|Trade names||Clotam, Clotan, Tufnil|
|AHFS/Drugs.com||International Drug Names|
| Routes of|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||261.71 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Tolfenamic acid (Clotam, Tufnil) is a member of the anthranilic acid derivatives (or fenamate) class of NSAID drugs discovered by scientists at Medica Pharmaceutical Company in Finland.Like other members of the class, it is a COX inhibitor and prevents formation of prostaglandins.
It is used in the UK as a treatment for migraine.It is generally not available in the US. It is available in some Asian, Latin American and European countries as a generic drug for humans and for animals.
In nutrition, biology, and chemistry, fat usually means any ester of fatty acids, or a mixture of such compounds, most commonly those that occur in living beings or in food.
Ketoprofen is one of the propionic acid class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic effects. It acts by inhibiting the body's production of prostaglandin.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are members of a therapeutic drug class which reduces pain, decreases inflammation, decreases fever, and prevents blood clots. Side effects depend on the specific drug, its dose and duration of use, but largely include an increased risk of gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeds, heart attack, and kidney disease.
Sumatriptan, sold commonly under brand names Imitrex and Treximet among others, is a medication used to treat migraine headaches and cluster headaches. It is taken orally, intranasally, or by subcutaneous injection. Therapeutic effects generally occur within three hours.
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic agent which is used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant. It was commonly used in prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. In veterinary medicine, it is used to control urinary incontinence in dogs.
Bromocriptine, originally marketed as Parlodel and subsequently under many brand names, is an ergoline derivative and dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors, Parkinson's disease, hyperprolactinaemia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and, as an adjunct, type 2 diabetes.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine. It oxidizes small foreign organic molecules (xenobiotics), such as toxins or drugs, so that they can be removed from the body. It is highly homologous to CYP3A5, another important CYP3A enzyme.
Mefenamic acid is a member of the anthranilic acid derivatives class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and is used to treat mild to moderate pain.
Doxylamine, sold under the brand name Unisom among others, is an antihistamine medication which is used in the treatment of insomnia and allergies. In combination with pyridoxine (vitamin B6), it is also used to treat morning sickness in pregnant women. Doxylamine is available over-the-counter, and is used in nighttime cold medicines, such as NyQuil, as well as in pain medications containing acetaminophen and codeine, to help with sleep. The medication is taken by mouth.
Insulin glargine sold under the brand name Lantus among others is a long-acting modified form of medical insulin, used in the management of type I and type II diabetes. It is injected just under the skin. Effects generally begin an hour after use.
Exenatide, sold under the brand name Byetta and Bydureon among others, is a medication used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2. It is used together with diet, exercise, and potentially other antidiabetic medication. It is a treatment option after metformin and sulfonylureas. It is given by injection under the skin twice daily or once weekly.
Cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C member 9 is an enzyme protein. The enzyme is involved in metabolism, by oxidation, of both xenobiotics, including drugs, and endogenous compounds, including fatty acids. In humans, the protein is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene. The gene is highly polymorphic, which affects the efficiency of the metabolism by the enzyme.
Cytochrome P450 2C19 is an enzyme protein. It is a member of the CYP2C subfamily of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system. This subfamily includes enzymes that catalyze metabolism of xenobiotics, including some proton pump inhibitors and antiepileptic drugs. In humans, it is the CYP2C19 gene that encodes the CYP2C19 protein. CYP2C19 is a liver enzyme that acts on at least 10% of drugs in current clinical use, most notably the antiplatelet treatment clopidogrel (Plavix), drugs that treat pain associated with ulcers, such as omeprazole, antiseizure drugs such as mephenytoin, the antimalarial proguanil, and the anxiolytic diazepam.
Cytochrome P4502C8 (CYP2C8) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. Cytochrome P4502C8 also possesses epoxygenase activity, i.e. it metabolizes long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g. arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and Linoleic acid to their biologically active epoxides.
Anthranilic acid is an aromatic acid with the formula C6H4(NH2)(CO2H) and has a sweetish taste. The molecule consists of a benzene ring, ortho-substituted with a carboxylic acid and an amine. As a result of containing both acidic and basic functional groups, the compound is amphoteric. Anthranilic acid is a white solid when pure, although commercial samples may appear yellow. The anion [C6H4(NH2)(CO2)]−, obtained by the deprotonation of anthranilic acid, is called anthranilate. Anthranilic acid was once thought to be a vitamin and was referred to as vitamin L1 in that context, but it is now known to be non-essential in human nutrition.
Meclofenamic acid is a drug used for joint, muscular pain, arthritis and dysmenorrhea. It is a member of the anthranilic acid derivatives class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and was approved by the US FDA in 1980. Like other members of the class, it is a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, preventing the formation of prostaglandins.
Flufenamic acid (FFA) is a member of the anthranilic acid derivatives class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Like other members of the class, it is a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, preventing the formation of prostaglandins. FFA is known to bind to and reduce the activity of prostaglandin F synthase and activate TRPC6.
Fenamic acid is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate. serves as a parent structure for several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.
Tachykinin receptor 3, also known as TACR3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TACR3 gene.
ChEMBL or ChEMBLdb is a manually curated chemical database of bioactive molecules with drug inducing properties. It is maintained by the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), based at the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK.