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Smoked, Insufflated, Oral
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Legal status
  • 2-(5-Methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine
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PubChem CID
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Chemical and physical data
Formula C13H18N2O
Molar mass 218.300 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • COc2ccc1[nH]cc(CCN(C)C)c1c2
  • InChI=1S/C13H18N2O/c1-15(2)7-6-10-9-14-13-5-4-11(16-3)8-12(10)13/h4-5,8-9,14H,6-7H2,1-3H3 Yes check.svgY
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Colorado River toad Bufo alvarius1.jpg
Colorado River toad

5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) or O-methyl-bufotenin is a psychedelic of the tryptamine class. It is found in a wide variety of plant species, and also is secreted by the glands of at least one toad species, the Colorado River toad. Like its close relatives DMT and bufotenin (5-HO-DMT), it has been used as an entheogen in South America. [1] Slang terms include Five-methoxy, the power, bufo, and toad venom. [2]



5-MeO-DMT was first synthesized in 1936, and in 1959 it was isolated as one of the psychoactive ingredients of Anadenanthera peregrina seeds used in preparing Yopo snuff. It was once believed to be a major component of the psychoactive effects of the snuff, although this has recently been shown to be unlikely, due to the limited or sometimes even non-existent quantity contained within the seeds, which instead achieve their psychoactivity from the O-demethylated metabolite of 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenin. [3] [4] It is metabolized mainly by CYP2D6. [4]


Depending on whether smoked or insufflated, total duration of experience can last between 10 minutes for the former, or up to 2 hours for the latter. Effects vary and can range from radical perspective shifting and perception of new insights, euphoria, immersive experiences, dissociation and non-responsiveness, sensual/erotic enhancement, to dysphoria, fear, terror, and panic. [5] [ better source needed ]


It has anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects. [6] [7]

Religious use

The Church of the Tree of Life, founded in California in 1971 by John Mann but now defunct, declared the use of 5-MeO-DMT to be a sacrament. From approximately 1971 to the late 1980s, 5-MeO-DMT was discreetly available to its members. [8] [9] Between 1970 and 1990, smoking of 5-MeO-DMT on parsley was probably one of the two most common forms of ingestion in the United States. [9]


5-MeO-DMT is a methoxylated derivative of DMT. While most common psychedelics are believed to primarily elicit psychological effects through agonism of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, 5-MeO-DMT shows 1000-fold greater affinity for 5-HT1A over 5-HT2A; [10] In line with its affinity for 5-HT1A receptors, 5-MeO-DMT is extremely potent at suppressing the firing of dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons. [11] Further, its activity in rats was attenuated with the 5-HT1A selective antagonist WAY-100635 while 5-HT2A selective antagonist volinanserin failed to demonstrate any change. [12] Additional mechanisms of action such as inhibition of monoamine reuptake may be involved. [13] A 2019 European study with 42 volunteers showed that a single inhalation produced sustained enhancement of satisfaction with life, and easing of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). [14] A 2018 study demonstrated that a single dose of 5-MeO-DMT induced neurogenesis in mice. [15]

Clinical Development

5-MeO-DMT is being developed and evaluated for potential therapeutic effects in patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD). [16] Biopharmaceutical company GH Research has sponsored a completed phase 1 study in healthy volunteers [17] and phase 1/2 study in TRD patients where 87.5% of patients with TRD were brought into remission on day 7 in the phase 2 part of the study. [18] GH Research is currently planning a phase 2b study in TRD patients and have received approval for studies in patients with bipolar II disorder and a current depressive episode and patients with postpartum depression. [19]

Beckley Psytech in collaboration with King's College London research the safety and tolerability of intranasal 5-MeO-DMT in healthy subjects, in a phase 1 study. [20] Beckley Psytech CEO Cosmo Feilding-Mellen sees a potential in the short-acting nature of 5-MeO-DMT compared to psilocybin: "Requiring one or two therapists to sit in a room with a single patient for the entire duration of an MDMA or psilocybin experience, which is essentially a whole working day, is probably going to be very resource-intensive and expensive. There is already a global shortage of psychotherapists, and this poses a potential bottleneck to patient access in the future." [21]


5-MeO-DMT can be produced synthetically. [22] [23]

Plant sources
Rutaceae Dictyoloma incanescens , [24] Limonia acidissima , [25] Melicope leptococca [26]
Fabaceae Anadenanthera peregrina , [27] Acacia auriculiformis , [27] Acacia victoriae , [27] Desmodium gangeticum , [27] Lespedeza bicolor , [26] [25] Mimosa pudica, [27] Mucuna pruriens , [25] [26] Phyllodium pulchellum [25] [26]
Poaceae Phalaris tuberosa [27]
Malpighiaceae Diplopterys cabrerana [28]
Cactaceae Echinocereus salm-dyckianus , [25] Echinocereus triglochidiatus [25]
Myristicaceae Horsfieldia superba , [25] Iryanthera macrophylla , [25] Osteophloeum platyspermum , [28] Virola theiodora , [25] V. calophylla , [28] V. multinervia , [28] V. peruviana , [28] V. rufula , [28] V. venosa [28]
Animal Sources
Bufonidae Colorado River toad (Bufo alvarius) [29] [14] [26]
Fungal Sources
Amanitaceae Amanita citrina , [28] Amanita porphyria [28]


As of October 2015, 5-MeO-DMT is a controlled substance in China. [30]


As a structural analog of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-MeO-DMT is a Schedule 9 prohibited substance under the Poisons Standard. [31]


Sveriges Grodminister health ministry Statens folkhälsoinstitut classified 5-MeO-DMT, listed as 5-metoxi-N,N-dimetyltryptamin (5-MeO-DMT) in their regulation SFS 2004:696, as "health hazard" under the act Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor (translated Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods Dangerous to Health) in October 2004, making it illegal to sell or possess. [32]


As of 2001 5-MeO-DMT is listed as a controlled substance. Attachement I BtMG. BGBl. I 2001, 1180 - 1186;


5-MeO-DMT has been controlled in Turkey since December 2013. [33]

United States

5-MeO-DMT was made a Schedule I controlled substance in January 2011. [34]

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>N</i>,<i>N</i>-Dimethyltryptamine Chemical compound

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine is a substituted tryptamine that occurs in many plants and animals, including humans, and which is both a derivative and a structural analog of tryptamine. DMT is used as a psychedelic drug and prepared by various cultures for ritual purposes as an entheogen.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Psychedelic drug</span> Hallucinogenic class of psychoactive drug

Psychedelics are a subclass of hallucinogenic drugs whose primary effect is to trigger non-ordinary mental states and/or an apparent expansion of consciousness. Sometimes, they are called classic hallucinogens, serotonergic hallucinogens, or serotonergic psychedelics, and the term psychedelic is sometimes used more broadly to include various types of hallucinogens or those which are atypical or adjacent to psychedelia such as MDMA or cannabis; this article uses the narrower definition of psychedelics. True psychedelics cause specific psychological, visual, and auditory changes, and oftentimes a substantially altered state of consciousness. Psychedelic states are often compared to meditative, psychodynamic or transcendental types of alterations of mind. The "classical" psychedelics, the psychedelics with the largest scientific and cultural influence, are mescaline, LSD, psilocybin, and DMT. LSD in particular has long been considered the paradigmatic psychedelic compound, to which all other psychedelics are often or usually compared.

<i>alpha</i>-Methyltryptamine Chemical compound

α-Methyltryptamine is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogen drug of the tryptamine class. It was originally developed as an antidepressant by workers at Upjohn in the 1960s, and was used briefly as an antidepressant in Russia under the trade name Indopan before being discontinued.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dipropyltryptamine</span> Chemical compound

N,N-Dipropyltryptamine (DPT) is a psychedelic entheogen belonging to the tryptamine family. Use as a designer drug has been documented by law enforcement officials since as early as 1968. However, potential therapeutic use was not investigated until the 1970s. It is found either as a crystalline hydrochloride salt or as an oily or crystalline base. It has not been found to occur endogenously. It is a close structural homologue of dimethyltryptamine and diethyltryptamine.

5-Methoxy-<i>N</i>,<i>N</i>-diisopropyltryptamine Psychedelic tryptamine

5-Methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine is a psychedelic tryptamine and the methoxy derivative of diisopropyltryptamine (DiPT).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Diisopropyltryptamine</span> Chemical compound

Diisopropyltryptamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the tryptamine family that has a unique effect. While the majority of hallucinogens affect the visual sense, DiPT is primarily aural.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bufotenin</span> Psychedelic drug found in toads, mushrooms and plants

Bufotenin is a tryptamine derivative, more specifically, a DMT analog, related to the neurotransmitter serotonin. It is an alkaloid found in some species of mushrooms, plants and toads, especially the skin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">5-MeO-MiPT</span> Chemical compound

5-MeO-MiPT is a psychedelic and hallucinogenic drug, used by some as an entheogen. It has structural and pharmacodynamic properties similar to the drugs 5-MeO-DiPT, DiPT, and MiPT. It is commonly used as a "substitute" for 5-MeO-DiPT because of the very similar structure and effects.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">5-MeO-DALT</span> Chemical compound

5-MeO-DALT or N,N-di allyl-5-methoxy tryptamine is a psychedelic tryptamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">5-MeO-DET</span> Chemical compound

5-MeO-DET or 5-methoxy-N,N-diethyltryptamine is a hallucinogenic tryptamine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Colorado River toad</span> Species of amphibian

The Colorado River toad, also known as the Sonoran Desert toad, is a toad species found in northwestern Mexico and the southwestern United States. It is well known for its ability to exude toxins from glands within its skin that have psychoactive properties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">4-HO-MiPT</span> Chemical compound

4-HO-MiPT is a synthetic substituted aromatic compound and a lesser-known psychedelic tryptamine. It is thought to be a serotonergic psychedelic, similar to magic mushrooms, LSD and mescaline. Its molecular structure and pharmacological effects somewhat resemble those of the tryptamine psilocin, which is the primary psychoactive chemical in magic mushrooms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">5-MeO-DPT</span> Chemical compound

5-MeO-DPT, is a psychedelic and entheogenic designer drug.

<i>O</i>-Acetylpsilocin Chemical compound

O-Acetylpsilocin is a semi-synthetic psychoactive drug that has been suggested by David Nichols to be a potentially useful alternative to psilocybin for pharmacological studies, as they are both believed to be prodrugs of psilocin. However, some users report that O-acetylpsilocin's subjective effects differ from those of psilocybin and psilocin. Additionally, some users prefer 4-AcO-DMT to natural psilocybin mushrooms due to feeling fewer adverse side effects such as nausea and heavy body load, which are more frequently reported in experiences involving natural mushrooms. It is the acetylated form of the psilocybin mushroom alkaloid psilocin and is a lower homolog of 4-AcO-MET, 4-AcO-DET, 4-AcO-MiPT and 4-AcO-DiPT.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">5-Fluoro-DMT</span> Chemical compound

5-Fluoro-N,N-dimethyltryptamine is a tryptamine derivative related to compounds such as 5-bromo-DMT and 5-MeO-DMT. Fluorination of psychedelic tryptamines either reduces or has little effect on 5-HT2A/C receptor affinity or intrinsic activity, although 6-fluoro-DET is inactive as a psychedelic despite acting as a 5-HT2A agonist, while 4-fluoro-5-methoxy-DMT is a much stronger agonist at 5-HT1A than 5-HT2A.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">4-PrO-DMT</span> Chemical compound

4-Propionoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine is a synthetic psychedelic drug from the tryptamine family with psychedelic effects, and is believed to act as a prodrug for psilocin. It produces a head-twitch response in mice. It has been sold online as a designer drug since May 2019. It was first identified as a new psychoactive substance in Sweden, in July 2019.

Psychoplastogens are a group of small molecule drugs that produce rapid and sustained effects on neuronal structure and function, intended to manifest therapeutic benefit after a single administration. Several existing psychoplastogens have been identified and their therapeutic effects demonstrated; several are presently at various stages of development as medications including Ketamine, MDMA, Scopolamine, and the serotonergic psychedelics, including LSD, psilocin, DMT, and 5-MeO-DMT. Compounds of this sort are being explored as therapeutics for a variety of brain disorders including depression, addiction, and PTSD. The ability to rapidly promote neuronal changes via mechanisms of neuroplasticity was recently discovered as the common therapeutic activity and mechanism of action.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">5-MeO-MET</span> Chemical compound

5-MeO-MET (5-Methoxy-N-methyl-N-ethyltryptamine) is a relatively rare designer drug from the substituted tryptamine family, related to compounds such as N-methyl-N-ethyltryptamine and 5-MeO-DMT. It was first synthesised in the 1960s and was studied to a limited extent, but was first identified on the illicit market in June 2012 in Sweden. It was made illegal in Norway in 2013, and is controlled under analogue provisions in numerous other jurisdictions.

<i>O</i>-Acetylbufotenine Chemical compound

O-Acetylbufotenine is a tryptamine derivative which produces psychedelic-appropriate responding in animal studies. It is an acylated derivative of bufotenine with higher lipophilicity that allows it to cross the blood–brain barrier; once inside the brain, it is metabolised to bufotenine. It also acts directly as an agonist at 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D receptors.


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