Foreign relations of Slovenia

Last updated

Since Slovenia declared independence in 1991, its Governments have underscored their commitment in improving cooperation with neighbouring countries and to actively contribute to international efforts aimed at bringing stability to Southeast Europe. Resource limitations have nevertheless been a problem hindering the efficiency of the Slovenian diplomacy. In the 1990s, foreign relations, especially with Italy, Austria and Croatia, triggered internal political controversies. In the last eight years, however, a wide consensus has been reached among the vast majority of Slovenian political parties to jointly work in the improvement of the country's diplomatic infrastructure and to avoid politicizing the foreign relations by turning them into an issue of internal political debates.

Multilateral

Slovenian embassy in the Hague. Embassy of Slovenia in the Hague - IMG 2273.jpg
Slovenian embassy in the Hague.

Meeting NATO/Partnership for Peace/EAPC goals

Contributions to Bosnian stability

Relations with neighbors

Slovenia's bilateral relations with its neighbors are generally good and cooperative. However, a few unresolved disputes with Croatia remain. They are related mostly to the succession of the former Yugoslavia, including demarcation of their common border. In addition, unlike the other successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia did not normalize relations with the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (Serbia and Montenegro) until after the passing from power of Slobodan Milošević; although the Slovenes did open a representative office in Podgorica to work with Montenegrin President Milo Đukanović's government.

Succession issues, particularly concerning liabilities and assets of the former Yugoslavia, remain a key factor in Slovenia's relations in the region. On the whole, no conflicts mar relations with neighbors, which are on a sound footing. Numerous cooperative projects are either underway or envisioned, and bilateral and multilateral partnerships are deepening. Differences, many of which stem from Yugoslavia's time, have been handled responsibly and are being resolved.

Bilateral relations

Africa

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria See Algeria–Slovenia relations
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt See Egypt–Slovenia relations

Since September 2007, Egypt has an embassy in Ljubljana. Slovenia has an embassy in Cairo (opened in 1993). Both countries are members of the Union for the Mediterranean.

Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau is represented in Slovenia by an honorary consulate in Ljubljana. [1] [2]

Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 9 November 1992
  • South Africa recognized the independence and sovereignty of Slovenia on April 2, 1992.
  • Slovenia has no official representation in South Africa.
  • South Africa is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna, Austria, and through an honorary consulate in Ljubljana.
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia See Slovenia–Tunisia relations

Americas

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 14 April 1992
  • Argentina is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Buenos Aires, which is also accredited to Chile, Peru, Paraguay and Uruguay. [3]
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize

Belize is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna. [4]

Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 21 December 1992
  • Brazil has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Brazilia, which is also accredited to Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. [5]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada See Canada–Slovenia relations
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia July 2004
  • Colombia is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria). [6]
  • Slovenia is represented in Colombia through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica

Dominica is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in London. [4]

Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador See El Salvador–Slovenia relations
Flag of Honduras (darker variant).svg  Honduras See Honduras–Slovenia relations
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 22 May 1992See Mexico–Slovenia relations
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 7 April 1992See Slovenia–United States relations
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Washington, DC and a consulate-general in Cleveland. [8]
  • United States has an embassy in Ljubljana. [9]
  • The former first Lady of the United States, Melania Trump (Melanija Knavs) comes from Slovenia.

Asia

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 27 June 1994
  • Diplomatic relations between Slovenia and Armenia began on 27 June 1994.
  • Armenia has an honorary consulate in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an honorary consulate Yerevan.
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan See Azerbaijan–Slovenia relations
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 13 January 1993See Georgia–Slovenia relations
Flag of India.svg  India 11 May 1992 [10]
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran See Iran–Slovenia relations
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 28 April 1992See Israel–Slovenia relations
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan See Japan–Slovenia relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Tokyo.
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 1992 [14]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1992-04-15See Slovenia–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Republika Slovenija and the Republic of Korea began on 15 April 1992.

  • Upon the invitation of H.E. Yun Byung-se Foreign Minister of South Korea, H.E. Karl Viktor Erjavec Foreign Minister of the Slovenia paid an official visit to Seoul on 11–13 March 2015, for a meeting at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 13 March 2015. [15]
  • Bilateral Trade in 2014
    • Exports 1665 million US dollars
    • Imports 126 million US dollars
  • The number of South Korean citizens living in the Republic of Slovenia in 2013 was about 25. [16]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam See Slovenia–Vietnam relations

Europe

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania See Albania–Slovenia relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria

Relations between Austria and Slovenia are close. Austria was, next to Germany and the Holy See, the most firm supporter of Slovenia's independence. It firmly endorsed Slovenia's path into the European Union. Economic cooperation between the two countries is very important and has been expanding since the early 1990s. Regional cooperation, especially with the states of Carinthia and Styria, is well developed: as a concrete manifestation of the excellent state of regional relations, Slovenia, Austria, and Italy entered a joint bid to organize the 2006 and 2010 Winter Olympic Games.

Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium See Belgium–Slovenia relations
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Slovenia relations
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Sarajevo.
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria See Bulgaria–Slovenia relations
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia See Croatia–Slovenia relations

Before 1991, both countries were part of Yugoslavia. On June 26, 1991, a mutual recognitial agreement was signed by both countries. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on February 6, 1992. Croatia has an embassy in Ljubljana and two honorary consulates in Maribor and Koper. Slovenia has an embassy in Zagreb and an honorary consulate in Split. Both countries shares 670 km of common border.

Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus See Cyprus–Slovenia relations
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic See Czech Republic–Slovenia relations
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark See Denmark–Slovenia relations
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland See Finland–Slovenia relations
Flag of France.svg  France See France–Slovenia relations
  • France has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Paris.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany See Germany–Slovenia relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece See Greece–Slovenia relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary

Relations with Hungary are excellent. Unlike with some of Hungary's other neighbors, minority issues have not been a problem in Hungarian-Slovene relations. The Hungarian minority in Slovenia is granted a policy of positive discrimination under the Slovene constitution, and the legal status of Hungarian Slovenes is good.

Within the Multilateral Cooperation Initiative between Slovenia, Italy, Hungary, and Croatia, cooperation exists in numerous fields, including military (Multinational Land Force peacekeeping brigade), transportation, combating money laundering and organized crime, non-proliferation, border crossings, and environmental issues.

Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 1991
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy

The bilateral relations between Italy and Slovenia have improved dramatically since 1994 and are now at a very good level. In the early 1990s, the issue regarding property restitution to the Istrian exiles was hindering the development of a good relationship between the two countries. By 1996, however, the issue had been set aside, with Italy renouncing any revision of the Treaty of Osimo, allowing a significant improvement in relations. Italy was a firm supporter of Slovene EU and NATO membership, helping Slovenia technically and legislatively master its bid for membership in European and transatlantic institutions.

In 2001, the Italian Parliament finally approved the legislation resolving the last open issues regarding the Slovenian minority in Italy. The legislation, welcomed by both the representatives of the Slovenian minority in Friuli Venezia Giulia and the Slovenian government, started to be implemented in 2007, removing the last pending issue between the two countries. Since then, Italo-Slovene relations can be characterized as excellent. Although there do not appear to be any scheduled flights between the two countries and the train service, which used to be frequent, has been limited to one train a day in each direction (a night service from Budapest to Venice and back) until December 2011, when it was discontinued, thus leaving no railway connection between the two countries. [21] [22]

Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo See Kosovo–Slovenia relations

Slovenia has a record of supporting the U.S. position on Kosovo, both in regular public statements by top officials and on the Security Council. Prior and during the Kosovo War of 1999, Slovenian top government officials called repeatedly for Slobodan Milošević's compliance with NATO demands. Slovenia granted NATO use of its airspace and offered further logistical support. It also has pledged personnel to support NATO humanitarian operations in the region. Slovenia helped Macedonia deal with the refugee crisis by providing 880 million sit (US$4.9 million) of humanitarian aid, in addition to granting a concession for imported agricultural products. The Slovene Government allocated 45 million SIT (US$250,000) to help Albania, Montenegro, and the Republic of Macedonia, one-third of which went to the latter. Slovenia took in over 4,100 Kosovar refugees during the crisis.

Slovenia recognized Kosovo on 5 March 2008. [23] Slovenia has an embassy in Pristina since 15 May 2008. [24] Kosovo has an embassy in Ljubljana.

Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia See Latvia–Slovenia relations
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova See Moldova–Slovenia relations

Moldova recognized the Republic of Slovenia at an unknown date. Diplomatic relations were established on October 27, 1993. Both countries are represented in each other through their embassies in Budapest (Hungary).

Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 21 June 2006See Montenegro–Slovenia relations
  • Slovenia recognized Montenegro’s independence on June 20, 2006.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • On June 23, 2006, Slovenia opened its embassy in Podgorica. [25]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 25 June 1991See Netherlands–Slovenia relations
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia See North Macedonia–Slovenia relations

The two countries have very close political and economic relations. Once part of SFR Yugoslavia, the two republics declared independence in 1991 (Slovenia in June, Macedonia in September) and recognised each other's independence on 12 February 1992. [28] Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on 17 March 1992. [29] Slovenia supports North Macedonia's sovereignty, territorial integrity, its Euro-integration and visa liberalisation. [28] [30] A significant number of Slovenian investments ended up in North Macedonia. In 2007, about 70 million euros were invested. [31] In January 2009, the Macedonian prime minister Nikola Gruevski announced, that he expects more Slovenian investments in infrastructure and energy projects. [31] Over 70 Slovenian companies are present on the Macedonian market. [28]

  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 10 April 1992
  • Poland has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal See Portugal–Slovenia relations
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 28 August 1992See Romania–Slovenia relations
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 25 May 1992See Russia–Slovenia relations
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 9 December 2000See Serbia–Slovenia relations
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia See Slovakia–Slovenia relations
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain See Slovenia–Spain relations
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden See Slovenia–Sweden relations
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1992
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 10 March 1992
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom

See also

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References

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