Missouri Botanical Garden

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Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden Central Axis View Of The Climatron.jpg
View of the Missouri Botanical Garden Climatron from the Central Axis area in 2023.
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Location St. Louis, Missouri
Coordinates 38°36′45″N90°15′35″W / 38.61250°N 90.25972°W / 38.61250; -90.25972
Architectural styleLate Victorian
NRHP reference No. 71001065 [1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPNovember 19, 1971
Designated NHLDDecember 8, 1976 [2]
The Kresko Victorian Garden at the Missouri Botanical Garden, a highly manicured garden. Kresko Victorian Garden at the Missouri Botanical Garden.jpg
The Kresko Victorian Garden at the Missouri Botanical Garden, a highly manicured garden.
The Climatron greenhouse at the Missouri Botanical Garden simulates the climate of a rainforest for conservational and educational purposes. Climatron, Missouri Botanical Gardens.jpg
The Climatron greenhouse at the Missouri Botanical Garden simulates the climate of a rainforest for conservational and educational purposes.

The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri. It is also known informally as Shaw's Garden for founder and philanthropist Henry Shaw. Its herbarium, with more than 6.6 million specimens, [3] is the second largest in North America, behind that of the New York Botanical Garden. The Index Herbariorum code assigned to the herbarium is MO [4] and it is used when citing housed specimens.



The land that is currently the Missouri Botanical Garden was previously the land of businessman Henry Shaw.

Founded in 1859, the Missouri Botanical Garden is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States and a National Historic Landmark. It is also listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

In 1983, the botanical garden was added as the fourth subdistrict of the Metropolitan Zoological Park and Museum District.

Stereoscopic view of statuary and flowers at Shaw's Garden by Truman Ward Ingersoll Flowers and statuary, Shaw's Garden, St. Louis, by Ingersoll, T. W. (Truman Ward), 1862-1922.png
Stereoscopic view of statuary and flowers at Shaw's Garden by Truman Ward Ingersoll

The garden is a center for botanical research and science education of international repute, as well as an oasis in the city of St. Louis, with 79 acres (32 ha) of horticultural display. It includes a 14-acre (5.7 ha) Japanese strolling garden named Seiwa-en; the Climatron geodesic dome conservatory; a children's garden, including a pioneer village; a playground; a fountain area and a water locking system, somewhat similar to the locking system at the Panama Canal; an Osage camp; and Henry Shaw's original 1850 estate home. It is adjacent to Tower Grove Park, another of Shaw's legacies. [5]

For part of 2006, the Missouri Botanical Garden featured "Glass in the Garden", with glass sculptures by Dale Chihuly placed throughout the garden. Four pieces were purchased to remain at the gardens. In 2008 sculptures of the French artist Niki de Saint Phalle were placed throughout the garden. In 2009, the 150th anniversary of the garden was celebrated, including a floral clock display.

After 40 years of service to the garden, Dr. Peter Raven retired from his presidential post on September 1, 2010. Dr. Peter Wyse Jackson replaced him as President. [6]

In 2024, the Tower Grove House was added to the Underground Railroad Network to Freedom. Records show that in 1855, four people enslaved by Shaw escaped the house and crossed the Mississippi River with help from Mary Meachum. A woman, Esther, and her three children were captured immediately after crossing. Shaw placed a bounty on Jim Kennerly, who had escaped. [7]

Leaders of the garden

Cultural festivals

The garden is a place for many annual cultural festivals, such as the Japanese Festival and the Chinese Culture Days by the St. Louis Chinese Culture Days Committee. [8] During this time, there are showcases of the culture's botanics as well as cultural arts, crafts, music and food. The Japanese Festival features sumo wrestling, taiko drumming, koma-mawashi top spinning, and kimono fashion shows. The garden is known for its bonsai growing, which can be seen all year round but is highlighted during the multiple Asian festivals.


Major garden features include:

Tower Grove House seen here behind a hedge maze Missouri Botanical Garden.jpg
Tower Grove House seen here behind a hedge maze

Douglas Trumbull, the director of the 1972 science fiction classic film Silent Running , stated that the geodesic domes on the spaceship Valley Forge were based on the Missouri Botanical Garden's Climatron dome. [9]

Butterfly House

Missouri Botanical Garden also operates the Sophia M. Sachs Butterfly House in Chesterfield. The Butterfly House includes an 8,000-square-foot (740 m2) indoor butterfly conservatory as well as an outdoor butterfly garden.

EarthWays Center

The EarthWays Center is a group at the Missouri Botanical Garden that provides resources on and educates the public about green practices, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and other sustainability matters. [10]

Shaw Nature Reserve

The Shaw Nature Reserve was started by the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1925 as a place to store plants away from the pollution of the city. The air in St. Louis later cleared up, and the reserve has continued to be open to the public for enjoyment, research, and education ever since. The 2,400-acre (9.7 km2) reserve is located in Gray Summit, Missouri, 35 miles (56 km) away from the city. [11]

The Plant List

The Plant List is an Internet encyclopedia project to compile a comprehensive list of botanical nomenclature, created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and the Missouri Botanical Garden. [12] The Plant List has 1,040,426 scientific plant names of species rank, of which 298,900 are accepted species names. In addition, the list has 620 plant families and 16,167 plant genera. [13]

Living Earth Collaborative

In September 2017 the Missouri Botanical Garden teamed up with the St. Louis Zoo and Washington University in St. Louis in a conservation effort known as the Living Earth Collaborative. [14] The collaborative, run by Washington University scientist Jonathan Losos, seeks to promote further understanding of the ways humans can help to preserve the varied natural environments that allow plants, animals and microbes to survive and thrive. [15]


Monsanto had donated $10 million to the Missouri Botanical Garden since the 1970s, which named its 1998 plant science facility the Monsanto Center. [16] The center has since been renamed to the Bayer Center following Monsanto's acquisition by Bayer. [17]


See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Climatron</span> Geodesic dome greenhouse in St. Louis, MO

The Climatron is a greenhouse enclosed in a geodesic dome that is part of the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. Initiated by then Garden director Frits W. Went, the dome is the world's first completely air-conditioned greenhouse and the first geodesic dome to be enclosed in rigid Plexiglass (Perspex) panels. Completed in 1960, it was designed by T. C. Howard, of Synergetics, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina. The broad climatic range within the dome, which recreates a lowland rain forest, is achieved by sophisticated climate controls without using interior partitions.

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Tower Grove Park is a municipal park in St. Louis, Missouri. Located on the south side of the city, the elongated 289-acre (117 ha) park extends 1.6 miles (2.6 km) from Kingshighway Boulevard east to Grand Boulevard. The park’s predominately residential surroundings include the neighborhoods of Southwest Garden, Shaw, Tower Grove East, and Tower Grove South.

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Henry Shaw was a businessman, amateur botanist, and slave owner in St. Louis, MO when it was a gateway city to the West. His businesses supplied residents, pioneers and others. Having made his fortune, he was able to retire at age 40, pursue his interest in botany, and used much of his fortune in philanthropy. He is best known as the founder of the Missouri Botanical Garden, but he also donated the land to the city for Tower Grove Park and oversaw its development. He donated funds to several other city institutions as well.

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  1. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
  2. "Missouri Botanical Garden". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
  3. "Herbarium". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  4. "Index Herbariorum". Steere Herbarium, New York Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  5. "National Register of Historic Places – Nomination Form" (PDF). Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  7. Neman, Daniel (February 15, 2024). "Three St. Louis-area sites added to Underground Railroad program". STLtoday.com. Retrieved February 15, 2024.
  8. "ฝาก 20 รับ 200 ถอนไม่อั้น". Archived from the original on May 9, 2022. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  9. Commentary accompanying the DVD release of the film Silent Running.
  10. "Conservation in Action: the EarthWays Center". Missouribotanicalgarden.org. Archived from the original on April 26, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  11. "Shaw Nature Reserve". Shawnature.org. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  12. "Discovery News: World's Largest Plants Database Assembled". News.discovery.com. December 29, 2010. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  13. CBC: US, British scientists draw up comprehensive list of world's known land plants [ dead link ]
  14. Jost, Ashley (September 6, 2017). "Washington U., St. Louis Zoo and Missouri Botanical Garden team up to tackle conservation". stltoday.com. Retrieved August 2, 2019.[ verification needed ]
  15. "Our Mission". Living Earth Collaborative. September 1, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2019.[ verification needed ]
  16. Press release Missouri Botanical Garden receives $3 million gift from Monsanto Company toward development of a World Flora Online. Missouri Botanical Garden, June 5, 2012
  17. No official announcements or press, but the difference can be seen on the Garden's website before and after Monsanto acquisition by Bayer (difference in name in caption for second photo); before: https://web.archive.org/web/20130822224927/https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/resources/herbarium.aspx , after: https://web.archive.org/web/20210604074747/https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/resources/herbarium.aspx .