MedlinePlus

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MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine. The service provides curated consumer health information in English and Spanish. [1] The site brings together information from the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), other U.S. government agencies, and health-related organizations. There is also a site optimized for display on mobile devices, in both English and Spanish. In 2015, about 400 million people from around the world used MedlinePlus. [2] The service is funded by the NLM and is free to users.

United States National Library of Medicine the worlds largest medical library, operated by the US federal government

The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.

Content curation is the process of gathering information relevant to a particular topic or area of interest. Services or people that implement content curation are called curators. Curation services can be used by businesses as well as end users.

National Institutes of Health Medical research organization in the United States

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1870s and is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The majority of NIH facilities are located in Bethesda, Maryland. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program (IRP) and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program.

Contents

MedlinePlus provides encyclopedic information on health and drug issues, and provides a directory of medical services. MedlinePlus Connect links patients or providers in electronic health record (EHR) systems to related MedlinePlus information on conditions or medications.

Electronic health record a program used to document a patients medical history on a computer

An electronic health record (EHR), or electronic medical record (EMR), is the systematized collection of patient and population electronically-stored health information in a digital format. These records can be shared across different health care settings. Records are shared through network-connected, enterprise-wide information systems or other information networks and exchanges. EHRs may include a range of data, including demographics, medical history, medication and allergies, immunization status, laboratory test results, radiology images, vital signs, personal statistics like age and weight, and billing information.

PubMed Health [3] is another NLM site that offers consumer health information, in addition to information for health professionals.

History

The National Library of Medicine has long provided programs and services for professional medical scientists and health care providers, including MEDLINE and the various services that access it, such as PubMed and Entrez. By the 1990s, more members of the general public were using these services as Internet access became widespread. [4] But nonprofessional users could benefit from reliable health information in a layperson-accessible format. [5] [6] [7] The National Library of Medicine introduced MedlinePlus in October 1998, to provide a non-commercial online service similar, for example, to the commercial WebMD. In 2010 another NCBI service, PubMed Health, complemented MedlinePlus in offering curated consumer health information; PubMed Health focuses especially on finding information about clinical effectiveness of treatments. [8]

MEDLINE is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information. It includes bibliographic information for articles from academic journals covering medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and health care. MEDLINE also covers much of the literature in biology and biochemistry, as well as fields such as molecular evolution.

PubMed online database with abstracts of medical articles, hosted by US National Library of Medicine

PubMed is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval.

Entrez cross-database search engine, or web portal

The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System is a federated search engine, or web portal that allows users to search many discrete health sciences databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. The NCBI is a part of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is itself a department of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which in turn is a part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The name "Entrez" was chosen to reflect the spirit of welcoming the public to search the content available from the NLM.

MedlinePlus initially provided 29 health topics in English, which expanded to almost 1000 health topics in English and Spanish, plus links to health information in over 40 languages. MedlinePlus was recognized by the Medical Library Association for its role in providing health information. [9] The site scored 84 in the American Customer Satisfaction Index for 2010. [10]

The Medical Library Association (MLA) is a nonprofit, educational organization with more than 4,000 health sciences information professional members and partners worldwide.

The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) is an economic indicator that measures the satisfaction of consumers across the U.S. economy. It is produced by the American Customer Satisfaction Index based in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

In 2000s, A.D.A.M.'s medical book thing was incorporated into MedlinePlus. The "Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine, Inc." is a NASDAQ-traded public company based in Atlanta, Georgia, that provides consumer health information and benefits technology products to healthcare organizations, employers, consumers, and educational institutions.

A.D.A.M., Inc. or Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine, Inc. was a NASDAQ-traded public company based in Atlanta, Georgia, that provided consumer health information and benefits technology products to healthcare organizations, employers, consumers, and educational institutions. Founded in 1990 and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, the company went public in 1995. Its 2009 assets were U.S.$39 million and its 2009 revenues were U.S. $28 million.

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Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. It serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.

A health or medical library is designed to assist physicians, health professionals, students, patients, consumers, medical researchers, and information specialists in finding health and scientific information to improve, update, assess, or evaluate health care. Medical libraries are typically found in hospitals, medical schools, private industry, and in medical or health associations. A typical health or medical library has access to MEDLINE, a range of electronic resources, print and digital journal collections, and print reference books. The influence of open access (OA) and free searching via Google and PubMed has a major impact on the way medical libraries operate.

PubMed Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology, and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge.

eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base founded in 1996 by Scott Plantz MD FAAEM, Jonathan Adler MD MS FACEP FAAEM, a computer engineer Jeffrey Berezin MS. The fundamental concept was to create a large repository of professional level medical content that could be both updated and accessed continuously to assist in clinical care and physician education. The eMedicine website consists of approximately 6,800 medical topic review articles, each of which is associated with one of 62 clinical subspecialty "textbooks". Pediatrics, for example, has 1,050 articles organized into 14 subspecialty "textbooks" ; the emergency medicine volume has 630 articles and internal medicine is near 1,400. If the remainder of the specialty textbooks are added to the total 6800+ articles were created in eMedicine. In addition, the knowledge base includes over 25,000 clinically multimedia files. To create this online content over 11,000 board certified healthcare specialists were recruited and managed in a first generation, proprietary learning management system (LMS). To provide some perspective on the amount of content that was created it is estimated that, if hard-copy printed out, it would total over 1 million pages.

Ovid Technologies, Inc., part of the Wolters Kluwer group of companies, provides access to online bibliographic databases, academic journals, and other products, chiefly in the area of health sciences. The National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database was once its chief product but, as this is now freely available through PubMed, Ovid has diversified into a wide range of other databases and other products. Ovid has its global headquarters in New York City.

Index Medicus (IM) is a curated subset of MEDLINE, which is a bibliographic database of life science and biomedical science information, principally scientific journal articles. From 1879 to 2004, Index Medicus was a comprehensive bibliographic index of such articles in the form of a print index or its onscreen equivalent. Medical history experts have said of Index Medicus that it is “America's greatest contribution to medical knowledge.”

<i>American Journal of Public Health</i> journal

The American Journal of Public Health is a monthly peer-reviewed public health journal published by the American Public Health Association covering health policy and public health. The journal was established in 1911 and its stated mission is "to advance public health research, policy, practice, and education." The journal occasionally publishes themed supplements. The editor-in-chief is Alfredo Morabia. The journal has been criticized for extending its open access embargo from 2 to 10 years as of June 1, 2013.

Medical literature retrieval or medical document retrieval is an activity that uses professional methods for medical research papers retrieval, report and other data to improve medicine research and practice.

SafetyLit is a bibliographic database and online update of recently published scholarly research of relevance to those interested in the broad field of injury prevention and safety promotion. Initiated in 1995, SafetyLit is a project of the SafetyLit Foundation in cooperation with the San Diego State University College of Health & Human Services and the World Health Organization - Department of Violence and Injury Prevention.

Health Sciences Online (HSO) is a non-profit online health information resource that launched in December 2008. The website hosts a virtual learning center providing weblinks to a collection of more than 50,000 courses, references, textbooks, guidelines, lectures, presentations, cases, articles, images and videos, available in 42 different languages. The content includes medicine, public health, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, nutrition, kinesiology and other health sciences resources.

ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of clinical trials. It is run by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health, and is the largest clinical trials database, currently holding registrations from over 230,000 trials from 195 countries in the world.

Medical encyclopedia specialized encyclopedia on medicine

A medical encyclopedia is a comprehensive written compendium that holds information about diseases, medical conditions, tests, symptoms, injuries, and surgeries. It may contain an extensive gallery of medicine-related photographs and illustrations. A medical encyclopedia provides information to readers about health questions. It may also contain some information about the history of diseases, the development of medical technology uses to detect diseases in its early phase. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.

Natural Standard organization

Natural Standard is an international research collaboration that systematically reviews scientific evidence on complementary and alternative medicine. Together with the faculty of Harvard Medical School, Natural Standard provides consumer information on complementary and alternative medicine for Harvard Health Publications and Susan G. Komen for the Cure. Natural Standard also provides information on herbal medicine and dietary supplements to MedlinePlus, which is produced and maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

The Western Journal of Medicine was a peer-reviewed medical journal. It was established in 1856 as the Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of California. It was renamed California State Journal of Medicine in 1902 and volume numbering was restarted at 1. In 1924 it was renamed California and Western Medicine and in 1946 California Medicine. In 1974, it obtained its final title, Western Journal of Medicine, which was styled as wjm from 1999 on. In 1985, the journal absorbed Arizona Medicine. It ceased publication in 2002 because it was not financially viable any more. The journal was lastly published by the BMJ Group with Michael Wilkes as its editor-in-chief.

Vital Information for a Virtual Age, also known as '¡VIVA!', is to empower high school students and assist them in serving their communities; to improve the awareness and use of quality health information resources in communities; and to create student-centered programs for community health outreach.

References

  1. "Medlineplus.gov en español" (in Spanish).
  2. "MedlinePlus Statistics". National Institutes of Health.
  3. National Library of Medicine, PubMed Health.
  4. Naomi Miller, M.L.S., Systems Librarian, Eve-Marie Lacroix, M.S., Chief, Public Services Division, and Joyce E. B. Backus, M.S.L.S., Systems Librarian (January 2000). "MEDLINEplus: building and maintaining the National Library of Medicine's consumer health Web service". Bulletin of the Medical Library Association (BMLA). 88 (1): 11–7. PMC   35193 . PMID   10658959.
  5. Marill JL, Miller N, Kitendaugh P (January 2006). "The MedlinePlus public user interface: studies of design challenges and opportunities". Journal of the Medical Library Association. 94 (1): 30–40. PMC   1324769 . PMID   16404467.
  6. Miller N, Lacroix EM, Backus J (Mar–Apr 2001). "The making of Medlineplus". Public Libraries. 40 (2): 111–3.
  7. Miller N, Tyler RJ, Backus JE (Fall 2004). "MedlinePlus: The National Library of Medicine brings quality information to health consumers" (PDF). Library Trends. 53 (2): 375–88. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
  8. Miles, Alisha (July 2011), "PubMed Health", J Med Libr Assoc, 99 (3): 265–266, doi:10.3163/1536-5050.99.3.018, PMC   3133896 .
  9. "Thomson Reuters/Frank Bradway Rogers Information Advancement Award". Medical Library Association. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  10. "ACSI Scores for U.S. Federal Government". The American Customer Satisfaction Index. 2010.