|Elimination half-life||1.4 hours|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||440.61 g·mol−1|
Tiospirone (BMY-13,859), also sometimes called tiaspirone or tiosperone, is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone class.It was investigated as a treatment for schizophrenia in the late 1980s and was found to have an effectiveness equivalent to those of typical antipsychotics in clinical trials but without causing extrapyramidal side effects. However, development was halted and it was not marketed. Perospirone, another azapirone derivative with antipsychotic properties, was synthesized and assayed several years after tiospirone. It was found to be both more potent and more selective in comparison and was commercialized instead.
Tiospirone acts as a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT7 receptor inverse agonist, and D2, D4, and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist.
Note that the piperazine used is the same as in the synthesis of Ziprasidone as well as Perospirone & 1192U90 [155289-31-9].
Halogenation of 2,2'-dithiosalicylic acid [119-80-2] (1) with thionyl chloride gives 2,2'-dithiodibenzoyl chloride [19602-82-5] (2). Treatment with molecular chlorine then gives 2-(chlorothio)-benzoyl chloride [3950-02-5] (3). Treatment with ammonium hydroxide gives benzisothiazolone [2634-33-5] (4). Halogenation of the lactam with phosphoryl chloride gives 3-chloro-1,2-benzisothiazole [7716-66-7] (5). Alkylation of this with piperazine then yields 3-(1-piperazinyl)-1,2-benzisothiazole [87691-87-0] (6). The reaction of this with tetramethylenedibromide [110-52-1] (7) gave rise to CID:13232499 (8). The last step in the procedure is the reaction with azaspirodecanedione [1075-89-4] (9), thus completing the synthesis of tiaspirone (10).
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP), also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and serotonin–dopamine antagonists (SDAs), are a group of antipsychotic drugs largely introduced after the 1970s and used to treat psychiatric conditions. Some atypical antipsychotics have received regulatory approval for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, irritability in autism, and as an adjunct in major depressive disorder.
Ziprasidone, sold under the brand name Geodon among others, is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It may be used by mouth and by injection into a muscle (IM). The IM form may be used for acute agitation in people with schizophrenia.
Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic primarily used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For schizophrenia, it can be used for both new-onset disease and long-term maintenance. It is taken by mouth or by injection into a muscle.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand names Abilify and Aristada among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders and irritability associated with autism. It is taken by mouth or injection into a muscle. A Cochrane review found low-quality evidence of effectiveness in treating schizophrenia.
Azapirones are a class of drugs used as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. They are commonly used as add-ons to other antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
The 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The 5-HT2A receptor is a cell surface receptor, but has several intracellular locations. 5-HT is short for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine or serotonin. This is the main excitatory receptor subtype among the GPCRs for serotonin, although 5-HT2A may also have an inhibitory effect on certain areas such as the visual cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. This receptor was first noted for its importance as a target of serotonergic psychedelic drugs such as LSD and psilocybin mushrooms. Later it came back to prominence because it was also found to be mediating, at least partly, the action of many antipsychotic drugs, especially the atypical ones.
Bifeprunox (INN) (code name DU-127,090) is an atypical antipsychotic which, similarly to aripiprazole, combines minimal D2 receptor agonism with serotonin receptor agonism. It was under development for the treatment of schizophrenia but has since been abandoned.
Tandospirone is an anxiolytic and antidepressant drug used in China and Japan, where it is marketed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. It is a member of the azapirone class of drugs and is closely related to other azapirones like buspirone and gepirone.
Flesinoxan (DU-29,373) is a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor partial/near-full agonist of the phenylpiperazine class. Originally developed as a potential antihypertensive drug, flesinoxan was later found to possess antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in animal tests. As a result, it was investigated in several small human pilot studies for the treatment of major depressive disorder, and was found to have robust effectiveness and very good tolerability. However, due to "management decisions", the development of flesinoxan was stopped and it was not pursued any further.
Nemonapride (エミレース, Emilace (JP)) is an atypical antipsychotic approved in Japan for the treatment of schizophrenia. It was launched by Yamanouchi in May 1991. Nemonapride acts as a D2 and D3 receptor antagonist, and is also a potent 5-HT1A receptor agonist. It has affinity for sigma receptors.
Perospirone (Lullan) is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone family. It was introduced in Japan by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma in 2001 for the treatment of schizophrenia and acute cases of bipolar mania.
Blonanserin, sold under the brand name Lonasen, is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic commercialized by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma in Japan and Korea for the treatment of schizophrenia. Relative to many other antipsychotics, blonanserin has an improved tolerability profile, lacking side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms, excessive sedation, or hypotension. As with many second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics it is significantly more efficacious in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia compared to first-generation (typical) antipsychotics such as haloperidol.
Mosapramine (Cremin) is an atypical antipsychotic used in Japan for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is a potent dopamine antagonist with high affinity to the D2, D3, and D4 receptors, and with moderate affinity for the 5-HT2 receptors.
Pimavanserin , sold under the brand name Nuplazid, is an atypical antipsychotic which is approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease psychosis and is also being studied for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease psychosis, schizophrenia, agitation, and major depressive disorder. Unlike other antipsychotics, pimavanserin is not a dopamine receptor antagonist.
1-(2-Pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP, 1-PmP) is a chemical compound and piperazine derivative. It is known to act as an antagonist of the α2-adrenergic receptor (Ki = 7.3–40 nM) and, to a much lesser extent, as a partial agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor (Ki = 414 nM; Emax = 54%). It has negligible affinity for the dopamine D2, D3, and D4 receptors (Ki > 10,000 nM) and does not appear to have significant affinity for the α1-adrenergic receptors. Its crystal structure has been determined.
Revospirone is an azapirone drug which was patented as a veterinary tranquilizer but was never marketed. It acts as a selective 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist. Similarly to other azapirones such as buspirone, revospirone produces 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP) as an active metabolite. As a result, it also acts as an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist to an extent.
Umespirone (KC-9172) is a drug of the azapirone class which possesses anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties. It behaves as a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist (Ki = 15 nM), D2 receptor partial agonist (Ki = 23 nM), and α1-adrenoceptor receptor antagonist (Ki = 14 nM), and also has weak affinity for the sigma receptor (Ki = 558 nM). Unlike many other anxiolytics and antipsychotics, umespirone produces minimal sedation, cognitive/memory impairment, catalepsy, and extrapyramidal symptoms.
Cariprazine, sold under the brand names Vraylar and Reagila among others, is an on oral atypical antipsychotic originated by Gedeon Richter, which is used in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and bipolar depression. It acts primarily as a D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist, with a preference for the D3 receptor. Cariprazine is also a partial agonist at the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and acts as an antagonist at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2A receptors, with high selectivity for the D3 receptor. Positive Phase III study results were published for schizophrenia and mania in early 2012, and for bipolar disorder I depression from a Phase II trial in 2015.
Brexpiprazole, sold under the brand name Rexulti among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is a dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist and has been described as a "serotonin–dopamine activity modulator" (SDAM). The drug was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on July 10, 2015, for the treatment of schizophrenia, and as an adjunctive treatment for depression. It has been designed to provide improved efficacy and tolerability (e.g., less akathisia, restlessness and/or insomnia) over established adjunctive treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD).
5-HT2C receptor agonists are a class of drugs that activate 5-HT2C receptors. They have been investigated for the treatment of a number of conditions including obesity, psychiatric disorders, sexual dysfunction and urinary incontinence.