|AHFS/Drugs.com||International Drug Names|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|ECHA InfoCard|| 100.005.106 |
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||445.36 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Tiemonium iodide is an antimuscarinic. It is poorly absorbed from the gut. The active moiety is tiemonium, a quaternary ammonium cation.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NH+
4. It is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH3). Ammonium is also a general name for positively charged or protonated substituted amines and quaternary ammonium cations (NR+
4), where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups (indicated by R).
Tetraethylammonium (TEA), (NEt+
4) or (Et4N+) is a quaternary ammonium cation consisting of four ethyl groups attached to a central nitrogen atom, and is positively charged. It is a counterion used in the research laboratory to prepare lipophilic salts of inorganic anions. It is used similarly to tetrabutylammonium, the difference being that its salts are less lipophilic and more easily crystallized.
Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure NR+
4, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group. Unlike the ammonium ion and the primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations, the quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution. Quaternary ammonium salts or quaternary ammonium compounds are salts of quaternary ammonium cations. Polyquats are a variety of engineered polymer forms which provide multiple quat molecules within a larger molecule.
Hofmann elimination is an elimination reaction of an amine where the least stable alkene, the Hofmann product, is formed. This tendency, known as the Hofmann rule, is in contrast to usual elimination reactions, where Zaitsev's rule predicts the formation of the most stable alkene. It is named after its discoverer, August Wilhelm von Hofmann.
In organic chemistry, the Menshutkin reaction converts a tertiary amine into a quaternary ammonium salt by reaction with an alkyl halide. Similar reactions occur when tertiary phosphines are treated with alkyl halides.
In chemistry, triiodide usually refers to the triiodide ion, I−
3. This anion, one of the polyhalogen ions, is composed of three iodine atoms. It is formed by combining aqueous solutions of iodide salts and iodine. Some salts of the anion have been isolated, including thallium(I) triiodide (Tl+[I3]−) and ammonium triiodide ([NH4]+[I3]−). Triiodide is observed to be a red colour in solution .
Tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA or TEMED) is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2NCH2CH2N(CH3)2. This species is derived from ethylenediamine by replacement of the four amine hydrogens with four methyl groups. It is a colorless liquid, although old samples often appear yellow. Its odor is remarkably similar to that of rotting fish.
Cefquinome is a fourth-generation cephalosporin with pharmacological and antibacterial properties valuable in the treatment of coliform mastitis and other infections. It is only used in veterinary applications.
Dequalinium is a quaternary ammonium cation and bolaamphiphile commonly available as the dichloride salt. The bromide, iodide, acetate, and undecenoate salts are known as well. Dequalinium chloride is the active ingredient of several medications:
Tibezonium iodide is an antiseptic for use in the mouth. It is a salt consisting of a lipophilic quaternary ammonium cation and iodide as the counterion.
Tetraethylammonium bromide (TEAB) is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula C8H20N+Br−, often written as "Et4N+Br−" in the chemical literature. It has been used as the source of tetraethylammonium ions in pharmacological and physiological studies, but is also used in organic chemical synthesis.
Isopropamide (R5) is a long-acting anticholinergic drug. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers and other gastrointestinal disorders involving hyperacidity and hypermotility. Chemically, it contains a quaternary ammonium group. It is most often provided as an iodide salt, but is also available as a bromide or chloride salt. It was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1954.
The Sommelet–Hauser rearrangement (named after M. Sommelet and Charles R. Hauser) is a rearrangement reaction of certain benzyl quaternary ammonium salts. The reagent is sodium amide or another alkali metal amide and the reaction product a N,N-dialkylbenzylamine with a new alkyl group in the aromatic ortho position. For example, benzyltrimethylammonium iodide, [(C6H5CH2)N(CH3)3]I, rearranges in the presence of sodium amide to yield the o-methyl derivative of N,N-dimethylbenzylamine.
Candocuronium iodide is an aminosteroid neuromuscular-blocking drug or skeletal muscle relaxant in the category of non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking drugs. Its potential adjunctive use in anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation was briefly evaluated in clinical studies in India, but further development discontinued because of attendant cardiovascular effects, primarily tachycardia that was no worse than but also not an improvement over the clinically established pancuronium bromide. Candocuronium demonstrated a short duration and a rapid onset of action, with little or no ganglion blocking activity, and it was only slightly less potent than pancuronium.
Charles Roy Hauser was an American chemist. Hauser was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a professor of chemistry at Duke University.
Candicine is a naturally occurring organic compound that is a quaternary ammonium salt with a phenethylamine skeleton. It is the N,N,N-trimethyl derivative of the well-known biogenic amine tyramine, and, being a natural product with a positively charged nitrogen atom in its molecular structure, it is classed as an alkaloid. Although it is found in a variety of plants, including barley, its properties have not been extensively studied with modern techniques. Candicine is toxic after parenteral administration, producing symptoms of neuromuscular blockade; further details are given in the "Pharmacology" section below.
Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula (C2H5)4N+Cl−, sometimes written as Et4N+Cl−. In appearance, it is a hygroscopic, colorless, crystalline solid. It has been used as the source of tetraethylammonium ions in pharmacological and physiological studies, but is also used in organic chemical synthesis.
Tetraethylammonium iodide is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula C8H20N+I−. It has been used as the source of tetraethylammonium ions in pharmacological and physiological studies, but is also used in organic chemical synthesis.
Tetramethylammonium (TMA) or (Me4N+) is the simplest quaternary ammonium cation, consisting of four methyl groups attached to a central nitrogen atom, and is isoelectronic with neopentane. It is positively charged and can only be isolated in association with a counter-ion. Common salts include tetramethylammonium chloride and tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Tetramethylammonium salts are used in chemical synthesis and are widely employed in pharmacological research.
Tetra-n-butylammonium iodide (TBAI) is a quaternary ammonium salt with an iodide counterion. It is used for synthesizing tetra-n-butylammonium triiodide by mixing with iodine.
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