927/https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/resources/herbarium.aspx , after: https://web.archive.org/web/20210604074747/https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/resources/herbarium.aspx .