| Preferred IUPAC name |
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||423.94 g mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
E-6801 is a partial agonist of the 5-HT6 receptor.  It enhanced recognition memory and reversed the memory deficits of scopolamine in an object recognition task in a rat model.  The mechanism of memory enhancement is due to a combined modulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission.
Cholinergic agents are compounds which mimic the action of acetylcholine and/or butyrylcholine. In general, the word "choline" describes the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation. Found in most animal tissues, choline is a primary component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and functions with inositol as a basic constituent of lecithin. Choline also prevents fat deposits in the liver and facilitates the movement of fats into cells.
5-HT receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. They mediate both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. The serotonin receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, which acts as their natural ligand.
Memantine is a medication used to slow the progression of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease. It is taken by mouth.
The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor that are active through an indirect metabotropic process. They are members of the group C family of G-protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs. Like all glutamate receptors, mGluRs bind with glutamate, an amino acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter.
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors. This ion channel is cation-selective and mediates neuronal depolarization and excitation within the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Tandospirone is an anxiolytic and antidepressant drug used in China and Japan, where it is marketed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. It is a member of the azapirone class of drugs and is closely related to other azapirones like buspirone and gepirone.
The serotonin 1A receptor is a subtype of serotonin receptor, or 5-HT receptor, that binds serotonin, also known as 5-HT, a neurotransmitter. 5-HT1A is expressed in the brain, spleen, and neonatal kidney. It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), coupled to the Gi protein, and its activation in the brain mediates hyperpolarisation and reduction of firing rate of the postsynaptic neuron. In humans, the serotonin 1A receptor is encoded by the HTR1A gene.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4 (CHRM4), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CHRM4 gene.
The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT). It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is coupled to Gs and mediates excitatory neurotransmission. HTR6 denotes the human gene encoding for the receptor.
The alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α7 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in long-term memory, consisting entirely of α7 subunits. As with other nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, functional α7 receptors are pentameric [i.e., (α7)5 stoichiometry].
The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia models the subset of pathologic mechanisms of schizophrenia linked to glutamatergic signaling. The hypothesis was initially based on a set of clinical, neuropathological, and, later, genetic findings pointing at a hypofunction of glutamatergic signaling via NMDA receptors. While thought to be more proximal to the root causes of schizophrenia, it does not negate the dopamine hypothesis, and the two may be ultimately brought together by circuit-based models. The development of the hypothesis allowed for the integration of the GABAergic and oscillatory abnormalities into the converging disease model and made it possible to discover the causes of some disruptions.
ABT-418 is a drug developed by Abbott, that has nootropic, neuroprotective and anxiolytic effects, and has been researched for treatment of both Alzheimer's disease and ADHD. It acts as an agonist at neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, subtype-selective binding with high affinity to the α4β2, α7/5-HT3, and α2β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors but not α3β4 receptors ABT-418 was reasonably effective for both applications and fairly well tolerated, but produced some side effects, principally nausea, and it is unclear whether ABT-418 itself will proceed to clinical development or if another similar drug will be used instead.
SB-271046 is a drug which is used in scientific research. It was one of the first selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonists to be discovered, and was found through high-throughput screening of the SmithKline Beecham Compound Bank using cloned 5-HT6 receptors as a target, with an initial lead compound being developed into SB-271046 through a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study. SB-271046 was found to be potent and selective in vitro and had good oral bioavailability in vivo, but had poor penetration across the blood–brain barrier, so further SAR work was then conducted, which led to improved 5-HT6 antagonists such as SB-357,134 and SB-399,885.
Ro 04-6790 is a drug, developed by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has applications in scientific research. It acts as a potent and selective receptor antagonist for the 5-HT6 serotonin receptor subtype, with little or no affinity at other receptors. In common with other drugs of this class, Ro 04-6790 has nootropic effects in animals, and reduces the amnesia produced by memory-impairing drugs such as dizocilpine and scopolamine.
SB-216641 is a drug which is a selective antagonist for the serotonin receptor 5-HT1B, with around 25x selectivity over the closely related 5-HT1D receptor. It is used in scientific research, and has demonstrated anxiolytic effects in animal studies.
SB-269970 is a drug and research chemical developed by GlaxoSmithKline used in scientific studies. It is believed to act as a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (EC50 = 1.25 nM) (or possibly inverse agonist). A subsequent study in guinea pig at 10 uM showed that it also blocks the α2-adrenergic receptor activity. The significant difference in test concentrations, however, confirms the selectivity of SB-269970 for the 5-HT7 receptor.
Capeserod (INN; development code SL65.0155) is a selective 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist with Ki = 0.6 nM and IA = 40–50% (relative to serotonin). It potently enhances cognition, learning, and memory, and also possesses antidepressant effects. Capeserod was in phase II clinical trials around 2004–2006 for the treatment of memory deficits and dementia but no new information has surfaced since and it appears to have been abandoned.
WAY-181187 is a high affinity and selective 5-HT6 receptor full agonist. It induces robust increases in extracellular GABA levels in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala of rats without affecting concentrations in the nucleus accumbens or thalamus, and has modest to no effects on norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, or glutamate levels in these areas. WAY-181187 has demonstrated preclinical efficacy in rodent models of depression, anxiety, and notably obsessive-compulsive disorder, though it has also been shown to impair cognition and memory.
SB-206553 is a drug which acts as a mixed antagonist for the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors. It has anxiolytic properties in animal studies and interacts with a range of other drugs. It has also been shown to act as a positive allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Modified derivatives of SB-206553 have been used to probe the structure of the 5-HT2B receptor.
E-6837 is an orally active, 5-HT6 agonist developed in an attempt to create an anti-obesity medication. In cell lines expressing rat 5-HT6 receptors, it acted as a partial agonist (on presumed silent receptors), while it acted as a full agonist on human 5-HT6 receptors (which are constitutively active). Oral administration of E-6837 reduced food intake, but only transiently. In rats, twice daily administration of E-6837 over the course of 4 weeks resulted in a 15.7% reduction in body weight, compared to 11% reduction for sibutramine. This weight loss remained significant for E-6837 after a 43-day withdrawal period, whereas the weight difference was non-significant for sibutramine (i.e., sibutramine had a rebound effect while E-6837 did not), and this weight loss was found to be due to a loss of fat mass. The reduction in fat mass in E-6837 treated animals was associated with a 50% decrease in plasma leptin levels, and also reduced glucose and insulin levels in plasma after a glucose tolerance test. This indicates that weight loss from E-6837 is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, and thus, better glycemic control.