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  • 2-(5-Methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine
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Formula C11H14N2O
Molar mass 190.246 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O(c1cc2c(cc1)[nH]cc2CCN)C
  • InChI=1S/C11H14N2O/c1-14-9-2-3-11-10(6-9)8(4-5-12)7-13-11/h2-3,6-7,13H,4-5,12H2,1H3 Yes check.svgY

5-Methoxytryptamine (5-MT), also known as mexamine, is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin. 5-MT has been shown to occur naturally in the body in low levels. [1] It is biosynthesized via the deacetylation of melatonin in the pineal gland. [1]

5-MT acts as a full agonist at the 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] It has no affinity for the 5-HT3 receptor and its affinity for the 5-HT1E receptor is very weak in comparison to the other 5-HT1 receptors. [5] [9] Its affinity for the 5-HT5A receptor is unknown.

Indorenate Indorenate structure.png

Measured affinity for some receptors (incomplete list):

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">5-HT receptor</span> Class of transmembrane proteins

5-HT receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. They mediate both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. The serotonin receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, which acts as their natural ligand.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pindolol</span> Chemical compound

Pindolol, sold under the brand name Visken among others, is a nonselective beta blocker which is used in the treatment of hypertension. It is also an antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, preferentially blocking inhibitory 5-HT1A autoreceptors, and has been researched as an add-on therapy to various antidepressants, such as clomipramine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), in the treatment of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The 5-HT2 subfamily consists of three G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are coupled to Gq/G11 and mediate excitatory neurotransmission, including 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C. For more information, please see the respective main articles of the individual subtypes:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Serotonin receptor agonist</span> Neurotransmission-modulating substance

A serotonin receptor agonist is an agonist of one or more serotonin receptors. They activate serotonin receptors in a manner similar to that of serotonin, a neurotransmitter and hormone and the endogenous ligand of the serotonin receptors.

The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin receptors) which are G protein-coupled receptors. This ion channel is cation-selective and mediates neuronal depolarization and excitation within the central and peripheral nervous systems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">HTR3A</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR3A gene.

5-HT<sub>4</sub> receptor Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR4 gene.

The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT). The 5-HT1 subfamily consists of five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that share 40% to 63% overall sequence homology, including 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E, and 5-HT1F. Receptors of the 5-HT1 type, specifically, the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D receptor subtypes, are present on the cell bodies. Receptors of the 5-HT1 type, specifically, the 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor subtypes, are also present on the nerve terminals. These receptors are broadly distributed throughout the brain and are recognized to play a significant part in regulating synaptic levels of 5-HT.

5-HT<sub>1E</sub> receptor Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 1E receptor (5-HT1E) is a highly expressed human G-protein coupled receptor that belongs to the 5-HT1 receptor family. The human gene is denoted as HTR1E.

5-HT<sub>1F</sub> receptor Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1F, also known as HTR1F is a 5-HT1 receptor protein and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

5-HT<sub>5A</sub> receptor Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5A, also known as HTR5A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR5A gene. Agonists and antagonists for 5-HT receptors, as well as serotonin uptake inhibitors, present promnesic (memory-promoting) and/or anti-amnesic effects under different conditions, and 5-HT receptors are also associated with neural changes.

5-HT<sub>6</sub> receptor Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT). It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is coupled to Gs and mediates excitatory neurotransmission. HTR6 denotes the human gene encoding for the receptor.

5-HT<sub>7</sub> receptor Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels. This receptor has been a drug development target for the treatment of several clinical disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor is encoded by the HTR7 gene, which in humans is transcribed into 3 different splice variants.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">5-Carboxamidotryptamine</span> Chemical compound

5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2-Methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine</span> Chemical compound

2-Methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (2-Methylserotonin, 2-Methyl-5-HT) is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitter serotonin which acts as a moderately selective full agonist at the 5-HT3 receptor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">6-Fluoro-DMT</span> Chemical compound

6-Fluoro-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (6-Fluoro-DMT) is a synthetic drug of the tryptamine chemical class.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Naphthylpiperazine</span> Chemical compound

1-(1-Naphthyl)piperazine (1-NP) is a drug which is a phenylpiperazine derivative. It acts as a non-selective, mixed serotonergic agent, exerting partial agonism at the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E, and 5-HT1F receptors, while antagonizing the 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors. It has also been shown to possess high affinity for the 5-HT3, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors, and may bind to 5-HT4 and the SERT as well. In animals it produces effects including hyperphagia, hyperactivity, and anxiolysis, of which are all likely mediated predominantly or fully by blockade of the 5-HT2C receptor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">5-Benzyloxytryptamine</span> Chemical compound

5-Benzyloxytryptamine (5-BT), is a tryptamine derivative which acts as an agonist at the 5-HT1D, 5-HT2 and 5-HT6 serotonin receptors, and an antagonist of TRPM8.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">5-Chloro-αMT</span> Chemical compound

5-Chloro-α-methyltryptamine (5-Chloro-αMT), also known as PAL-542, is a tryptamine derivative related to α-methyltryptamine (αMT) and one of only a few known specific serotonin-dopamine releasing agents (SDRAs). It has been investigated in animals as a potential treatment for cocaine dependence. The EC50 values of 5-chloro-αMT in evoking the in vitro release of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) in rat synaptosomes were reported as 16 nM, 54 nM, and 3434 nM, with an NE/DA ratio of 63.6 and a DA/5-HT ratio of 3.38, indicating that it is a highly specific and well-balanced SDRA. However, 5-chloro-αMT has also been found to act as a potent full agonist of the 5-HT2A receptor, with an EC50 value of 6.27 nM and an efficacy of 105%, and almost assuredly acts as a potent agonist of other serotonin receptors as well.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amesergide</span> Chemical compound

Amesergide is a serotonin receptor antagonist of the ergoline and lysergamide families related to methysergide which was under development by Eli Lilly and Company for the treatment of a variety of conditions including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, male sexual dysfunction, migraine, and thrombosis but was never marketed. It reached phase II clinical trials for the treatment of depression, erectile dysfunction, and premature ejaculation prior to the discontinuation of its development.


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