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Toloxatone (Humoryl) is an antidepressant launched in 1984 in France by Sanofi Aventis for the treatment of depression. It was discontinued in 2002.It acts as a selective reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA).
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). They are best known as effective antidepressants, especially for treatment-resistant depression and atypical depression. They are also used to treat panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, Parkinson's disease, and several other disorders.
Several alkaloids that function as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are found in the seeds of Peganum harmala, as well as tobacco leaves including harmine, harmaline, and harmalol, which are members of a group of substances with a similar chemical structure collectively known as harmala alkaloids. These alkaloids are of interest for their use in Amazonian shamanism, where they are derived from other plants. The harmala alkaloid harmine, once known as telepathine and banisterine, is a naturally occurring beta-carboline alkaloid that is structurally related to harmaline, and also found in the vine Banisteriopsis caapi. Tetrahydroharmine is also found in B. caapi and P. harmala. Dr. Alexander Shulgin has suggested that harmine may be a breakdown product of harmaline. Harmine and harmaline are both a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs). They can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of monoamine compounds such as serotonin and norepinephrine.
Moclobemide, sold under the brand names Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix among others, is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as Canada, the UK and Australia. It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost.
Brofaromine is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) discovered by Ciba-Geigy. The compound was primarily researched in the treatment of depression and anxiety but its development was dropped before it was brought to market.
Monoamine oxidase B, also known as MAOB, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOB gene.
Lazabemide is a reversible and selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) that was under development as an antiparkinsonian agent but was never marketed.
Pirlindole is mainly a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) and secondly a SNRI which was developed and is used in Russia as an antidepressant. It is structurally and pharmacologically related to metralindole.
Cimoxatone is a reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA). It has a significant food interaction–related adverse effect in combination with tyramine. It was never marketed.
Befloxatone (MD-370,503) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A.
Bifemelane (INN), or bifemelane hydrochloride (JAN), also known as 4-(O-benzylphenoxy)-N-methylbutylamine, is an antidepressant and cerebral activator that is widely used in the treatment of cerebral infarction patients with depressive symptoms in Japan, and in the treatment of senile dementia as well. It also appears to be useful in the treatment of glaucoma. Bifemelane acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of both isoenzymes, with competitive (reversible) inhibition of MAO-A and non-competitive (irreversible) inhibition of MAO-B, and also acts (weakly) as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The drug has nootropic, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like effects in animal models, and appears to enhance the cholinergic system in the brain.
Ladostigil (TV-3,326) is a novel neuroprotective agent being investigated for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and Parkinson's disease. It acts as a reversible acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor, and an irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, and combines the mechanisms of action of older drugs like rivastigmine and rasagiline into a single molecule. In addition to its neuroprotective properties, ladostigil enhances the expression of neurotrophic factors like GDNF and BDNF, and may be capable of reversing some of the damage seen in neurodegenerative diseases via the induction of neurogenesis. Ladostigil also has antidepressant effects, and may be useful for treating comorbid depression and anxiety often seen in such diseases as well.
Metralindole (Inkazan) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) which was investigated in Russia as a potential antidepressant. It is structurally and pharmacologically related to pirlindole.
Amiflamine (FLA-336) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), thereby being a RIMA, and, to a lesser extent, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), as well as a serotonin releasing agent (SRA). It is a derivative of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. The (+)-enantiomer is the active stereoisomer.
Caroxazone is an antidepressant which was formerly used for the treatment of depression but is now no longer marketed. It acts as a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (RIMA) of both MAO-A and MAO-B subtypes, with five-fold preference for the latter.
Almoxatone (MD-780,236) is a selective and reversible inhibitor of MAO-B. It was patented as an antidepressant and antiparkinsonian agent but was never marketed.
Mary Lilias Christian Bernheim was a British biochemist best known for her discovery of the enzyme tyramine oxidase, which was later renamed as monoamine oxidase. Bernheim discovered the enzyme system of tyramine oxidase during her doctorate research at the University of Cambridge in 1928, and her research has been referred to as "one of the seminal discoveries in twentieth century neurobiology".
Bazinaprine (SR-95,191) is an experimental drug candidate. It is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which is believed to be useful for the treatment of depression. The drug strongly inhibits type A monoamine oxidase, but only weakly inhibits type B. The effects of the drug are reversible in vivo, but not in vitro. In studies, the chemical has been shown to not interact in vivo with other neurotransmitter or drug receptor sites.
Sercloremine (CGP-4718A), usually as the hydrochloride salt, is a drug which was developed in the 1980s and was formerly under investigation as an antidepressant, but was never marketed. It acts as a selective, reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) and serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
Mofegiline (MDL-72,974) is a selective, irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) which was under investigation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, but was never marketed.
Eprobemide (INN) is a pharmaceutical drug that was used as an antidepressant in Russia. It is a non-competitive reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A that exhibits selective action on serotonin deamination. Eprobemide differs from moclobemide only in the linker that connects the morpholine fragment with the chlorobenzamide — moclobemide has two carbon atoms while eprobemide has three. Its registration was cancelled on December 30, 2003.