Last updated
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Routes of
IV, IM, SC, Other
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism Liver
Excretion Kidneys
  • 2-Ethylamino-2-(2-thienyl)cyclohexanone
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.034.559 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Chemical and physical data
Formula C12H17NOS
Molar mass 223.33 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O=C2C(c1sccc1)(NCC)CCCC2
  • InChI=1S/C12H17NOS/c1-2-13-12(11-7-5-9-15-11)8-4-3-6-10(12)14/h5,7,9,13H,2-4,6,8H2,1H3 Yes check.svgY
 X mark.svgNYes check.svgY  (what is this?)    (verify)

Tiletamine is a dissociative anesthetic and pharmacologically classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist. [1] It is related chemically to ketamine. [2] Tiletamine hydrochloride exists as odorless white crystals.


It is used in veterinary medicine in the combination product Telazol (tiletamine/zolazepam, 50 mg/ml of each in 5 ml vial) as an injectable anesthetic for use in cats and dogs. [3] [4] [5] It is sometimes used in combination with xylazine (Rompun) to chemically immobilize large mammals such as polar bears [6] and wood bison. [7] Telazol is the only commercially available tiletamine product in the United States. It is contraindicated in patients of an ASA score of III or greater and in animals with CNS signs, hyperthyroidism, cardiac disease, pancreatic or renal disease, pregnancy, glaucoma, or penetrating eye injuries. [3]

Society and Culture

Recreational use of telazol has been documented. [8] Animal studies have also shown that tiletamine produces rewarding and reinforcing effects. [9] Products that combine Tiletamine and Zolazepam are classified as Schedule III controlled substances in the United States. [10] Otherwise, as noted by the DEA, tiletamine is unscheduled: “…[R]ules applicable to the scheduling of tiletamine and zolazepam as individual entities are not warranted [or in effect] at this time. Neither tiletamine nor zolazepam, as discrete substances, is perceived to pose a significant threat to the health and general welfare at this time…” [11]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ketamine</span> Dissociative anesthetic and anti-depressant

Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic used medically for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. It is also used as a treatment for depression and pain management. Ketamine is a novel compound that was derived from phencyclidine in 1962 in pursuit of a safer anesthetic with fewer hallucinogenic effects.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phencyclidine</span> Dissociative hallucinogenic drug, mostly used recreationally

Phencyclidine or phenylcyclohexyl piperidine (PCP), also known in its use as a street drug as angel dust among other names, is a dissociative anesthetic mainly used recreationally for its significant mind-altering effects. PCP may cause hallucinations, distorted perceptions of sounds, and violent behavior. As a recreational drug, it is typically smoked, but may be taken by mouth, snorted, or injected. It may also be mixed with cannabis or tobacco.

Dissociatives, colloquially dissos, are a subclass of hallucinogens which distort perception of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and/or self. Although many kinds of drugs are capable of such action, dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include dissociation, a general decrease in sensory experience, hallucinations, dream-like states or anesthesia. Despite most dissociatives' main mechanism of action being tied to NMDA receptor antagonism, some of these substances, which are nonselective in action and affect the dopamine and/or opioid systems, may be capable of inducing more direct and repeatable euphoria or symptoms which are more akin to the effects of typical "hard drugs" or common drugs of abuse. This is likely why dissociatives are considered to be addictive with a fair to moderate potential for abuse, unlike psychedelics. Despite some dissociatives, such as phencyclidine (PCP) possessing stimulating properties, most dissociatives seem to have a general depressant effect and can produce sedation, respiratory depression, nausea, disorientation, analgesia, anesthesia, ataxia, cognitive and memory impairment as well as amnesia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sevoflurane</span> Inhalational anaesthetic

Sevoflurane, sold under the brand name Sevorane, among others, is a sweet-smelling, nonflammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. After desflurane, it is the volatile anesthetic with the fastest onset. While its offset may be faster than agents other than desflurane in a few circumstances, its offset is more often similar to that of the much older agent isoflurane. While sevoflurane is only half as soluble as isoflurane in blood, the tissue blood partition coefficients of isoflurane and sevoflurane are quite similar. For example, in the muscle group: isoflurane 2.62 vs. sevoflurane 2.57. In the fat group: isoflurane 52 vs. sevoflurane 50. As a result, the longer the case, the more similar will be the emergence times for sevoflurane and isoflurane.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carfentanil</span> Synthetic opioid analgesic

Carfentanil or carfentanyl, sold under the brand name Wildnil, is an extremely potent opioid analgesic used in veterinary medicine to anesthetize large animals such as elephants and rhinoceroses. It is typically administered in this context by tranquilizer dart. Carfentanil has also been used in humans to image opioid receptors. It has additionally been used as a recreational drug, typically by injection, insufflation, or inhalation. Deaths have been reported in association with carfentanil.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Acepromazine</span> Antipsychotic medication

Acepromazine, acetopromazine, or acetylpromazine is a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic drug. It was used in humans during the 1950s as an antipsychotic, but is now almost exclusively used on animals as a sedative and antiemetic. A closely related analogue, chlorpromazine, is still used in humans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Olney's lesions</span> Neurotoxicity caused by some NMDA receptor antagonists

Olney's lesions, also known as NMDA receptor antagonist neurotoxicity (NAT), is a form of brain damage observed in rats and certain other model animals exposed to large quantities of psychoactive drugs that inhibit the normal operation of the neuronal NMDA receptor. Such lesions are common in anesthesia, as well as certain psychiatric treatments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xylazine</span> Veterinary anesthetic, sedative and analgesic

Xylazine is a drug used for sedation, anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and analgesia in animals such as horses, cattle, and other non-human mammals. It is an analog of clonidine and an agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Butorphanol</span> Opioid analgesic

Butorphanol is a morphinan-type synthetic agonist–antagonist opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers. Butorphanol is most closely structurally related to levorphanol. Butorphanol is available as the tartrate salt in injectable, tablet, and intranasal spray formulations. The tablet form is only used in dogs, cats and horses due to low bioavailability in humans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zolazepam</span> Chemical compound

Zolazepam (Flupyrazapon) is a pyrazolodiazepinone derivative structurally related to the benzodiazepine drugs, which is used as an anaesthetic for a wide range of animals in veterinary medicine. Zolazepam is usually administered in combination with other drugs such as the NMDA antagonist tiletamine or the α2 adrenergic receptor agonist xylazine, depending on what purpose it is being used for. It is around four times the potency of diazepam but it is both water-soluble and un-ionized at physiological pH meaning that its onset is very fast.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">NMDA receptor antagonist</span> Class of anesthetics

NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are commonly used as anesthetics for human and non-human animals; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Diprenorphine</span> Chemical compound

Diprenorphine, also known as diprenorfin, is a non-selective, high-affinity, weak partial agonist of the μ- (MOR), κ- (KOR), and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) which is used in veterinary medicine as an opioid antagonist. It is used to reverse the effects of super-potent opioid analgesics such as etorphine and carfentanil that are used for tranquilizing large animals. The drug is not approved for use in humans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Azaperone</span> Chemical compound

Azaperone is a pyridinylpiperazine and butyrophenone neuroleptic drug with sedative and antiemetic effects, which is used mainly as a tranquilizer in veterinary medicine. It is uncommonly used in humans as an antipsychotic drug.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medetomidine</span> Chemical compound

Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. It is often used as the hydrochloride salt, medetomidine hydrochloride, a crystalline white solid. It is an α2 adrenergic agonist that can be administered as an intravenous drug solution with sterile water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Embutramide</span> Chemical compound

Embutramide is a potent analgesic and sedative drug that is structurally related to GHB. It was developed by Hoechst A.G. in 1958 and was investigated as a general anesthetic agent, but was found to have a very narrow therapeutic window, with a 50 mg/kg dose producing effective sedation and a 75 mg/kg dose being fatal. Along with strong sedative effects, embutramide also produces respiratory depression and ventricular arrhythmia. Because of these properties, it was never adopted for medical use as an anesthetic as it was considered too dangerous for this purpose. Instead it is used for euthanasia in veterinary medicine, mainly for the euthanization of dogs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Atipamezole</span> Veterinary drug

Atipamezole, is a synthetic α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist indicated for the reversal of the sedative and analgesic effects of dexmedetomidine and medetomidine in dogs. Its reversal effect works by competing with the sedative for α2-adrenergic receptors and displacing them. It is mainly used in veterinary medicine, and while it is only licensed for dogs and for intramuscular use, it has been used intravenously, as well as in cats and other animals(intravenous use in cats and dogs is not recommended due to the potential for cardiovascular collapse. This occurs due to profound hypotension caused by reversal of the alpha 1 effects while the reflex bradycardia is still in effect.). There is a low rate of side effects, largely due to atipamezole's high specificity for the α2-adrenergic receptor. Atipamezole has a very quick onset, usually waking an animal up within 5 to 10 minutes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Channel blocker</span> Molecule able to block protein channels, frequently used as pharmaceutical

A channel blocker is the biological mechanism in which a particular molecule is used to prevent the opening of ion channels in order to produce a physiological response in a cell. Channel blocking is conducted by different types of molecules, such as cations, anions, amino acids, and other chemicals. These blockers act as ion channel antagonists, preventing the response that is normally provided by the opening of the channel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sarmazenil</span> Chemical compound

Sarmazenil (Ro15-3505) is a drug from the benzodiazepine family. It acts as a partial inverse agonist of benzodiazepine receptors, meaning that it causes the opposite effects to most benzodiazepine drugs, and instead acts as an anxiogenic and convulsant. It is used in veterinary medicine to reverse the effects of benzodiazepine sedative drugs in order to rapidly re-awaken anesthetized animals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arylcyclohexylamine</span> Class of chemical compounds

Arylcyclohexylamines, also known as arylcyclohexamines or arylcyclohexanamines, are a chemical class of pharmaceutical, designer, and experimental drugs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Balanced anesthesia</span> Anesthetic technique

Balanced anesthesia is an anesthetic method for surgical patients during their operation. The method was proposed by John Lundy in 1926. The purpose of balanced anesthesia is to use multiple anesthetic agents for a safer general anesthesia and to mitigate the potential adverse side effects which may be caused by the anesthetic agents. The concept of balanced anesthesia is that of applying two or more medications or techniques in order to ease pain, relax the muscles, and have autonomous reflexes suppressed in the patient. In other words, it is an anesthesia method to maintain stable vital signs. There are numerous factors that come into play when the anesthetist decides to use this method of anesthesia. These factors include, but are not limited to: patients' major organ functions, general condition and compensatory capacity. By making use of adequate types and appropriate amounts of agents and accurate anesthesia methods, the anesthetist will promote a successful, safe, and efficient surgery.


  1. Klockgether T, Turski L, Schwarz M, Sontag KH, Lehmann J (October 1988). "Paradoxical convulsant action of a novel non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, tiletamine". Brain Research. 461 (2): 343–348. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(88)90265-X. PMID   2846121. S2CID   41671395.
  2. CID 26533 from PubChem
  3. 1 2 "Tiletamine". Drugs.com. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  4. Lin HC, Thurmon JC, Benson GJ, Tranquilli WJ (December 1993). "Telazol--a review of its pharmacology and use in veterinary medicine". Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 16 (4): 383–418. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2885.1993.tb00206.x. PMID   8126757.
  5. "Tiletamine". Toxnet. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 21 January 2009.
  6. Cattet MR, Caulkett NA, Lunn NJ (July 2003). "Anesthesia of polar bears using xylazine-zolazepam-tiletamine or zolazepam-tiletamine". Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 39 (3): 655–664. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-39.3.655 . PMID   14567228.
  7. Caulkett NA, Cattet MR, Cantwell S, Cool N, Olsen W (January 2000). "Anesthesia of wood bison with medetomidine-zolazepam/tiletamine and xylazine-zolazepam/tiletamine combinations". The Canadian Veterinary Journal. 41 (1): 49–53. doi:10.4141/cjas61-007. PMC   1476335 . PMID   10642872.
  8. Quail MT, Weimersheimer P, Woolf AD, Magnani B (2001). "Abuse of telazol: an animal tranquilizer". Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology. 39 (4): 399–402. doi:10.1081/clt-100105161. PMID   11527235. S2CID   21280839.
  9. de la Peña JB, Lee HC, de la Peña IC, Woo TS, Yoon SY, Lee HL, et al. (August 2012). "Rewarding and reinforcing effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist-benzodiazepine combination, Zoletil®: difference between acute and repeated exposure". Behavioural Brain Research. 233 (2): 434–442. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.05.038. PMID   22659394. S2CID   25425333.
  10. "Lists of: Scheduling Actions, Controlled Substances, Regulated Chemicals" (PDF). Drug Enforcement Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  11. "Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Preparations Which Contain Both Tiletamine and Zolazepam into Schedule III" (PDF). Isomer Design. Drug Enforcement Administration. January 21, 1987. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 3, 2022. Retrieved January 16, 2023.