Missouri Botanical Garden

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Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden - Seiwa-en.JPG
A view of Seiwa-en, the largest Japanese garden in North America
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Location St. Louis, Missouri
Coordinates 38°36′45″N90°15′35″W / 38.61250°N 90.25972°W / 38.61250; -90.25972 Coordinates: 38°36′45″N90°15′35″W / 38.61250°N 90.25972°W / 38.61250; -90.25972
Built1859
ArchitectMultiple
Architectural styleLate Victorian
NRHP reference No. 71001065 [1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPNovember 19, 1971
Designated NHLDDecember 8, 1976 [2]
A manicured garden of Victorian style plantings at the Missouri Botanical Garden Missouribotanicalgarden.jpg
A manicured garden of Victorian style plantings at the Missouri Botanical Garden
The Climatron greenhouse at the Missouri Botanical Garden simulates the climate of a rainforest for conservational and educational purposes. Climatron, Missouri Botanical Gardens.jpg
The Climatron greenhouse at the Missouri Botanical Garden simulates the climate of a rainforest for conservational and educational purposes.

The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri. It is also known informally as Shaw's Garden for founder and philanthropist Henry Shaw. Its herbarium, with more than 6.6 million specimens, [3] is the second largest in North America, behind that of the New York Botanical Garden.

Contents

History

The land that is currently the Missouri Botanical Garden was previously the land of businessman Henry Shaw, a successful businessman and slave owner. In June 2020, the Missouri Botanical Garden shared a Facebook post with the names of some of Shaw's slaves who worked there: Peach, Juliette, Bridgette, Joseph, Jim, Sarah, Tabitha and her daughter Sarah, Ester and her children. [4]

Founded in 1859, the Missouri Botanical Garden is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States and a National Historic Landmark. It is also listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

In 1983, the botanical garden was added as the fourth subdistrict of the Metropolitan Zoological Park and Museum District.

Stereoscopic view of statuary and flowers at Shaw's Garden by Truman Ward Ingersoll Flowers and statuary, Shaw's Garden, St. Louis, by Ingersoll, T. W. (Truman Ward), 1862-1922.png
Stereoscopic view of statuary and flowers at Shaw's Garden by Truman Ward Ingersoll

The garden is a center for botanical research and science education of international repute, as well as an oasis in the city of St. Louis, with 79 acres (32 ha) of horticultural display. It includes a 14-acre (5.7 ha) Japanese strolling garden named Seiwa-en; the Climatron geodesic dome conservatory; a children's garden, including a pioneer village; a playground; a fountain area and a water locking system, somewhat similar to the locking system at the Panama Canal; an Osage camp; and Henry Shaw's original 1850 estate home. It is adjacent to Tower Grove Park, another of Shaw's legacies. [5]

For part of 2006, the Missouri Botanical Garden featured "Glass in the Garden", with glass sculptures by Dale Chihuly placed throughout the garden. Four pieces were purchased to remain at the gardens. In 2008 sculptures of the French artist Niki de Saint Phalle were placed throughout the garden. In 2009, the 150th anniversary of the garden was celebrated, including a floral clock display.

After 40 years of service to the garden, Dr. Peter Raven retired from his presidential post on September 1, 2010. Dr. Peter Wyse Jackson replaced him as President. [6]

Leaders of the garden

Cultural festivals

The garden is a place for many annual cultural festivals, such as the Japanese Festival and the Chinese Culture Days by the St. Louis Chinese Culture Days Committee. [7] During this time, there are showcases of the culture's botanics as well as cultural arts, crafts, music and food. The Japanese Festival features sumo wrestling, taiko drumming, koma-mawashi top spinning, and kimono fashion shows. The garden is known for its bonsai growing, which can be seen all year round but is highlighted during the multiple Asian festivals.

Gardens

Major garden features include:

Tower Grove House seen here behind a hedge maze Missouri Botanical Garden.jpg
Tower Grove House seen here behind a hedge maze

Douglas Trumbull, the director of the 1972 science fiction classic film Silent Running , stated that the geodesic domes on the spaceship Valley Forge were based on the Missouri Botanical Garden's Climatron dome. [8]

Butterfly House

Missouri Botanical Garden also operates the Sophia M. Sachs Butterfly House in Chesterfield. The Butterfly House includes an 8,000-square-foot (740 m2) indoor butterfly conservatory as well as an outdoor butterfly garden.

Earthways Center

The EarthWays Center is a group at the Missouri Botanical Garden that provides resources on and educates the public about green practices, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and other sustainability matters. [9]

Shaw Nature Reserve

The Shaw Nature Reserve was started by the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1925 as a place to store plants away from the pollution of the city. The air in St. Louis later cleared up, and the reserve has continued to be open to the public for enjoyment, research, and education ever since. The 2,400-acre (9.7 km2) reserve is located in Gray Summit, Missouri, 35 miles (56 km) away from the city. [10]

The Plant List

The Plant List is an Internet encyclopedia project to compile a comprehensive list of botanical nomenclature, created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and the Missouri Botanical Garden. [11] The Plant List has 1,040,426 scientific plant names of species rank, of which 298,900 are accepted species names. In addition, the list has 620 plant families and 16,167 plant genera. [12]

Living Earth Collaborative

In September 2017 the Missouri Botanical Garden teamed up with the St. Louis Zoo and Washington University in St. Louis in a conservation effort known as the Living Earth Collaborative. [13] The collaborative, run by Washington University scientist Jonathan Losos, seeks to promote further understanding of the ways humans can help to preserve the varied natural environments that allow plants, animals and microbes to survive and thrive. [14]

Sponsorship

Monsanto has donated $10 million to the Missouri Botanical Garden since the 1970s, which named its 1998 plant science facility the 'Monsanto Center'. [15]

Publications

See also

Related Research Articles

Shaw Nature Reserve Private nature reserve in Villa Ridge, Missouri, United States

Shaw Nature Reserve, formerly known as Shaw Arboretum, is a 2,400 acres (9.7 km2) private nature reserve located in Gray Summit, Missouri, that is operated as an extension of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

Montreal Botanical Garden botanical garden

The Montreal Botanical Garden is a large botanical garden in Montreal, Quebec, Canada comprising 75 hectares of thematic gardens and greenhouses. It was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 2008 as it is considered to be one of the most important botanical gardens in the world due to the extent of its collections and facilities.

Conservatory (greenhouse) greenhouse

A conservatory is a building or room having glass or tarpaulin roofing and walls used as a greenhouse or a sunroom. If in a residence, it would typically be attached to the house on only one side. Conservatories originated in the 16th century when wealthy landowners sought to cultivate citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges that began to appear on their dinner tables brought by traders from warmer regions of the Mediterranean. Municipal conservatories became popular in the early 19th century.

Climatron greenhouse enclosed in a geodesic dome that is part of the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis

The Climatron is a greenhouse enclosed in a geodesic dome that is part of the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. Initiated by then Garden director Frits W. Went, the dome is the world's first completely air-conditioned greenhouse and the first geodesic dome to be enclosed in rigid Plexiglass (Perspex) panels. Completed in 1960, it was designed by T. C. Howard, of Synergetics, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina. The broad climatic range within the dome, which recreates a lowland rain forest, is achieved by sophisticated climate controls without using interior partitions.

Peter H. Raven American botanist

Peter Hamilton Raven is an American botanist and environmentalist, notable as the longtime director, now President Emeritus, of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

Tower Grove Park United States historic place

Tower Grove Park is a municipal park in the city of St. Louis, Missouri. Most of its land was donated to the city by Henry Shaw in 1868. It is on 289 acres (1.17 km²) adjacent to the Missouri Botanical Garden, another of Shaw's legacies. It extends 1.6 miles (2.6 km) from west to east, between Kingshighway Boulevard and Grand Boulevard. It is bordered on the north by Magnolia Avenue and on the south by Arsenal Street.

United States National Arboretum United States historic place

The United States National Arboretum is an arboretum in northeast Washington, D.C., operated by the United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service. It was established in 1927 by an act of Congress after a campaign by USDA Chief Botanist Frederick Vernon Coville.

Frits Warmolt Went Dutch botanist (1903-1990)

Frits Warmolt Went was a Dutch biologist whose 1928 experiment demonstrated the existence of auxin in plants.

Sonnenberg Gardens United States historic place

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Peter Wyse Jackson Irish botanist

Dr. Peter Sherlock Wyse Jackson was born (1955) in Kilkenny, Ireland, and is a graduate of Trinity College Dublin in Biology, with whose botanic gardens he was associated. His father, Robert Wyse Jackson, was Bishop of Limerick and Dean of Cashel. His brother Patrick, born 1960 in Cashel, Tipperary, Ireland, is an Associate Professor in Geology and Fellow of Trinity College Dublin.

Bayer Insectarium

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Seiwa-en park

Seiwa-en is a Japanese strolling garden located in the Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, Missouri, in the Midwestern United States. At 5 ha, it is the largest such garden in North America. It features a large lake, modest traditional buildings, bridges, islands, carp, dry gravel landscaping, and other symbolic features. Planning for the garden began in 1972, and it was dedicated in May 1977.

<i>Buddleja davidii</i> Species of plant

Buddleja davidii, also called summer lilac, butterfly-bush, or orange eye, is a species of flowering plant in the family Scrophulariaceae, native to Sichuan and Hubei provinces in central China, and also Japan. It is widely used as an ornamental plant, and many named varieties are in cultivation. B. davidii is named after the French missionary and explorer in China, Father Armand David, who was the first European to report the shrub. It was found near Ichang by Dr Augustine Henry about 1887 and sent to St Petersburg. Another botanist-missionary in China, Jean-André Soulié, sent seed to the French nursery Vilmorin, and B. davidii entered commerce in the 1890s.

Norfolk Botanical Garden Botanical garden in Norfolk, Virginia

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Continental Life Building building in St. Louis, Missouri, United States

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An insectarium is a live insect zoo, or a museum or exhibit of live insects. Insectariums often display a variety of insects and similar arthropods, such as spiders, beetles, cockroaches, ants, bees, millipedes, centipedes, crickets, grasshoppers, stick insects, scorpions, and mantids. Displays can focus on learning about insects, types of insects, their habitats, why they are important, and the work of entomologists, arachnologists, and other scientists that study terrestrial arthropods and similar animals.

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Oaklawn Garden Botanical garden, park, local history museum in Germantown, Tennessee

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References

  1. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
  2. "Missouri Botanical Garden". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
  3. "Herbarium". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  4. "On Juneteenth, Missouri Botanical Garden lists names of slaves owned by Henry Shaw". KMOV.com. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  5. "National Register of Historic Places – Nomination Form" (PDF). Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  6. "MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN BOARD OF TRUSTEES APPOINTS DR. PETER WYSE JACKSON AS SUCCESSOR TO GARDEN PRESIDENT DR. PETER H. RAVEN" (PDF). Mobot.org. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  7. [ dead link ]
  8. Commentary accompanying the DVD release of the film Silent Running.
  9. "Conservation in Action: the EarthWays Center". Missouribotanicalgarden.org. Archived from the original on April 26, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  10. "Shaw Nature Reserve". Shawnature.org. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  11. "Discovery News: World's Largest Plants Database Assembled". News.discovery.com. December 29, 2010. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  12. CBC: US, British scientists draw up comprehensive list of world's known land plants [ dead link ]
  13. Jost, Ashley. "Washington U., St. Louis Zoo and Missouri Botanical Garden team up to tackle conservation". stltoday.com. Retrieved August 2, 2019.[ verification needed ]
  14. "Our Mission". Living Earth Collaborative. September 1, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2019.[ verification needed ]
  15. Press release Missouri Botanical Garden receives $3 million gift from Monsanto Company toward development of a World Flora Online. Missouri Botanical Garden, June 5, 2012