Ecocrop

Last updated
Ecocrop
Producer Food and Agriculture Organization (Italy)
LanguagesEnglish
Access
Cost Open access
Coverage
Disciplines Plant taxonomy
Geospatial coverageall regions
No. of records2,300
Links

Ecocrop was a database used to determine the suitability of a crop for a specified environment. [1] Developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) it provided information predicting crop viability in different locations and climatic conditions. [2] It also served as a catalog of plants and plant growth characteristics. [3]

Contents

History

Ecocrop first emerged in 1991 after planning and initial expert consultancies were completed concerning the development of a database. [4] This system was developed by the Land and Water Development Division of FAO (AGLL) and was launched in 1992. [4] The goal was to create a tool that can identify plant species for given environments and uses, and as an information system contributing to a Land Use Planning concept. [4] In 1994, the Ecocrop database already permitted the identification of more than 1,700 crops and 12-20 environment requirements covering all of the agro-ecological settings of the world. [4] Succeeding iterations of the database from 1998 to 1999 mainly involved improvements to the user interface. By the year 2000, the database included 2,000 species and 10 additional descriptors. [4] This number was later expanded with the addition of 300 crop species. [4]

As of February 2020 the Ecocrop database hosted at fao.org is not accessible.

The Ecocrop model

Koppen Map (Asia) Asia Koppen Map.png
Köppen Map (Asia)

The Ecocrop model determines a crop's suitability to a location by evaluating different variables. [5] Specifically, the plant descriptors include category, life form, growth habit, and life span while environmental descriptors include temperature, precipitation, light intensity, Köppen climate classification, photoperiodism, latitude, altitude, and other soil characteristics. [6] The crop database is particularly useful if there is no alternative but to use environmental ranges. [7] Once these inputs are determined, the system produces a suitability index as a percentage. [8] The suitability index score is generated from 0 to 1 with the former indicating totally unsuitable while the latter indicates optimal or excellent suitability. [5] The output also include separated suitability values for temperature and precipitation. [8]

As a prediction model, the Ecocrop algorithm yields data that are more generic than those produced by other models such as DOMAIN and BIOCLIM. [7] The information is generic with respect to the nature of the requirements and is attributed to the lack of information concerning specific crops. [9] Another limitation is that the results depend solely on bioclimatic factors and discounts other variables such as soil requirements, pests, and diseases. [2]

Ecocrop evaluates whether climatic conditions are adequate within a growing season for temperature and precipitation every month. [10] It involves the calculation of climatic suitability based on rainfall and temperature marginal and optimal ranges. [10]

Other uses

Aside from serving as a plant identifier, Ecocrop is also used for other purposes. For instance, it can assess the influence of future climate change on crop suitability. [5] It can also be used to project crop yields using the database's information on optimal and absolute crop growing conditions (minimum temperature, maximum temperature, precipitation values, values that define temperature and precipitation extremes). [11]

Related Research Articles

Agriculture Cultivation of plants and animals to provide useful products

Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first.

Arable land Land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops

Arable land is any land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops. Alternatively, for the purposes of agricultural statistics, the term often has a more precise definition: "Arable land is the land under temporary agricultural crops, temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow. The abandoned land resulting from shifting cultivation is not included in this category. Data for 'Arable land' are not meant to indicate the amount of land that is potentially cultivable." A more concise definition appearing in the Eurostat glossary similarly refers to actual rather than potential uses: "land worked regularly, generally under a system of crop rotation".

Climate Statistics of weather conditions in a given region over long periods

Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. Some of the meteorological variables that are commonly measured are temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, and precipitation. In a broader sense, climate is the state of the components of the climate system, which includes the ocean and ice on Earth. The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents.

Drought extended period when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply

A drought or drouth is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and harm to the local economy. Annual dry seasons in the tropics significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour.

Climate change and agriculture Climate changes effects on agriculture

Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale. Global warming affects agriculture in a number of ways, including through changes in average temperatures, rainfall, and climate extremes ; changes in pests and diseases; changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and ground-level ozone concentrations; changes in the nutritional quality of some foods; and changes in sea level.

Evapotranspiration biophysicogeochemical process

Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies. Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves. Evapotranspiration is an important part of the water cycle. An element that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an evapotranspirator.

Food security is a measure of the availability of food and individuals' ability to access it. Affordability is only one factor. There is evidence of food security being a concern many thousands of years ago, with central authorities in ancient China and ancient Egypt being known to release food from storage in times of famine. At the 1974 World Food Conference the term "food security" was defined with an emphasis on supply. They said food security is the "availability at all times of adequate, nourishing, diverse, balanced and moderate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuations in production and prices". Later definitions added demand and access issues to the definition. The final report of the 1996 World Food Summit states that food security "exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life."

<i>Vigna subterranea</i> Species of plant

Vigna subterranea is a member of the family Fabaceae. The plant originated in West Africa. Vigna subterranea ripens its pods underground, much like the peanut. They can be eaten fresh or boiled after drying.

Environmental degradation deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution

Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. As indicated by the I=PAT equation, environmental impact (I) or degradation is caused by the combination of an already very large and increasing human population (P), continually increasing economic growth or per capita affluence (A), and the application of resource-depleting and polluting technology (T).

<i>Chenopodium pallidicaule</i> Species of plant

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International Water Management Institute organization

The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia. Research at the Institute focuses on improving how water and land resources are managed, with the aim of underpinning food security and reducing poverty while safeguarding vital environmental processes.

Tropical agriculture agriculture in the tropics

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Soil salinity control

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Species distribution modelling

Species distribution modelling (SDM), also known as environmental(or ecological) niche modelling (ENM), habitat modelling, predictive habitat distribution modelling, and range mapping uses computer algorithms to predict the distribution of a species across geographic space and time using environmental data. The environmental data are most often climate data, but can include other variables such as soil type, water depth, and land cover. SDMs are used in several research areas in conservation biology, ecology and evolution. These models can be used to understand how environmental conditions influence the occurrence or abundance of a species, and for predictive purposes. Predictions from an SDM may be of a species’ future distribution under climate change, a species’ past distribution in order to assess evolutionary relationships, or the potential future distribution of an invasive species. Predictions of current and/or future habitat suitability can be useful for management applications.

Agriculture in Moldova

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Climate change and invasive species increase of invasive organisms caused by climate change

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References

  1. "FAO Ecocrop". ECHOcommunity.org. Retrieved 2019-06-21.
  2. 1 2 Robyn, Johnston; Hoanh, Chu Tai; Lacombe, Guillaume; Lefroy, Rod; Pavelic, Paul; Fry, Carolyn (2012). Improving water use in rainfed agriculture in the Greater Mekong Subregion.: Summary report. [Summary report of the Project report prepared by IWMI for Swedish International Development Agency (Sida)]. Stockholm: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). p. 14. ISBN   9789290907480.
  3. Organization, World Meteorological (2005). Monitoring and Predicting Agricultural Drought: A Global Study . New York: Oxford University Press, USA. pp.  287. ISBN   9780195162349.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Credits". ecocrop.fao.org. Retrieved 2019-06-21.
  5. 1 2 3 Rosenstock, Todd S.; Nowak, Andreea; Girvetz, Evan (2018). The Climate-Smart Agriculture Papers: Investigating the Business of a Productive, Resilient and Low Emission Future. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Open. p. 41. ISBN   9783319927978.
  6. "Crop Ecological Requirements Database (ECOCROP) | Land & Water | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Land & Water | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
  7. 1 2 Filho, Walter Leal (2011). The Economic, Social and Political Elements of Climate Change. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media. p. 708. ISBN   9783642147753.
  8. 1 2 Hope, Elizabeth Thomas (2017). Climate Change and Food Security: Africa and the Caribbean. Oxon: Routledge. p. 61. ISBN   9781138204270.
  9. Ponce-Hernandez, Raul; Koohafkan, Parviz; Antoine, Jacques (2004). Assessing Carbon Stocks and Modelling Win-win Scenarios of Carbon Sequestration Through Land-use Changes. Rome: FAO. p. 61. ISBN   9789251051580.
  10. 1 2 Yadav, Shyam Singh; Redden, Robert J.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Hall, Anthony J. W. (2011). Crop Adaptation to Climate Change . Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. pp.  358. ISBN   9780813820163.
  11. Millington, James D. A.; Wainwright, John (2018-09-27). Agent-Based Modelling and Landscape Change. Basel: MDPI. p. 69. ISBN   9783038422808.