|International Drug Names
| Routes of
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Chemical and physical data
|3D model (JSmol)
|(what is this?)
Timiperone, sold under the brand name Tolopelon, is a typical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone class which is marketed in Japan for the treatment of schizophrenia.It is similar in chemical structure to benperidol, but has a thiourea group instead of a urea group. It acts as an antagonist for the D2 and 5-HT2A receptors.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics, are a class of psychotropic medication primarily used to manage psychosis, principally in schizophrenia but also in a range of other psychotic disorders. They are also the mainstay together with mood stabilizers in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP), also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and serotonin–dopamine antagonists (SDAs), are a group of antipsychotic drugs largely introduced after the 1970s and used to treat psychiatric conditions. Some atypical antipsychotics have received regulatory approval for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, irritability in autism, and as an adjunct in major depressive disorder.
Ziprasidone, sold under the brand name Geodon among others, is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It may be used by mouth and by injection into a muscle (IM). The IM form may be used for acute agitation in people with schizophrenia.
Azapirones are a class of drugs used as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. They are commonly used as add-ons to other antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil, among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) mainly used in the treatment of depression. It is also effective in treating anxiety and panic disorder. The drug is also used to treat bedwetting. Imipramine is taken by mouth.
Trimipramine, sold under the brand name Surmontil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used to treat depression. It has also been used for its sedative, anxiolytic, and weak antipsychotic effects in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, respectively. The drug is described as an atypical or "second-generation" TCA because, unlike other TCAs, it seems to be a fairly weak monoamine reuptake inhibitor. Similarly to other TCAs however, trimipramine does have antihistamine, antiserotonergic, antiadrenergic, antidopaminergic, and anticholinergic activities.
Haloperidol decanoate, sold under the brand name Haldol Decanoate among others, is a typical antipsychotic which is used in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is administered by injection into muscle at a dose of 100 to 200 mg once every 4 weeks or monthly. The dorsogluteal site is recommended. A 3.75-cm (1.5-inch), 21-gauge needle is generally used, but obese individuals may require a 6.5-cm (2.5-inch) needle to ensure that the drug is indeed injected intramuscularly and not subcutaneously. Haloperidol decanoate is provided in the form of 50 or 100 mg/mL oil solution of sesame oil and benzyl alcohol in ampoules or pre-filled syringes. Its elimination half-life after multiple doses is 21 days. The medication is marketed in many countries throughout the world.
Chlorprothixene, sold under the brand name Truxal among others, is a typical antipsychotic of the thioxanthene group.
Butriptyline, sold under the brand name Evadyne among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that has been used in the United Kingdom and several other European countries for the treatment of depression but appears to no longer be marketed. Along with trimipramine, iprindole, and amoxapine, it has been described as an "atypical" or "second-generation" TCA due to its relatively late introduction and atypical pharmacology. It was very little-used compared to other TCAs, with the number of prescriptions dispensed only in the thousands.
Pipamperone, also known as carpiperone and floropipamide or fluoropipamide, and as floropipamide hydrochloride (JAN), is a typical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone family used in the treatment of schizophrenia and as a sleep aid for depression. It is or has been marketed under brand names including Dipiperon, Dipiperal, Piperonil, Piperonyl, and Propitan. Pipamperone was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1961, and entered clinical trials in the United States in 1963.
Setiptiline, also known as teciptiline, is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA) which acts as a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA). It was launched in 1989 for the treatment of depression in Japan by Mochida.
Perospirone (Lullan) is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone family. It was introduced in Japan by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma in 2001 for the treatment of schizophrenia and acute cases of bipolar mania.
Mosapramine (Cremin) is an atypical antipsychotic used in Japan for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is a potent dopamine antagonist with high affinity to the D2, D3, and D4 receptors, and with moderate affinity for the 5-HT2 receptors.
Moperone (Luvatren, since discontinued) is a typical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone class which is marketed in Japan for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is an antagonist for the D2 (Ki 0.7-1.9 nM), D3 (Ki 0.1-1 nM), and 5-HT2A (Ki 52 nM) receptors. It also has a high binding affinity for the sigma receptors.
Tiospirone (BMY-13,859), also sometimes called tiaspirone or tiosperone, is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone class. It was investigated as a treatment for schizophrenia in the late 1980s and was found to have an effectiveness equivalent to those of typical antipsychotics in clinical trials but without causing extrapyramidal side effects. However, development was halted and it was not marketed. Perospirone, another azapirone derivative with antipsychotic properties, was synthesized and assayed several years after tiospirone. It was found to be both more potent and more selective in comparison and was commercialized instead.
Clocapramine, also known as 3-chlorocarpipramine, is an atypical antipsychotic of the iminodibenzyl class which was introduced in Japan in 1974 by Yoshitomi for the treatment of schizophrenia. In addition to psychosis, clocapramine has also been used to augment antidepressants in the treatment of anxiety and panic.
Clorotepine, also known as octoclothepin or octoclothepine, is an antipsychotic of the tricyclic group which was derived from perathiepin in 1965 and marketed in the Czech Republic by Spofa in or around 1971 for the treatment of schizophrenic psychosis.
Perlapine, sold under the brand names Hypnodine and Pipnodine, is a hypnotic and sedative of the tricyclic group which is marketed in Japan. It acts primarily as a potent antihistamine, and also has anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, antiadrenergic, and some antidopaminergic activity. The drug has relatively weak affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor (IC50 = 1,803 nM) and, in accordance, is said to be ineffective as an antipsychotic. However, it retains higher affinity for the dopamine D1 receptor (IC50 = 198 nM). Its IC50 values are 19 nM for the α1-adrenergic receptor, 4,945 nM for the α2-adrenergic receptor, and 70 nM for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. Perlapine is closely related to clotiapine, clozapine, fluperlapine, loxapine, and tilozepine.
Perphenazine enanthate, sold under the brand name Trilafon Enantat among others, is a typical antipsychotic and a depot antipsychotic ester which is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and has been marketed in Europe. It is formulated in sesame oil and administered by intramuscular injection and acts as a long-lasting prodrug of perphenazine. Perphenazine enanthate is used at a dose of 25 to 200 mg once every 2 weeks by injection, with a time to peak levels of 2 to 3 days and an elimination half-life of 4 to 7 days.
Oxyprothepin decanoate, sold under the brand name Meclopin, is a typical antipsychotic which was used in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Czech Republic but is no longer marketed. It is administered by depot injection into muscle. The medication has an approximate duration of 2 to 3 weeks. The history of oxyprothepin decanoate has been reviewed.