Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera

Last updated
Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
IRMNG logo.png
AbbreviationIRMNG
Formation2006 (2006)
Headquarters Ostend, Belgium
Manager & curator
Tony Rees
Main organ
Website
Parent organization
Flanders Marine Institute
Website www.irmng.org OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera (IRMNG) is a taxonomic database which attempts to cover published genus names for all domains of life from 1753 in zoology (1758 in botany) up to approximately 2014, arranged in a single, internally consistent taxonomic hierarchy, for the benefit Biodiversity Informatics initiatives plus general users of biodiversity (taxonomic) information. In addition to containing over 490,000 published genus name instances as at March 2019 (also including subgeneric names in zoology), the database holds over 1.7 million species names (1.3 million listed as "accepted"), although this component of the data is not maintained in as current or complete state as the genus-level holdings. IRMNG can be queried online for access to the latest version of the dataset and is also made available as periodic snapshots or data dumps for import/upload into other systems as desired.

A taxonomic database is a database created to hold information related to biological taxa - for example groups of organisms organized by species name or other taxonomic identifier - for efficient data management and information retrieval as required. Today, taxonomic databases are routinely used for the automated construction of biological checklists such as floras and faunas, both for print publication and online; to underpin the operation of web based species information systems; as a part of biological collection management ; as well as providing, in some cases, the taxon management component of broader science or biology information systems. They are also a fundamental contribution to the discipline of biodiversity informatics.

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Contents

Description

IRMNG contains scientific names (only) of the genus, species, and higher ranks of many plants, animals and other kingdoms, both living and extinct, within a standardized taxonomic hierarchy, with associated machine-readable information on habitat (e.g. marine/nonmarine) and extant/fossil status for the majority of entries. [1] The database aspires to provide complete coverage of both accepted and unaccepted genus names across all kingdoms, with a subset only of species names included as a lower priority. In its March 2019 release, IRMNG contained 490,095 genus names, of which 236,514 were listed as "accepted", 120,194 "unaccepted", 7,391 of "other" status i.e. interim unpublished, nomen dubium, nomen nudum, taxon inquirendum or temporary name, and 125,996 as "uncertain" (unassessed for taxonomic status at this time). [2] The data originate from a range of (frequently domain-specific) print, online and database sources, including (among others) Nomenclator Zoologicus for animals and Index Nominum Genericorum for plants, and are reorganised into a common data structure to support a variety of online queries, generation of individual taxon pages, and bulk data supply to other biodiversity informatics projects. IRMNG content can be queried and displayed freely via the web, and download files of the data down to the taxonomic rank of genus as at specific dates are available in the Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) format. The data include homonyms (with their authorities), including both available (validly published) and selected unavailable names. [3]

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.

In biology, kingdom is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain. Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla.

Marine habitats A habitat that supports marine life

Marine habitats are habitats that support marine life. Marine life depends in some way on the saltwater that is in the sea. A habitat is an ecological or environmental area inhabited by one or more living species. The marine environment supports many kinds of these habitats.

Database location and hosting

IRMNG was initiated and designed by Tony Rees in 2006. [1] [4] For his work on this and other projects, GBIF awarded him the 2014 Ebbe Nielsen Prize. [4] From 2006-2014 IRMNG was located at CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, and was moved to the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) over the period 2014-2016; from 2016 onwards all releases have been available via its new website www.irmng.org which is hosted by VLIZ. [1] [5] VLIZ also hosts the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), using a common infrastructure. [6]

The Ebbe Nielsen Prize was an international science award made annually between 2002 and 2014 by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), to recognize a researcher who had made substantial contributions to the field of biodiversity informatics. The prize was established in memory of prominent entomologist and biodiversity informatics proponent Ebbe Nielsen, who died of a heart attack in the U.S.A. en route to the 2001 GBIF Governing Board meeting.

CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere A unit of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation of Australia

CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere (O&A) is one of the current 8 Business Units of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia's largest government-supported science research agency.

Flanders Marine Institute Organization in Flanders, northern Belgium that supports marine research

The Flanders Marine Institute provides a focal point for marine scientific research in Flanders, northern Belgium.

IRMNG usage

Content from IRMNG is used by several global Biodiversity Informatics projects including Open Tree of Life, [7] the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), [8] and the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), [9] in addition to others including the Atlas of Living Australia [10] and the Global Names Architecture (GNA)'s Global Names Resolver. [11] From 2018 onwards, IRMNG data are also being used to populate the taxonomic hierarchy and provide generic names for a range of taxa in the areas of protists (kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista) and plant algae (Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Glaucophyta and Rhodophyta) in the Catalogue of Life. [12] IRMNG identifiers have also been associated with numerous Wikipedia taxon pages, based on content harvested from IRMNG and stored in Wikidata. [13]

Open Tree of Life

The Open Tree of Life is an online phylogenetic tree of life – a collaborative effort, funded by the National Science Foundation. The first draft, including 2.3 million species, was released in September 2015. The Interactive graph allows the user to zoom in to taxonomic classifications, phylogenetic trees, and information about a node. Clicking on a species will return its source and reference taxonomy.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility aggregator of scientific data on biodiversity; data portal

The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet using web services. The data are provided by many institutions from around the world; GBIF's information architecture makes these data accessible and searchable through a single portal. Data available through the GBIF portal are primarily distribution data on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes for the world, and scientific names data.

<i>Encyclopedia of Life</i> collaborative project intended to create an encyclopedia documenting all living species known to science

The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science. It is compiled from existing databases and from contributions by experts and non-experts throughout the world. It aims to build one "infinitely expandable" page for each species, including video, sound, images, graphics, as well as text. In addition, the Encyclopedia incorporates content from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, which digitizes millions of pages of printed literature from the world's major natural history libraries. The project was initially backed by a US$50 million funding commitment, led by the MacArthur Foundation and the Sloan Foundation, who provided US$20 million and US$5 million, respectively. The additional US$25 million came from five cornerstone institutions—the Field Museum, Harvard University, the Marine Biological Laboratory, the Missouri Botanical Garden, and the Smithsonian Institution. The project was initially led by Jim Edwards and the development team by David Patterson. Today, participating institutions and individual donors continue to support EOL through financial contributions.

Example IRMNG searches

IRMNG can be searched online via either basic ("simple") or "advanced" interfaces (http://www.irmng.org/aphia.php?p=search, http://www.irmng.org/aphia.php?p=search&adv=1). Basic search operates on all or any portion of scientific name, authority, or IRMNG ID (=unique numeric taxon identifier in the system), plus options to restrict only to accepted, extant, and/or marine taxa, plus generic names only, while the advanced search offers numerous additional options including the ability to constrain to a particular higher taxonomic category, show fuzzy matches, and more. Once configured, a particular IRMNG search can also be saved as a direct link which can be repeated at any time, as per the following examples:

1. Using the basic search interface:

2. Using the advanced search interface:

Related Research Articles

Tepuihyla is a genus of frogs in the family Hylidae found in mountains of eastern and southeastern Venezuela and Guyana, and likely in adjacent Brazil. A tepui is a table-top mountain characteristic of the Guiana Highlands.

<i>Pelophryne</i> genus of amphibians

Pelophryne is a genus of true toads, family Bufonidae. The genus occurs in the Philippines, Borneo, Malaya including Singapore, and Hainan (China). Molecular data suggest that Pelophryne is the sister taxon of Ansonia.

Biodiversity Informatics is the application of informatics techniques to biodiversity information for improved management, presentation, discovery, exploration and analysis. It typically builds on a foundation of taxonomic, biogeographic, or ecological information stored in digital form, which, with the application of modern computer techniques, can yield new ways to view and analyse existing information, as well as predictive models for information that does not yet exist. Biodiversity informatics is a relatively young discipline but has hundreds of practitioners worldwide, including the numerous individuals involved with the design and construction of taxonomic databases. The term "Biodiversity Informatics" is generally used in the broad sense to apply to computerized handling of any biodiversity information; the somewhat broader term "bioinformatics" is often used synonymously with the computerized handling of data in the specialized area of molecular biology.

Leptomitales are an order of water moulds within the class Oomycetes that contains the genus Apodachlya.

Ocean Biogeographic Information System

The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) is a web-based access point to information about the distribution and abundance of living species in the ocean. It was developed as the information management component of the ten year Census of Marine Life (CoML) (2001-2010), but is not limited to CoML-derived data, and aims to provide an integrated view of all marine biodiversity data that may be made available to it on an open access basis by respective data custodians. According to its web site as at July 2018, OBIS "is a global open-access data and information clearing-house on marine biodiversity for science, conservation and sustainable development." 8 specific objectives are listed in the OBIS site, of which the leading item is to "Provide [the] world's largest scientific knowledge base on the diversity, distribution and abundance of all marine organisms in an integrated and standardized format".

Ebriid order of protists

The Ebridea is a group of phagotrophic flagellate eukaryotes present in marine coastal plankton communities worldwide. Ebria tripartita is one of two described extant species in the Ebridea.
Members of this group are named for their idiosyncratic method of movement.

Catalogue of Life Online database and index of taxa

The Catalogue of Life is an online database that provides the world's most comprehensive and authoritative index of known species of animals, plants, fungi and micro-organisms. It was created in 2001 as a partnership between the global Species 2000 and the American Integrated Taxonomic Information System. The Catalogue interface is available in twelve languages and is used by research scientists, citizen scientists, educators, and policy makers. The Catalogue is also used by the Biodiversity Heritage Library, the Barcode of Life Data System, Encyclopedia of Life, and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. The Catalogue currently compiles data from 168 peer-reviewed taxonomic databases, that are maintained by specialist institutions around the world. As of 2019, the Catalogue lists 1,837,565 of the world's 2.2m extant species known to taxonomists on the planet at present time.

The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a taxonomic database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms.

Parechelus is an extinct genus of prehistoric bony fish that lived during the Ypresian. The genus was circumscribed by Edgard Casier in 1967 for his description of P. Parechelus.

Plazi is a Swiss-based international non-profit association supporting and promoting the development of persistent and openly accessible digital bio-taxonomic literature. Plazi is maintaining a digital taxonomic literature repository to enable archiving of taxonomic treatments, enhances submitted taxonomic treatments by creating version in the XML formats TaxonX and Taxpub, and educates about the importance of maintaining open access to scientific discourse and data. It is a contributor to the evolving e-taxonomy in the field of Biodiversity Informatics.

AquaMaps

AquaMaps is a collaborative project with the aim of producing computer-generated predicted global distribution maps for marine species on a 0.5 x 0.5 degree grid of the oceans based on data available through online species databases such as FishBase and SeaLifeBase and species occurrence records from OBIS or GBIF and using an environmental envelope model in conjunction with expert input. The underlying model represents a modified version of the relative environmental suitability (RES) model developed by Kristin Kaschner to generate global predictions of marine mammal occurrences.

AnimalBase is a project brought to life in 2004 and is maintained by the University of Göttingen, Germany. The goal of the AnimalBase project is to digitize early zoological literature, provide copyright-free open access to zoological works, and provide manually verified lists of names of zoological genera and species as a free resource for the public. AnimalBase contributed to opening up the classical taxonomic literature, which is considered as useful because access to early literature can be difficult for researchers who need the old sources for their taxonomic research.

Cloacina is a genus of parasitic nematodes in the family Chabertiidae. Species are parasites of marsupials in Australia.

Cataloipus cognatus is a species of grasshopper in the family Acrididae. It is found in Asia and Africa.

<i>Oncostele</i> genus of plants

Oncostele, abbreviated Ons., is a hybrid genus of orchids, used for greges containing at least one ancestor species from the genera Oncidium (Onc.) and Rhynchostele (Rst.). The nothogenus was defined in 2003 by J. M. H. Shaw.

<i>Nomenclator Zoologicus</i>

Nomenclator Zoologicus is one of the major compendia in the field of zoological nomenclature, compiled by Sheffield Airey Neave and his successors and published in 9 volumes over the period 1939–1994, under the auspices of the Zoological Society of London; a tenth, electronic-only volume was also produced before the project ceased. It contains over 340,000 published name instances with their authorities and details of their original publication, certain nomenclatural notes and cross references, and an indication of the taxonomic group to which each is assigned. An electronic (digitised) version of volumes 1-10 was released online by the uBio project, based at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, in 2004–2005.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "IRMNG - Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera". IRMNG. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  2. "IRMNG - Download". IRMNG. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  3. "IRMNG: Homonyms". IRMNG. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  4. 1 2 "CSIRO's Tony Rees named 2014 Ebbe Nielsen Prize winner". GBIF . Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  5. "The Interim Register for Marine and Nonmarine Genera (IRMNG) will move from CSIRO to VLIZ". marinespecies.org. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  6. "Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera (IRMNG)". Lifewatch regional portal. LifeWatch . Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  7. Open Tree of Life developers. "Taxonomy release ott3.0 -". Open Tree of Life . Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  8. "The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera". GBIF. 2018. doi:10.15468/6tkudz . Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  9. "IRMNG". Encyclopedia of Life. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018.
  10. "AtlasOfLivingAustralia/ala-name-matching". Atlas of Living Australia . Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  11. "Global Names Resolver: Names Data Sources" . Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  12. "IRMNG". Catalogue of Life . Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  13. Wikidata: IRMNG ID (P5055)

Further reading