|Trade names||Tigan, Tebamide|
| Routes of|
|Oral, rectal, intramuscular|
|Elimination half-life||7 to 9 hours (mean)|
|Excretion||urine (30-50%), faeces|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||388.464 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Trimethobenzamide (trade names Tebamide, Tigan) is an antiemetic used to prevent nausea and vomiting.
Trimethobenzamide is an antagonist of the D2 receptor.It is believed to affect the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) of the medulla oblongata to suppress nausea and vomiting.
Possible side effects include drowsiness, dizziness, headache, muscle cramps, and blurred vision. More serious adverse effects include skin rash, tremors, parkinsonism, and jaundice.
Trimethobenzamide is marketed under the brand names Tebamide and Tigan, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and King Pharmaceuticals, respectively. It is available as oral capsules and injectable formulations.
Trimethobenzamide was also available as a rectal suppository, but such formulations were banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on April 6, 2007, due to unproven efficacy.
Alkylation of the sodium salt of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (1) with 2-dimethylaminoethyl chloride affords the ether (2). Reductive amination of the aldehyde in the presence of ammonia gives diamine (3). Acylation of that product with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl chloride affords trimethobenzamide (4).
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics, general anaesthetics, and chemotherapy directed against cancer. They may be used for severe cases of gastroenteritis, especially if the patient is dehydrated.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is the phenomenon of nausea, vomiting, or retching experienced by a patient in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) or within 24 hours following a surgical procedure. PONV affects about 10% of the population undergoing general anaesthesia each year. PONV can be unpleasant and lead to a delay in mobilization and food, fluid, and medication intake following surgery.
Domperidone, sold under the brand name Motilium among others, is a dopamine antagonist medication which is used to treat nausea and vomiting, certain gastrointestinal problems like gastroparesis, and to induce and promote breast milk production. It may be taken by mouth or rectally.
Promethazine is a first-generation antihistamine and antiemetic used to treat allergies, insomnia, and nausea. It may also help with some symptoms associated with the common cold and may also be used for sedating people who are agitated or anxious. Promethazine is available by mouth in syrup or tablet dosage forms, as a rectal suppository, or by injection into a muscle.
Ondansetron, sold under the brand name Zofran among others, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. It is also effective for treating gastroenteritis. It can be given by mouth or by injection into a muscle or into a vein.
Aprepitant, sold under the brand name Emend among others, is a medication used to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting. It may be used together with ondansetron and dexamethasone. It is taken by mouth.
Prochlorperazine, formerly sold under the brand name Compazine among others, is a medication used to treat nausea, migraines and anxiety. It is a less preferred medication for anxiety. It may be taken by mouth, rectally, injection into a vein, or injection into a muscle.
Nalbuphine, sold under the brand names Nubain among others, is an opioid analgesic which is used in the treatment of pain. It is given by injection into a vein, muscle, or fat.
Amisulpride is an antiemetic and antipsychotic medication used at lower doses intravenously to prevent and treat postoperative nausea and vomiting; and at higher doses by mouth to treat schizophrenia and acute psychotic episodes. It is sold under the brand names Barhemsys and Solian, Socian, Deniban and others. It is also used to treat dysthymia.
Butorphanol is a morphinan-type synthetic agonist–antagonist opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers. Butorphanol is most closely structurally related to levorphanol. Butorphanol is available as the tartrate salt in injectable, tablet, and intranasal spray formulations. The tablet form is only used in dogs, cats and horses due to low bioavailability in humans.
Trospium chloride is used to treat overactive bladder.
Pentoxyverine (rINN) or carbetapentane is an antitussive commonly used for cough associated with illnesses like common cold. It is sold over-the-counter in the United States as Solotuss, or in combination with other medications, especially decongestants. One such product is Certuss, a combination of guaifenesin and pentoxyverine.
The 5-HT3 antagonists, informally known as "setrons", are a class of drugs that act as receptor antagonists at the 5-HT3 receptor, a subtype of serotonin receptor found in terminals of the vagus nerve and in certain areas of the brain. With the notable exceptions of alosetron and cilansetron, which are used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, all 5-HT3 antagonists are antiemetics, used in the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting. They are particularly effective in controlling the nausea and vomiting produced by cancer chemotherapy and are considered the gold standard for this purpose.
Metopimazine, sold under the brand names Nortrip, Vogalen, and Vogalene, is an antiemetic of the phenothiazine group which is used to treat nausea and vomiting. It is marketed in Europe, Canada, and South America. As of August 2020, metopimazine has been repurposed and is additionally under development for use in the United States for the treatment of gastroparesis.
Propiram is a partial mu opioid receptor agonist and weak mu antagonist analgesic from the ampromide family of drugs related to other drugs such as phenampromide and diampromide. It was invented in 1963 in the United Kingdom by Bayer but was not widely marketed, although it saw some limited clinical use, especially in dentistry. Propiram reached Phase III clinical trials in the United States and Canada.
Nausea is a diffuse sensation of unease and discomfort, sometimes perceived as an urge to vomit. While not painful, it can be a debilitating symptom if prolonged and has been described as placing discomfort on the chest, abdomen, or back of the throat.
Meclizine, sold under the brand name Bonine, among others, is an antihistamine used to treat motion sickness and dizziness (vertigo). It is taken by mouth. Effects generally begin in an hour and last for up to a day.
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of many cancer treatments. Nausea and vomiting are two of the most feared cancer treatment-related side effects for cancer patients and their families. In 1983, Coates et al. found that patients receiving chemotherapy ranked nausea and vomiting as the first and second most severe side effects, respectively. Up to 20% of patients receiving highly emetogenic agents in this era postponed, or even refused, potentially curative treatments. Since the 1990s, several novel classes of antiemetics have been developed and commercialized, becoming a nearly universal standard in chemotherapy regimens, and helping to better manage these symptoms in a large portion of patients. Efficient mediation of these unpleasant and sometimes crippling symptoms results in increased quality of life for the patient, and better overall health of the patient, and, due to better patient tolerance, more effective treatment cycles.
Cancer and nausea are associated in about fifty percent of people affected by cancer. This may be as a result of the cancer itself, or as an effect of the treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other medication such as opiates used for pain relief. About 70 to 80% of people undergoing chemotherapy experience nausea or vomiting. Nausea and vomiting may also occur in people not receiving treatment, often as a result of the disease involving the gastrointestinal tract, electrolyte imbalance, or as a result of anxiety. Nausea and vomiting may be experienced as the most unpleasant side effects of cytotoxic drugs and may result in patients delaying or refusing further radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
Rolapitant (INN, trade name Varubivə-ROO-bee in the US and Varuby in the European Union) is a drug originally developed by Schering-Plough and licensed for clinical development by Tesaro, which acts as a selective NK1 receptor antagonist (antagonist for the NK1 receptor). It has been approved as a medication for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after clinical trials showed it to have similar or improved efficacy and some improvement in safety over existing drugs for this application.