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Formula C19H30N2O
Molar mass 302.462 g·mol−1
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5-(Nonyloxy)tryptamine is a tryptamine derivative which acts as a selective agonist at the 5-HT1B receptor. Increasing the O-alkoxy chain length in this series gives generally increasing potency and selectivity for 5-HT1B, with highest activity found for the nonyloxy derivative, having a 5-HT1B binding affinity of 1.0 nM, and around 300-fold selectivity over the related 5-HT1A receptor. [1] [2]

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5-MeO-DET or 5-methoxy-N,N-diethyltryptamine is a hallucinogenic tryptamine.

5-HT<sub>2A</sub> receptor

The 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The 5-HT2A receptor is a cell surface receptor. 5-HT is short for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine, which is serotonin. This is the main excitatory receptor subtype among the GPCRs for serotonin, although 5-HT2A may also have an inhibitory effect on certain areas such as the visual cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. This receptor was first noted for its importance as a target of serotonergic psychedelic drugs such as LSD and psilocybin mushrooms. Later it came back to prominence because it was also found to be mediating, at least partly, the action of many antipsychotic drugs, especially the atypical ones.


Dimethoxy-4-amylamphetamine (DOAM) is a lesser-known psychedelic drug and a substituted amphetamine. DOAM was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved), the minimum dosage is listed as 10 mg, and the duration is unknown. DOAM produces a bare threshold and tenseness. As the 4-alkyl chain length is increased from shorter homologues such as DOM, DOET, DOPR, and DOBU which are all potent hallucinogens, the 5-HT2 binding affinity increases, rising to a maximum with the 4-(n-hexyl) derivative before falling again with even longer chains, but compounds with chain length longer than n-propyl, or with other bulky groups such as isopropyl, t-butyl or γ-phenylpropyl at the 4- position, fail to substitute for hallucinogens in animals or produce hallucinogenic effects in humans, suggesting these have low efficacy and are thus antagonists or weak partial agonists at the 5-HT2A receptor.


6-MeO-THH, or 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroharman, is a β-carboline derivative and a structural isomer of tetrahydroharmine (7-MeO-THH). 6-MeO-THH is mentioned in Alexander Shulgin's book TiHKAL, stating that 6-MeO-THH is very similar to the other carbolines. Limited testing suggests that it possesses mild psychoactive effects at 1.5 mg/kg and is said to be about one-third as potent as 6-methoxyharmalan. It has been isolated from certain plants of the Virola family.

5-HT<sub>1D</sub> receptor

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it. 5-HT1D acts on the central nervous system, and affects locomotion and anxiety. It also induces vascular vasoconstriction in the brain.

5-HT<sub>6</sub> receptor

The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT). It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is coupled to Gs and mediates excitatory neurotransmission. HTR6 denotes the human gene encoding for the receptor.

5-HT<sub>7</sub> receptor

The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels. This receptor has been a drug development target for the treatment of several clinical disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor is encoded by the HTR7 gene, which in humans is transcribed into 3 different splice variants.


5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.


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MS-245 is a tryptamine derivative used in scientific research. It acts as a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist with a Ki of 2.3 nM, and was derived through structure-activity relationship development of the selective 5-HT6 agonist EMDT. It has been used as a lead compound for further development of tryptamine-derived 5-HT6 antagonists. In animal studies it has been shown to boost the activity of, but not substitute for, both amphetamine and nicotine.


AMDA (9-Aminomethyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene) is an organic compound which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the 5-HT2A receptor. It has been used to help study the shape of the 5-HT2A protein, and develop a large family of related derivatives with even higher potency and selectivity.


KML-010 is a drug derived from spiperone. It functions as a highly selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, with negligible affinity for the 5-HT1A or 5-HT2C receptors, and over 400-fold lower affinity for the D2 receptor in comparison to spiperone.


Tiospirone (BMY-13,859), also sometimes called tiaspirone or tiosperone, is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone class. It was investigated as a treatment for schizophrenia in the late 1980s and was found to have an effectiveness equivalent to those of typical antipsychotics in clinical trials but without causing extrapyramidal side effects. However, development was halted and it was not marketed. Perospirone, another azapirone derivative with antipsychotic properties, was synthesized and assayed several years after tiospirone. It was found to be both more potent and more selective in comparison and was commercialized instead.


5-Methoxy-7,N,N-trimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-7,N,N-TMT, 5-MeO-7-TMT), is a tryptamine derivative which acts as an agonist at the 5-HT2 serotonin receptors. In animal tests, both 7,N,N-TMT and 5-MeO-7,N,N-TMT produced behavioural responses similar to those of psychedelic drugs such as DMT and 5-MeO-DMT, but compounds with larger 7-position substituents such as 7-ethyl-DMT and 7-bromo-DMT did not produce psychedelic-appropriate responding despite high 5-HT2 receptor binding affinity, suggesting these may be antagonists or weak partial agonists for the 5-HT2 receptors. The related compound 7-MeO-MiPT (cf. 5-MeO-MiPT) was also found to be inactive, suggesting that the 7-position has poor tolerance for bulky groups at this position, at least if agonist activity is desired.


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1-(2-Dimethylaminoethyl)dihydropyrano(3,2-e)indole (4,5-DHP-DMT) is a tricyclic tryptamine derivative which acts as a potent and reasonably selective partial agonist for the serotonin receptor 5-HT2A, with a Ki of 17.0 nM, and moderate selectivity over related serotonin receptors. It has lower 5-HT2 affinity and efficacy than the related compound AL-37350A, but higher lipophilicity.


5-MeO-NBpBrT is a N-substituted member of the methoxytryptamine family of compounds. Like other such compounds it acts as an antagonist for the 5-HT2A receptor, with a claimed 100x selectivity over the closely related 5-HT2C receptor. While N-benzyl substitution of psychedelic phenethylamines often results in potent 5-HT2A agonists, it had been thought that N-benzyl tryptamines show much lower efficacy and are either very weak partial agonists or antagonists at 5-HT2A, though more recent research has shown stronger agonist activity for 3-substituted benzyl derivatives. Extending the benzyl group to a substituted phenethyl can also recover agonist activity in certain cases.


CP-132,484 is a tryptamine derivative which acts as a potent and selective agonist for the 5-HT2 family of serotonin receptors. It has reasonable selectivity for 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C subtypes over 5-HT2B, but is only slightly selective for 5-HT2A over 5-HT2C. This compound and several related analogues have been shown to have ocular hypotensive activity in animal models, suggesting they may be useful for the treatment of glaucoma.


Acetryptine (INN), also known as 5-acetyltryptamine (5-AT), is a drug described as an antihypertensive agent which was never marketed. Structurally, acetryptine is a substituted tryptamine, and is closely related to other substituted tryptamines like serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). It was developed in the early 1960s. The binding of acetryptine to serotonin receptors does not seem to have been well-investigated, although it was assessed at the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D receptors and found to bind to them with high affinity. The drug may also act as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI); specifically, as an inhibitor of MAO-A.


  1. Glennon RA, Hong SS, Dukat M, Teitler M, Davis K (September 1994). "5-(Nonyloxy)tryptamine: a novel high-affinity 5-HT1D beta serotonin receptor agonist". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 37 (18): 2828–30. doi:10.1021/jm00044a001. PMID   8071931.
  2. Glennon RA, Hong SS, Bondarev M, Law H, Dukat M, Rakhi S, Power P, Fan E, Kinneau D, Kamboj R, Teitler M, Herrick-Davis K, Smith C (January 1996). "Binding of O-alkyl derivatives of serotonin at human 5-HT1D beta receptors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 39 (1): 314–22. doi:10.1021/jm950498t. PMID   8568822.