|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||236.74 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
ST-1936 (2-methyl-5-chloro-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a tryptamine derivative which is used in scientific research. It acts as a selective 5-HT6 receptor agonist, with a Ki of 13 nM, and much weaker action at 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 subtypes. In animal studies it has been found to increase dopamine and noradrenaline mediated signalling but decreases glutamatergic transmission, and has antidepressant effects.    
5-HT receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. They mediate both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. The serotonin receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, which acts as their natural ligand.
The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor that are active through an indirect metabotropic process. They are members of the group C family of G-protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs. Like all glutamate receptors, mGluRs bind with glutamate, an amino acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter.
The 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The 5-HT2A receptor is a cell surface receptor, but has several intracellular locations. 5-HT is short for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine or serotonin. This is the main excitatory receptor subtype among the GPCRs for serotonin, although 5-HT2A may also have an inhibitory effect on certain areas such as the visual cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. This receptor was first noted for its importance as a target of serotonergic psychedelic drugs such as LSD and psilocybin mushrooms. Later it came back to prominence because it was also found to be mediating, at least partly, the action of many antipsychotic drugs, especially the atypical ones.
A serotonin receptor agonist is an agonist of one or more serotonin receptors. They activate serotonin receptors in a manner similar to that of serotonin, a neurotransmitter and hormone and the endogenous ligand of the serotonin receptors.
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin receptors) which are G protein-coupled receptors. This ion channel is cation-selective and mediates neuronal depolarization and excitation within the central and peripheral nervous systems.
8-OH-DPAT is a research chemical of the aminotetralin chemical class which was developed in the 1980s and has been widely used to study the function of the 5-HT1A receptor. It was one of the first major 5-HT1A receptor full agonists to be discovered.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM7 gene.
TCB-2 is a hallucinogen discovered in 2006 by Thomas McLean working in the lab of David Nichols at Purdue University. It is a conformationally-restricted derivative of the phenethylamine 2C-B, also a hallucinogen, and acts as a potent agonist for the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors with a Ki of 0.26 nM at the human 5-HT2A receptor. In drug-substitution experiments in rats, TCB-2 was found to be of similar potency to both LSD and Bromo-DragonFLY, ranking it among the most potent phenethylamine hallucinogens yet discovered. This high potency and selectivity has made TCB-2 useful for distinguishing 5-HT2A mediated responses from those produced by other similar receptors. TCB-2 has similar but not identical effects in animals to related phenethylamine hallucinogens such as DOI, and has been used for studying how the function of the 5-HT2A receptor differs from that of other serotonin receptors in a number of animal models, such as studies of cocaine addiction and neuropathic pain.
SB-242084 is a psychoactive drug and research chemical which acts as a selective antagonist for the 5HT2C receptor. It has anxiolytic effects, and enhances dopamine signalling in the limbic system, as well as having complex effects on the dopamine release produced by cocaine, increasing it in some brain regions but reducing it in others. It has been shown to increase the effectiveness of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class of antidepressants, and may also reduce their side effects. In animal studies, SB-242084 produced stimulant-type activity and reinforcing effects, somewhat similar to but much weaker than cocaine or amphetamines.
SB-271046 is a drug which is used in scientific research. It was one of the first selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonists to be discovered, and was found through high-throughput screening of the SmithKline Beecham Compound Bank using cloned 5-HT6 receptors as a target, with an initial lead compound being developed into SB-271046 through a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study. SB-271046 was found to be potent and selective in vitro and had good oral bioavailability in vivo, but had poor penetration across the blood–brain barrier, so further SAR work was then conducted, which led to improved 5-HT6 antagonists such as SB-357,134 and SB-399,885.
5-Iodowillardiine is a selective agonist for the kainate receptor, with only limited effects at the AMPA receptor. It is selective for kainate receptors composed of GluR5 subunits. It is an excitotoxic neurotoxin in vivo, but has proved highly useful for characterising the subtypes and function of the various kainate receptors in the brain and spinal cord.
BW-723C86 is a tryptamine derivative drug which acts as a 5-HT2B receptor agonist. It has anxiolytic effects in animal studies, and is also used for investigating the function of the 5-HT2B receptor in a range of other tissues.
Befiradol is an experimental drug being studied for the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. It is a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist.
CP-809101 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist. It had promising results in animal models of obesity and psychosis, but associated with genotoxicity which means that future use will be restricted to scientific research applications only.
Osemozotan (MKC-242) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist with some functional selectivity, acting as a full agonist at presynaptic and a partial agonist at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. 5-HT1A receptor stimulation influences the release of various neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine. 5-HT1A receptors are inhibitory G protein-coupled receptor. Osemozotan has antidepressant, anxiolytic, antiobsessional, serenic, and analgesic effects in animal studies, and is used to investigate the role of 5-HT1A receptors in modulating the release of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, and their involvement in addiction to abused stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine.
meta-Chlorophenylbiguanide (1-(3-Chlorophenylbiguanide, m-CPBG) is an allosteric agonist and modulator of the 5-HT3 receptor and an antagonist of the α2A-adrenergic receptor. It has anxiogenic, emetic and hypothermic effects in animal studies.
PRX-03140 is a partial agonist (18% relative to 5-HT) of the 5-HT4 receptor that was developed by EPIX Pharmaceuticals for Alzheimer's disease.
2-Chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine or CHPG is an agonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptors, specific for mGluR5.
Hypidone (developmental code name YL-0919) is an investigational serotonergic antidepressant which is under development for the treatment of major depressive disorder. It acts as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, and 5-HT6 receptor full agonist. It is used as the hydrochloride salt. As of January 2021, hypidone is in phase 2 clinical trials for major depressive disorder.
LSP2-9166 is a drug which acts as a selective agonist for the group III metabotropic glutamate receptors, with a reasonably potent EC50 of 70nM at mGluR4 and 220nM at mGluR7, and weaker activity of 1380nM at mGluR6 and 4800nM at mGluR8. It has anticonvulsant effects in animal studies, and reduces self-administration of various addictive drugs.