|Other names||Tozalinone, Thozalinon|
| Routes of|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||204.229 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Thozalinone (USAN) (brand name Stimsen; former developmental code name CL-39808) is a psychostimulant that has been used as an antidepressant in Europe.It has also been trialed as an anorectic. Thozalinone is described as a "dopaminergic stimulant", and likely acts via inducing the release of dopamine and to a minimal extent norepinephrine; similar to analogue pemoline, it is seemingly devoid of abuse potential unlike common psychostimulants that increase catecholamines.
Amphetamine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant marketed under the brand name Evekeo, among others. It is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers, levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine, in their pure amine forms. The term is frequently used informally to refer to any combination of the enantiomers, or to either of them alone. Historically, it has been used to treat nasal congestion and depression. Amphetamine is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that can occur in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication. Symptoms include high fever, confusion, rigid muscles, variable blood pressure, sweating, and fast heart rate. Complications may include rhabdomyolysis, high blood potassium, kidney failure, or seizures.
Dextroamphetamine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and an amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also used as an athletic performance and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. Dextroamphetamine was also used in the past by some countries' military forces to fight fatigue during extended combat operations.
Quinpirole is a psychoactive drug and research chemical which acts as a selective D2 and D3 receptor agonist. It is used in scientific research. Quinpirole has been shown to increase locomotion and sniffing behavior in mice treated with it. At least one study has found that quinpirole induces compulsive behavior symptomatic of obsessive compulsive disorder in rats. Another study in rats show that quinpirole produces significant THC-like effects when metabolic degradation of anandamide is inhibited, supporting the hypothesis that these effects of quinpirole are mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Quinpirole may also reduce relapse in adolescent rat models of cocaine addiction.
Cyproheptadine, sold under the brand name Periactin among others, is a first-generation antihistamine with additional anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, and local anesthetic properties.
Iprindole, sold under the brand names Prondol, Galatur, and Tertran, is an atypical tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that has been used in the United Kingdom and Ireland for the treatment of depression but appears to no longer be marketed. It was developed by Wyeth and was marketed in 1967. The drug has been described by some as the first "second-generation" antidepressant to be introduced. However, it was very little-used compared to other TCAs, with the number of prescriptions dispensed only in the thousands.
Melitracen is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), for the treatment of depression and anxiety. In addition to single drug preparations, it is also available as Deanxit, marketed by Lundbeck, a combination product containing both melitracen and flupentixol.
A serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. It does this by concomitantly inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively. Inhibition of the reuptake of these neurotransmitters increases their extracellular concentrations and, therefore, results in an increase in serotonergic, adrenergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission.
Medifoxamine, previously sold under the brand names Clédial and Gerdaxyl, is an atypical antidepressant with additional anxiolytic properties acting via dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms which was formerly marketed in France and Spain, as well as Morocco. The drug was first introduced in France sometime around 1990. It was withdrawn from the market in 1999 (Morocco) and 2000 (France) following incidences of hepatotoxicity.
Cyamemazine (Tercian), also known as cyamepromazine, is a typical antipsychotic drug of the phenothiazine class which was introduced by Theraplix in France in 1972 and later in Portugal as well. It is used for the treatment of schizophrenia and, especially, for psychosis-associated anxiety, due to its unique anxiolytic efficacy.
Zatosetron (LY-277,359) is a drug which acts as an antagonist at the 5HT3 receptor It is orally active and has a long duration of action, producing antinauseant effects but without stimulating the rate of gastrointestinal transport. It is also an effective anxiolytic in both animal studies and human trials, although with some side effects at higher doses.
Bromantane, sold under the brand name Ladasten, is an atypical psychostimulant and anxiolytic drug of the adamantane family related to amantadine and memantine which is used in Russia in the treatment of neurasthenia. Although the effects of the bromantane have been determined to be dependent on the dopaminergic and possibly serotonergic neurotransmitter systems, its exact mechanism of action is unknown, and it is distinct in its properties relative to typical psychostimulants such as amphetamine. Because of its unique aspects, bromantane has sometimes been described instead as an adaptogen and actoprotector.
Amfonelic acid is a research chemical and dopaminergic stimulant with antibiotic properties.
Dimetacrine, also known as dimethacrine and acripramine, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used in Europe and formerly in Japan for the treatment of depression. It has imipramine-like effects; though, in a double-blind clinical trial against imipramine, dimetacrine was found to have lower efficacy in comparison and produced more weight loss and abnormal liver tests. Little is known about the pharmacology of dimetacrine, but it can be inferred that it acts in a similar manner to other TCAs. If this is indeed the case, dimetacrine may induce severe cardiac toxicity in overdose.
Piquindone (Ro 22-1319) is an atypical antipsychotic with a tricyclic structure that was developed in the 1980s but was never marketed. It acts as a selective D2 receptor antagonist, though based on its effects profile its selectivity may be considered controversial. Unlike most other D2 receptor ligands, piquindone displays Na+-dependent binding, a property it shares with tropapride, zetidoline, and metoclopramide.
Trazium (EGYT-3,615) is an antidepressant drug which was never marketed. It has psychostimulant-like effects and its actions appear to be mediated by the dopaminergic and adrenergic systems. It was formulated as a salt with ethanesulfonic acid and given the generic name trazium esilate (INN).
Lortalamine (LM-1404) is an antidepressant which was synthesized in the early 1980s. It acts as a potent and highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Lortalamine was under development for clinical use but was shelved, likely due to the finding that it produced ocular toxicity in animals. It has been used to label the norepinephrine transporter in positron emission tomography studies.
Clocapramine, also known as 3-chlorocarpipramine, is an atypical antipsychotic of the iminodibenzyl class which was introduced in Japan in 1974 by Yoshitomi for the treatment of schizophrenia. In addition to psychosis, clocapramine has also been used to augment antidepressants in the treatment of anxiety and panic.
Fenmetozole (DH-524) is a drug which was patented as an antidepressant, but was later studied as an antagonist of the effects of ethanol, though results were poor and it even increased its effects in some cases. It acts as an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist similarly to other imidazoles like idazoxan. It was never marketed.
3-Hydroxymorphinan (3-HM), or morphinan-3-ol, is a psychoactive drug of the morphinan family. It is the racemic counterpart to norlevorphanol.
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