|Trade names||Elamol, Tofacine, Tofalin|
|Other names||tofenacin hydrochloride (USAN US)|
| Routes of|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||255.361 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Tofenacin is an antidepressant drug with a tricyclic-like structure which was developed and marketed in the United Kingdom and Italy in 1971 and 1981, respectively, by Brocades-Stheeman & Pharmacia (now part of Astellas Pharma).It acts as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and based on its close relation to orphenadrine, may also possess anticholinergic and antihistamine properties. Tofenacin is also the major active metabolite of orphenadrine and likely plays a role in its beneficial effects against depressive symptoms seen in Parkinson's disease patients.
The ether formation between 2-Methylbenzhydrol [5472-13-9] (1) and 2-chloroethanol [107-07-3] (2) gives CID:90470367 (3). Reaction with methylamine completed the synthesis of Tofenacin (4).
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics, are a class of psychotropic medication primarily used to manage psychosis, principally in schizophrenia but also in a range of other psychotic disorders. They are also the mainstay together with mood stabilizers in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
Oxycodone, sold under the brand names Roxicodone and OxyContin among others, is a strong, semi-synthetic opioid used medically for treatment of moderate to severe pain. It is highly addictive and a commonly abused drug. It is usually taken by mouth, and is available in immediate-release and controlled-release formulations. Onset of pain relief typically begins within fifteen minutes and lasts for up to six hours with the immediate-release formulation. In the United Kingdom, it is available by injection. Combination products are also available with paracetamol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen, naloxone, naltrexone, and aspirin.
Haloperidol, sold under the brand name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication. Haloperidol is used in the treatment of schizophrenia, tics in Tourette syndrome, mania in bipolar disorder, delirium, agitation, acute psychosis, and hallucinations from alcohol withdrawal. It may be used by mouth or injection into a muscle or a vein. Haloperidol typically works within 30 to 60 minutes. A long-acting formulation may be used as an injection every four weeks by people with schizophrenia or related illnesses, who either forget or refuse to take the medication by mouth.
Ziprasidone, sold under the brand name Geodon among others, is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It may be used by mouth and by injection into a muscle (IM). The IM form may be used for acute agitation in people with schizophrenia.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox and Faverin among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), but is also used to treat anxiety disorders such as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Diphenhydramine (DPH) is an antihistamine medication mainly used to treat allergies. It can also be used for insomnia, symptoms of the common cold, tremor in parkinsonism, and nausea. It is taken by mouth, injected into a vein, injected into a muscle, or applied to the skin. Maximal effect is typically around two hours after a dose, and effects can last for up to seven hours.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease. It is also used in the treatment of high blood pressure, low blood potassium that does not improve with supplementation, early puberty in boys, acne and excessive hair growth in women, and as a part of transgender hormone therapy in transfeminine people. Spironolactone is taken by mouth.
Domperidone, sold under the brand name Motilium among others, is a dopamine antagonist medication which is used to treat nausea and vomiting and certain gastrointestinal problems like gastroparesis. It raises the level of prolactin in the human body and is used to induce and promote breast milk production. It may be taken by mouth or rectally.
Desipramine, sold under the brand name Norpramin among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used in the treatment of depression. It acts as a relatively selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, though it does also have other activities such as weak serotonin reuptake inhibitory, α1-blocking, antihistamine, and anticholinergic effects. The drug is not considered a first-line treatment for depression since the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, which have fewer side effects and are safer in overdose.
Doxylamine, sold under the brand name Unisom among others, is an antihistamine medication which is used in the treatment of insomnia and allergies. In combination with pyridoxine (vitamin B6), it is also used to treat morning sickness in pregnant women. Doxylamine is available over-the-counter, and is used in nighttime cold medicines, such as NyQuil, as well as in pain medications containing acetaminophen and codeine, to help with sleep. The medication is taken by mouth.
Nortriptyline, sold under the brand name Pamelor, among others, is a medication used to treat depression. This medicine is used for: neuropathic pain, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), smoking cessation and anxiety. As with many antidepressants, its use for young people with depression and other psychiatric disorders may be limited due to increased suicidality in the 18-24 population initiating treatment. Nortriptyline is a less preferred treatment for ADHD and stopping smoking. It is taken by mouth.
Orphenadrine is an anticholinergic drug of the ethanolamine antihistamine class; it is closely related to diphenhydramine. It is a muscle relaxant that is used to treat muscle pain and to help with motor control in Parkinson's disease, but has largely been superseded by newer drugs. This substance is considered a dirty drug due to its multiple mechanism of action in different pathways. It was discovered and developed in the 1940s.
Zonisamide, sold under the brand name Zonegran among others, is a medication used to treat the symptoms of epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. Chemically it is a sulfonamide. It serves as an anticonvulsant used primarily as an adjunctive therapy in adults with Parkinson's disease, partial-onset seizures; infantile spasm, mixed seizure types of Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, myoclonic and generalized tonic clonic seizure. Despite this it is also sometimes used as a monotherapy for partial-onset seizures.
Norethisterone acetate (NETA), also known as norethindrone acetate and sold under the brand name Primolut-Nor among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders. The medication available in low-dose and high-dose formulations and is used alone or in combination with an estrogen. It is ingested orally.
Dosulepin, also known as dothiepin and sold under the brand name Prothiaden among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used in the treatment of depression. Dosulepin was once the most frequently prescribed antidepressant in the United Kingdom, but it is no longer widely used due to its relatively high toxicity in overdose without therapeutic advantages over other TCAs. It acts as a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) and also has other activities including antihistamine, antiadrenergic, antiserotonergic, anticholinergic, and sodium channel-blocking effects.
Testosterone enanthate, sold under the brand names Delatestryl and Xyosted among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men. It is also used in hormone therapy for transgender men. It is given by injection into muscle or subcutaneously usually once every one to four weeks.
Gestrinone, sold under the brand names Dimetrose and Nemestran among others, is a medication which is used in the treatment of endometriosis. It has also been used to treat other conditions such as uterine fibroids and heavy menstrual bleeding and has been investigated as a method of birth control. Gestrinone is used alone and is not formulated in combination with other medications. It is taken by mouth or in through the vagina.
Melitracen is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), for the treatment of depression and anxiety. In addition to single drug preparations, it is also available as Deanxit, marketed by Lundbeck, a combination product containing both melitracen and flupentixol.
Nefopam, sold under the brand name Acupan among others, is a centrally acting, non-opioid painkilling medication, that is primarily used to treat moderate to severe pain.
Amitriptylinoxide, or amitriptyline N-oxide, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which was introduced in Europe in the 1970s for the treatment of depression.