Last updated
Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.045.977 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 250-591-6
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/C10H12N2O2/c11-2-1-6-5-12-10-8(6)3-7(13)4-9(10)14/h3-5,12-14H,1-2,11H2 Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/C10H12N2O2/c11-2-1-6-5-12-10-8(6)3-7(13)4-9(10)14/h3-5,12-14H,1-2,11H2
  • Oc1cc2c(c(O)c1)[nH]cc2CCN
Molar mass 192.214 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
X mark.svgN  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)
Infobox references

5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) is a purported neurotoxin [1] [2] used in scientific research to decrease concentrations of serotonin in the brain. The mechanism behind this effect is not well understood, but it is speculated to selectively destroy serotonergic neurons, in a manner similar to the dopaminergic neurotoxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). What is known is that this compound is in fact not selective in depleting serotonin content, but also depletes norepinephrine. To selectively deplete serotonin stores, it is commonly administered in conjunction with desmethylimipramine (desipramine), [3] which inhibits the norepinephrine transporter.

See also

Related Research Articles

Serotonin Monoamine neurotransmitter

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Its biological function is complex and multifaceted, modulating mood, cognition, reward, learning, memory, and numerous physiological processes such as vomiting and vasoconstriction.

Monoamine transporter

Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters. Three major classes of MATs are responsible for the reuptake of their associated amine neurotransmitters. MATs are located just outside the synaptic cleft (peri-synaptically), transporting monoamine transmitter overflow from the synaptic cleft back to the cytoplasm of the pre-synaptic neuron. MAT regulation generally occurs through protein phosphorylation and posttranslational modification. Due to their significance in neuronal signaling, MATs are commonly associated with drugs used to treat mental disorders as well as recreational drugs. Compounds targeting MATs range from medications such as the wide variety of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine (Prozac) to stimulant medications such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and amphetamine in its many forms and derivatives methamphetamine (Desoxyn) and lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse). Furthermore, drugs such as MDMA and natural alkaloids such as cocaine exert their effects in part by their interaction with MATs, by blocking the transporters from mopping up dopamine, serotonin, and other neurotransmitters from the synapse.

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Class of antidepressant medication

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms. SNRIs are monoamine reuptake inhibitors; specifically, they inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. These neurotransmitters are thought to play an important role in mood regulation. SNRIs can be contrasted with the more widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which act upon serotonin only.

A dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) is a class of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine by blocking the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Reuptake inhibition is achieved when extracellular dopamine not absorbed by the postsynaptic neuron is blocked from re-entering the presynaptic neuron. This results in increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine and increase in dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons. Neuromodulators typically bind to metabotropic, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate a second messenger signaling cascade that induces a broad, long-lasting signal. This modulation can last for hundreds of milliseconds to several minutes. Some of the effects of neuromodulators include: alter intrinsic firing activity, increase or decrease voltage-dependent currents, alter synaptic efficacy, increase bursting activity and reconfiguration of synaptic connectivity.

Median raphe nucleus

The median raphe nucleus, also known as the nucleus raphes medianus (NRM) or superior central nucleus, is a brain region composed of polygonal, fusiform, and piriform neurons, which exists rostral to the nucleus raphes pontis. The MRN is located between the posterior end of the superior cerebellar peduncles and the V. Afferents of the motor nucleus. It is one of two nuclei, the other being the dorsal raphe nucleus (DnR), in the midbrain-pons.

Area postrema Medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting

The area postrema, a paired structure in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem, is a circumventricular organ having permeable capillaries and sensory neurons that enable its dual role to detect circulating chemical messengers in the blood and transduce them into neural signals and networks. Its position adjacent to the bilateral nuclei of the solitary tract and role as a sensory transducer allow it to integrate blood-to-brain autonomic functions. Such roles of the area postrema include its detection of circulating hormones involved in vomiting, thirst, hunger, and blood pressure control.

A serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. It does this by concomitantly inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively. Inhibition of the reuptake of these neurotransmitters increases their extracellular concentrations and, therefore, results in an increase in serotonergic, adrenergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission.

5-HT<sub>1A</sub> receptor Serotonin receptor protein distributed in the cerebrum and raphe nucleus

The serotonin 1A receptor is a subtype of serotonin receptor, or 5-HT receptor, that binds serotonin, also known as 5-HT, a neurotransmitter. 5-HT1A is expressed in the brain, spleen, and neonatal kidney. It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), coupled to the Gi protein, and its activation in the brain mediates hyperpolarisation and reduction of firing rate of the postsynaptic neuron. In humans, the serotonin 1A receptor is encoded by the HTR1A gene.


Nisoxetine, originally synthesized in the Lilly research laboratories during the early 1970s, is a potent and selective inhibitor for the reuptake of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) into synapses. It currently has no clinical applications in humans, although it was originally researched as an antidepressant. Nisoxetine is now widely used in scientific research as a standard selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. It has been used to research obesity and energy balance, and exerts some local analgesia effects.

Oxidopamine Chemical compound

Oxidopamine, also known as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenethylamine, is a neurotoxic synthetic organic compound used by researchers to selectively destroy dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons in the brain. 6-OHDA is thought to enter the neurons via the dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) reuptake transporters. Oxidopamine is often used in conjunction with a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor to selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons.


SB-242084 is a psychoactive drug and research chemical which acts as a selective antagonist for the 5HT2C receptor. It has anxiolytic effects, and enhances dopamine signalling in the limbic system, as well as having complex effects on the dopamine release produced by cocaine, increasing it in some brain regions but reducing it in others. It has been shown to increase the effectiveness of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class of antidepressants, and may also reduce their side effects. In animal studies, SB-242084 produced stimulant-type activity and reinforcing effects, somewhat similar to but much weaker than cocaine or amphetamines.

BTS 74,398

BTS 74,398 is a centrally acting stimulant drug which was developed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It inhibits the synaptic reuptake of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, making it a triple reuptake inhibitor. It was effective in animal models of Parkinson's disease, but was unsuccessful in human trials.


SB-216641 is a drug which is a selective antagonist for the serotonin receptor 5-HT1B, with around 25x selectivity over the closely related 5-HT1D receptor. It is used in scientific research, and has demonstrated anxiolytic effects in animal studies.


para-Chloroamphetamine (PCA), also known as 4-chloroamphetamine (4-CA), is a substituted amphetamine and monoamine releaser similar to MDMA, but with substantially higher neurotoxicity, thought to be due to the unrestrained release of both serotonin and dopamine by a metabolite. It is used as a neurotoxin by neurobiologists to selectively kill serotonergic neurons for research purposes, in the same way that 6-hydroxydopamine is used to kill dopaminergic neurons.


MDAI (5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane) is a drug developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University. It acts as a non-neurotoxic and highly selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) in vitro and produces entactogen effects in humans.

Monoamine releasing agent

A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter. Many drugs induce their effects in the body and/or brain via the release of monoamine neurotransmitters, e.g., trace amines, many substituted amphetamines, and related compounds.

Amfonelic acid

Amfonelic acid is a research chemical and dopaminergic stimulant with antibiotic properties.

Norepinephrine–dopamine disinhibitor Antidepressant

Norepinephrine and dopamine disinhibitors (NDDIs) are a class of drugs which act at specific sites to disinhibit downstream norepinephrine and dopamine release in the brain.

Animal models of Parkinsons disease Models used in Parkinsons disease research

Animal models of Parkinson's disease are essential in the research field and widely used to study Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The loss of the dopamine neurons in the brain, results in motor dysfunction, ultimately causing the four cardinal symptoms of PD: tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and bradykinesia. It is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, following Alzheimer's disease. It is estimated that nearly one million people could be living with PD in the United States.


  1. Cairncross, KD; Cox, B; Forster, C; Wren, A (1977). "The ability of local injection of 6-OHDA, 5,6-DHT and 5,7-DHT into the olfactory bulbs to mimic the effects of bilateral bulbectomy in the rat proceedings". British Journal of Pharmacology . 61 (1): 145P–146P. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1977.tb09748.x. PMC   1667625 . PMID   912193.
  2. Liu, J; Chu, YX; Zhang, QJ; Wang, S; Feng, J; Li, Q (2007). "5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesion of the dorsal raphe nucleus alters neuronal activity of the subthalamic nucleus in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats". Brain Research. 1149: 216–22. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.02.052. PMID   17376410. S2CID   46596561.
  3. Martin-Iverson, M.T., Leclere, J.F. and Fibiger, H.C., Cholinergic-dopaminergic interactions and the mechanisms of action of antidepressants, European Journal of Pharmacology, 94 (1983) 193–201.