|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||248.282 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
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Indorenate (TR-3369), is a tryptamine derivative which acts as an agonist at the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors. It has anxiolytic, antihypertensive and anorectic effects, predominantly through action at 5-HT1A, but with some contribution from the 5-HT1B and 5-HT2C subtypes, and possibly some other non-serotonergic targets also.         
5-HT receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. They mediate both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. The serotonin receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, which acts as their natural ligand.
A serotonin receptor agonist is an agonist of one or more serotonin receptors. They activate serotonin receptors in a manner similar to that of serotonin, a neurotransmitter and hormone and the endogenous ligand of the serotonin receptors.
Pazinaclone (DN-2327) is a sedative and anxiolytic drug in the cyclopyrrolone family of drugs. Some other cyclopyrrolone drugs include zopiclone and eszopiclone.
5-Fluoro-α-methyltryptamine, also known as PAL-544, is a putative stimulant, entactogen, and psychedelic tryptamine derivative related to α-methyltryptamine (αMT). It has been found to act as a well-balanced serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent, a 5-HT2A receptor agonist, and a potent and specific MAO-A inhibitor. It produces a strong head-twitch response in mice, and this effect is known to correlate with psychedelic effects in humans, which suggests that 5-fluoro-αMT could be an active psychedelic in humans, although it is not known to have been tested in humans and could be dangerous due to its strong inhibition of MAO-A.
The serotonin 1A receptor is a subtype of serotonin receptor, or 5-HT receptor, that binds serotonin, also known as 5-HT, a neurotransmitter. 5-HT1A is expressed in the brain, spleen, and neonatal kidney. It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), coupled to the Gi protein, and its activation in the brain mediates hyperpolarisation and reduction of firing rate of the postsynaptic neuron. In humans, the serotonin 1A receptor is encoded by the HTR1A gene.
8-OH-DPAT is a research chemical of the aminotetralin chemical class which was developed in the 1980s and has been widely used to study the function of the 5-HT1A receptor. It was one of the first major 5-HT1A receptor full agonists to be discovered.
5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Zacopride is a potent antagonist at the 5-HT3 receptor and an agonist at the 5-HT4 receptor. It has anxiolytic and nootropic effects in animal models, with the (R)-(+)-enantiomer being the more active form. It also has antiemetic and pro-respiratory effects, both reducing sleep apnea and reversing opioid-induced respiratory depression in animal studies. Early animal trials have also revealed that administration of zacopride can reduce preference for and consumption of ethanol.
Binospirone (MDL-73,005-EF) is a drug which acts as a partial agonist at 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors but as an antagonist at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. It has anxiolytic effects.
ELB-139 (LS-191,811) is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, which is used in scientific research. It has similar effects to benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic.
SB-216641 is a drug which is a selective antagonist for the serotonin receptor 5-HT1B, with around 25x selectivity over the closely related 5-HT1D receptor. It is used in scientific research, and has demonstrated anxiolytic effects in animal studies.
A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft. A selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) is an SRA with less significant or no efficacy in producing neurotransmitter efflux at other types of monoamine neurons.
SDZ SER-082 is a drug which acts as a mixed antagonist for the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, with good selectivity over other serotonin receptor subtypes and slight preference for 5-HT2C over 5-HT2B. It has been used in animal studies into the behavioural effects of the different 5-HT2 subtypes, and how they influence the effects of other drugs such as cocaine.
Roxindole (EMD-49,980) is a dopaminergic and serotonergic drug which was originally developed by Merck KGaA for the treatment of schizophrenia. In clinical trials its antipsychotic efficacy was only modest but it was unexpectedly found to produce potent and rapid antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. As a result, roxindole was further researched for the treatment of depression instead. It has also been investigated as a therapy for Parkinson's disease and prolactinoma.
Osemozotan (MKC-242) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist with some functional selectivity, acting as a full agonist at presynaptic and a partial agonist at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. 5-HT1A receptor stimulation influences the release of various neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine. 5-HT1A receptors are inhibitory G protein-coupled receptor. Osemozotan has antidepressant, anxiolytic, antiobsessional, serenic, and analgesic effects in animal studies, and is used to investigate the role of 5-HT1A receptors in modulating the release of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, and their involvement in addiction to abused stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine.
1-(1-Naphthyl)piperazine (1-NP) is a drug which is a phenylpiperazine derivative. It acts as a non-selective, mixed serotonergic agent, exerting partial agonism at the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E, and 5-HT1F receptors, while antagonizing the 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors. It has also been shown to possess high affinity for the 5-HT3, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors, and may bind to 5-HT4 and the SERT as well. In animals it produces effects including hyperphagia, hyperactivity, and anxiolysis, of which are all likely mediated predominantly or fully by blockade of the 5-HT2C receptor.
L-694247 is a somewhat selective 5-HT1D agonist, with a 10-fold greater affinity for the 5-HT1B receptor, and 25-fold greater affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor. When L-694247 was injected intraventricularly in dehydrated rats, it inhibited water intake. Pre-treatment with a 5-HT1D antagonist abolished this effect. Administration of L-694,247 to normally hydrated rats had no effect on water intake.
S32212 is a drug which is under preclinical investigation as a potential antidepressant medicine. It behaves as a selective, combined 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonist and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (at all three subtypes—α2A, α2B, and α2C) with additional 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, 5-HT2B receptor antagonistic properties, and lacks any apparent affinity for the monoamine reuptake transporters or for the α1-adrenergic, H1, or mACh receptors. This profile of activity is compatible with the definition of a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA), and as such, S32212 could in turn be classified as a NaSSA if it reaches the market.
SB-243213 is a research chemical which acts as a selective inverse agonist for the 5HT2C receptor and has anxiolytic effects. It has better than 100x selectivity for 5-HT2C over all other receptor subtypes tested, and a longer duration of action compared to older 5-HT2C antagonist ligands.
5-Chloro-α-methyltryptamine (5-Chloro-αMT), also known as PAL-542, is a tryptamine derivative related to α-methyltryptamine (αMT) and one of only a few known specific serotonin-dopamine releasing agents (SDRAs). It has been investigated in animals as a potential treatment for cocaine dependence. The EC50 values of 5-chloro-αMT in evoking the in vitro release of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) in rat synaptosomes were reported as 16 nM, 54 nM, and 3434 nM, with an NE/DA ratio of 63.6 and a DA/5-HT ratio of 3.38, indicating that it is a highly specific and well-balanced SDRA. However, 5-chloro-αMT has also been found to act as a potent full agonist of the 5-HT2A receptor, with an EC50 value of 6.27 nM and an efficacy of 105%, and almost assuredly acts as a potent agonist of other serotonin receptors as well.