|Type||Daily official journal|
|Founded||30 December 1952|
|Language||Official languages of the EU member states|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the European Union
The Official Journal of the European Union (the OJEU) is the official gazette of record for the European Union (EU). It is published every working day in all of the official languages of the member states of the EU, except generally Irish. Only legal acts published in the Official Journal are binding.
It was first published on 30 December 1952 as the Official Journal of the European Coal and Steel Community , then renamed Official Journal of the European Communities with the establishment of the European Community, before taking its current title when the Treaty of Nice entered into force on 1 February 2003.
Since 1998, the journal has been available online via the EUR-Lex service.[ citation needed ] On 1 July 2013, published issues of the Official Journal began to have legal value only in electronic form, per Article 5 of Regulation (EU) No 216/2013. From this date, the printed version has lost its legal value. Each issue is published as a set of documents in PDF/A format (one per official language) plus one XML document ensuring the overall coherency through hashes and a qualified electronic signature (a kind of digital signature defined in European law) extended with a trusted time stamp.
The journal comprises three series:
A societas Europaea is a public company registered in accordance with the corporate law of the European Union (EU), introduced in 2004 with the Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Company. Such a company may more easily transfer to or merge with companies in other member states.
A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result. Directives first have to be enacted into National law by member states before its laws are ruling on Individuals residing in their countries. Directives normally leave member states with a certain amount of leeway as to the exact rules to be adopted. Directives can be adopted by means of a variety of legislative procedures depending on their subject matter.
Eur-Lex is an official website of European Union law and other public documents of the European Union (EU), published in 24 official languages of the EU. The Official Journal (OJ) of the European Union is also published on Eur-Lex. Users can access Eur-Lex free of charge and also register for a free account, which offers extra features.
Directive 98/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 1998 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions is a European Union directive in the field of patent law, made under the internal market provisions of the Treaty of Rome. It was intended to harmonise the laws of Member States regarding the patentability of biotechnological inventions, including plant varieties and human genes.
The European Union (EU) directive on criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights (2005/0127/COD) was a proposal from the European Commission for a directive aimed "to supplement Directive 2004/48/EC of 29 April 2004 on the enforcement of intellectual property rights ". The directive was proposed on July 12, 2005 by the Commission of the European Communities.
The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communautaire of the European Union. The free movement of workers means that nationals of any member state of the European Union can take up an employment in another member state on the same conditions as the nationals of that particular member state. In particular, no discrimination based on nationality is allowed. It is part of the free movement of persons and one of the four economic freedoms: free movement of goods, services, labour and capital. Article 45 TFEU states that:
- Freedom of movement for workers shall be secured within the Community.
- Such freedom of movement shall entail the abolition of any discrimination based on nationality between workers of the Member States as regards employment, remuneration and other conditions of work and employment.
- It shall entail the right, subject to limitations justified on grounds of public policy, public security or public health:
- The provisions of this article shall not apply to employment in the public service.
The European Pharmacopoeia is a major regional pharmacopoeia which provides common quality standards throughout the pharmaceutical industry in Europe to control the quality of medicines, and the substances used to manufacture them. It is a published collection of monographs which describe both the individual and general quality standards for ingredients, dosage forms, and methods of analysis for medicines. These standards apply to medicines for both human and veterinary use.
Government procurement or public procurement is undertaken by the public authorities of the European Union (EU) and its member states in order to award contracts for public works and for the purchase of goods and services in accordance with the principles underlying the Treaties of the European Union. Public procurement represents 13.5% of EU GDP as of 2007, and has been the subject of increasing European regulation since the 1970s because of its importance to the European single market.
The Roaming Regulation (EU) 531/2012 with later amendments and implementing regulations, regulate the imposition of roaming charges within the European Economic Area (EEA), which consists of the member states of the European Union, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. They regulate both the charges mobile network operator can impose on its subscribers for using telephone and data services outside of the network's member state, and the wholesale rates networks can charge each other to allow their subscribers access to each other's networks.
The Publications Office of the European Union is an inter-institutional office of the European Union, established in Luxembourg in 1969, that serves as the official publisher of the EU institutions, agencies and bodies.
Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies. .europa.eu is also used as a common second level domain for the websites of the EU's bodies, for instance iss.europa.eu is the address of the Institute for Security Studies.
A European Documentation Centre (EDC) is a body designated by the European Commission to collect and disseminate publications of the European Union for the purposes of research and education. There are 400 such centers in all member states of the EU. The mandate of an EDC is to receive all official EU publications, documents, contracts and electronic databases then make them available to researchers, educators, students, and interested members of the general public. The centers are also legal depositories of Acquis communautaire. Although primarily academic in nature, anyone can visit an EDC to consult official EU publications.
The Single European Railway Directive 20122012/34/EU is an EU Directive that regulates railway networks in EU law. This recast the "First Railway Directive" or "Package" from 1991, and allows open access operations on railway lines by companies other than those that own the rail infrastructure. The legislation was extended by further directives to include cross border transit of freight.
The European identity card is an electronic identity document intended to replace and standardise the various identity card styles currently in use in the member states of the European Union (EU), and the European Economic Area (EEA). It was created by Regulation (EU) 2019/1157 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on strengthening the security of identity cards of Union citizens and of residence documents issued to Union citizens and their family members exercising their right of free movement, which is scheduled to enter into force on 2 August 2021.
The Transparency Directive, Transparency Obligations Directive or Directive 2004/109/EC is an EU Directive issued in 2004, revising an earlier Directive 2001/34/EC. The Transparency Directive was amended in 2013 by the Transparency Directive Amending Directive.
Council Implementing Regulation (EU) No. 282/2011 was adopted by the Council of the European Union on 15 March 2011. This was mainly because the terms and wording of Directive 2006/112/EC have been inconclusive in some cases. The Regulation provided new implementing measures for the VAT Directive. Especially due to the amendment of the VAT Directive itself and the consistent case-law of the European Court of Justice, the former Implementing Regulation (EC) No. 1777/2005 had to be recast and clarified in certain aspects. This Implementing Regulation became effective on 1 July 2011 and does not have to be transported into national legislation of the individual member states of the European Union and thus is directly applicable.
The Electronic Signatures Directive 1999/93/EC was a European Union directive on the use of electronic signatures (e-signatures) in electronic contracts within the European Union (EU).
The European Single Procurement Document (ESPD) is an electronic self-declaration document to be submitted by suppliers interested in tendering for contracts for the supply of goods, works or services to public bodies located anywhere within the European Union.