|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||264.344 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
O-4310 (1-isopropyl-6-fluoro-psilocin) is a tryptamine derivative developed by Organix Inc which acts as a serotonin receptor agonist. It is claimed to have an EC50 of 5nM at 5-HT2A with 89% efficacy vs 5-HT, and 100x selectivity over 5-HT2C, while being apparently inactive at the 5-HT2B antitarget. 
5-HT receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. They mediate both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. The serotonin receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, which acts as their natural ligand.
Psilocin is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance. It is present in most psychedelic mushrooms together with its phosphorylated counterpart psilocybin. Psilocin is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The mind-altering effects of psilocin are highly variable, subjective, and resemble those of LSD and DMT.
The 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The 5-HT2A receptor is a cell surface receptor. 5-HT is short for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine, which is serotonin. This is the main excitatory receptor subtype among the GPCRs for serotonin, although 5-HT2A may also have an inhibitory effect on certain areas such as the visual cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. This receptor was first noted for its importance as a target of serotonergic psychedelic drugs such as LSD and psilocybin mushrooms. Later it came back to prominence because it was also found to be mediating, at least partly, the action of many antipsychotic drugs, especially the atypical ones.
A serotonin receptor agonist is an agonist of one or more serotonin receptors. They activate serotonin receptors in a manner similar to that of serotonin, a neurotransmitter and hormone and the endogenous ligand of the serotonin receptors.
5-Fluoro-α-methyltryptamine, also known as PAL-544, is a putative stimulant, entactogen, and psychedelic tryptamine derivative related to α-methyltryptamine (αMT). It has been found to act as a well-balanced serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent, a 5-HT2A receptor agonist, and a potent and specific MAO-A inhibitor. It produces a strong head-twitch response in mice, and this effect is known to correlate with psychedelic effects in humans, which suggests that 5-fluoro-αMT could be an active psychedelic in humans, although it is not known to have been tested in humans and could be dangerous due to its strong inhibition of MAO-A.
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene. 5-HT2B is a member of the 5-HT2 receptor family that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5A, also known as HTR5A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR5A gene. Agonists and antagonists for 5-HT receptors, as well as serotonin uptake inhibitors, present promnesic (memory-promoting) and/or anti-amnesic effects under different conditions, and 5-HT receptors are also associated with neural changes.
The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT). It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is coupled to Gs and mediates excitatory neurotransmission. HTR6 denotes the human gene encoding for the receptor.
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels. This receptor has been a drug development target for the treatment of several clinical disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor is encoded by the HTR7 gene, which in humans is transcribed into 3 different splice variants.
WAY-100635 is a piperazine drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies. It was originally believed to act as a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, but subsequent research showed that it also acts as potent full agonist at the D4 receptor. It is sometimes referred to as a silent antagonist at the former receptor. It is closely related to WAY-100135.
AL-34662 is an indazole derivative drug that is being developed for the treatment of glaucoma. It acts as a selective 5-HT2A receptor agonist, the same target as that of psychedelic drugs like psilocin, but unlike these drugs, AL-34662 was designed specifically as a peripherally selective drug, which does not cross the blood–brain barrier. This means that AL-34662 can exploit a useful side effect of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2A agonists, namely reduction in intra-ocular pressure and hence relief from the symptoms of glaucoma, but without causing the hallucinogenic effects that make centrally active 5-HT2A agonists unsuitable for clinical use. In animal studies, AL-34662 has been shown to be potent and effective in the treatment of symptoms of glaucoma, with minimal side effects.
BRL-15,572 is a drug which acts as a selective antagonist for the serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT1D, with around 60x selectivity over other related receptors. The 5-HT1D receptor has a very similar pharmacology to the closely related 5-HT1B receptor, and most older ligands for these receptors bind to both subtypes with approximately equal affinity, so development of compounds such as BRL-15572 which are able to selectively block the 5-HT1D subtype while leaving 5-HT1B unaffected, have been a significant advance which has helped scientists in researching the function of these serotonin receptor subtypes. One function of the 5-HT1D receptor this research has revealed is its role in modulating release of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain, as well as functions in regulation of cerebral blood pressure which are important in the pathogenesis of migraine headaches.
Ro60-0175 is a drug developed by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has applications in scientific research. It acts as a potent and selective agonist for both the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C serotonin receptor subtypes, with good selectivity over the closely related 5-HT2A subtype, and little or no affinity at other receptors.
A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft. A selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) is an SRA with less significant or no efficacy in producing neurotransmitter efflux at other types of monoamine neurons.
SB-215505 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist at the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor, with good selectivity over the related 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. It is used in scientific research into the function of the 5-HT2 family of receptors, especially to study the role of 5-HT2B receptors in the heart, and to distinguish 5-HT2B-mediated responses from those produced by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C.
4-Fluoro-5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (4-F-5-MeO-DMT) was first described by David E. Nichols team in 2000. It is a potent 5-HT1A agonist. Substitution with the 4-fluorine markedly increased 5-HT1A selectivity over 5-HT2A/2C receptors with potency greater than that of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT.
Substituted tryptamines, or serotonin analogues, are organic compounds which may be thought of as being derived from tryptamine itself. The molecular structures of all tryptamines contain an indole ring, joined to an amino (NH2) group via an ethyl (−CH2–CH2−) sidechain. In substituted tryptamines, the indole ring, sidechain, and/or amino group are modified by substituting another group for one of the hydrogen (H) atoms.
1-Methylpsilocin is a tryptamine derivative which acts as a selective agonist for the 5-HT2C receptor (IC50 of 12 nM, vs 633 nM at 5-HT2A), and an inverse agonist at 5-HT2B (Ki of 38 nM). While 1-methylpsilocin does have higher affinity for 5-HT2C than 5-HT2A, it does produce a head-twitch response in mice that are dependent on 5-HT2A, so it is not entirely free of effects on 5-HT2A in vivo. In contrast to psilocin, 1-methylpsilocin did not activate 5-HT1A receptors in mice. 1-Methylpsilocin has been investigated for applications such as treatment of glaucoma, OCD, and cluster headaches, as these conditions are amenable to treatment with psychedelic drugs but are not generally treated with such agents due to the hallucinogenic side effects they produce, which are considered undesirable. 1-Methylpsilocin therefore represents a potential alternative treatment to psilocin that may be less likely to produce hallucinogenic effects.
5-Chloro-α-methyltryptamine (5-Chloro-αMT), also known as PAL-542, is a tryptamine derivative related to α-methyltryptamine (αMT) and one of only a few known specific serotonin-dopamine releasing agents (SDRAs). It has been investigated in animals as a potential treatment for cocaine dependence. The EC50 values of 5-chloro-αMT in evoking the in vitro release of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) in rat synaptosomes were reported as 16 nM, 54 nM, and 3434 nM, with an NE/DA ratio of 63.6 and a DA/5-HT ratio of 3.38, indicating that it is a highly specific and well-balanced SDRA. However, 5-chloro-αMT has also been found to act as a potent full agonist of the 5-HT2A receptor, with an EC50 value of 6.27 nM and an efficacy of 105%, and almost assuredly acts as a potent agonist of other serotonin receptors as well.
The 25-NB (25x-NBx) series, sometimes alternatively referred to as the NBOMe compounds, is a family of serotonergic psychedelics. They are substituted phenethylamines and were derived from the 2C family. They act as selective agonists of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. The 25-NB family is unique relative to other classes of psychedelics in that they are, generally speaking, extremely potent and relatively selective for the 5-HT2A receptor.