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politics and government of
| Sloveniaportal |
Since Slovenia declared independence in 1991, its Governments have underscored their commitment in improving cooperation with neighbouring countries and to actively contribute to international efforts aimed at bringing stability to Southeast Europe. Resource limitations have nevertheless been a problem hindering the efficiency of the Slovenian diplomacy. In the 1990s, foreign relations, especially with Italy, Austria and Croatia, triggered internal political controversies. In the last eight years, however, a wide consensus has been reached among the vast majority of Slovenian political parties to jointly work in the improvement of the country's diplomatic infrastructure and to avoid politicizing the foreign relations by turning them into an issue of internal political debates.
Slovenia's bilateral relations with its neighbors are generally good and cooperative. However, a few unresolved disputes with Croatia remain. They are related mostly to the succession of the former Yugoslavia, including demarcation of their common border. In addition, unlike the other successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia did not normalize relations with the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (Serbia and Montenegro) until after the passing from power of Slobodan Milošević; although the Slovenes did open a representative office in Podgorica to work with Montenegrin President Milo Đukanović's government.
Succession issues, particularly concerning liabilities and assets of the former Yugoslavia, remain a key factor in Slovenia's relations in the region. On the whole, no conflicts mar relations with neighbors, which are on a sound footing. Numerous cooperative projects are either underway or envisioned, and bilateral and multilateral partnerships are deepening. Differences, many of which stem from Yugoslavia's time, have been handled responsibly and are being resolved.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Algeria||See Algeria–Slovenia relations|
|Egypt||See Egypt–Slovenia relations|
|South Africa||9 November 1992|
|Tunisia||See Slovenia–Tunisia relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Argentina||14 April 1992|
Belize is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna.
|Brazil||21 December 1992|
|Canada||See Canada–Slovenia relations|
Dominica is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in London.
|El Salvador||See El Salvador–Slovenia relations|
|Honduras||See Honduras–Slovenia relations|
|Mexico||22 May 1992||See Mexico–Slovenia relations|
|United States||7 April 1992||See Slovenia–United States relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Armenia||27 June 1994|
|Azerbaijan||See Azerbaijan–Slovenia relations|
|Georgia||13 January 1993||See Georgia–Slovenia relations|
|India||11 May 1992|
|Iran||See Iran–Slovenia relations|
|Israel||28 April 1992||See Israel–Slovenia relations |
|Japan||See Japan–Slovenia relations |
|South Korea||1992-04-15||See Slovenia–South Korea relations |
The establishment of diplomatic relations between Republika Slovenija and the Republic of Korea began on 15 April 1992.
|Vietnam||See Slovenia–Vietnam relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Albania||See Albania–Slovenia relations|
Relations between Austria and Slovenia are close. Austria was, next to Germany and the Holy See, the most firm supporter of Slovenia's independence. It firmly endorsed Slovenia's path into the European Union. Economic cooperation between the two countries is very important and has been expanding since the early 1990s. Regional cooperation, especially with the states of Carinthia and Styria, is well developed: as a concrete manifestation of the excellent state of regional relations, Slovenia, Austria, and Italy entered a joint bid to organize the 2006 and 2010 Winter Olympic Games.
|Belgium||See Belgium–Slovenia relations|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Slovenia relations |
|Bulgaria||See Bulgaria–Slovenia relations|
|Croatia||See Croatia–Slovenia relations |
Before 1991, both countries were part of Yugoslavia. On June 26, 1991, a mutual recognitial agreement was signed by both countries. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on February 6, 1992. Croatia has an embassy in Ljubljana and two honorary consulates in Maribor and Koper. Slovenia has an embassy in Zagreb and an honorary consulate in Split. Both countries shares 670 km of common border.
|Cyprus||See Cyprus–Slovenia relations|
|Czech Republic||See Czech Republic–Slovenia relations|
|Denmark||See Denmark–Slovenia relations|
|Finland||See Finland–Slovenia relations|
|France||See France–Slovenia relations|
|Germany||See Germany–Slovenia relations|
|Greece||See Greece–Slovenia relations|
Relations with Hungary are excellent. Unlike with some of Hungary's other neighbors, minority issues have not been a problem in Hungarian-Slovene relations. The Hungarian minority in Slovenia is granted a policy of positive discrimination under the Slovene constitution, and the legal status of Hungarian Slovenes is good.
Within the Multilateral Cooperation Initiative between Slovenia, Italy, Hungary, and Croatia, cooperation exists in numerous fields, including military (Multinational Land Force peacekeeping brigade), transportation, combating money laundering and organized crime, non-proliferation, border crossings, and environmental issues.
The bilateral relations between Italy and Slovenia have improved dramatically since 1994 and are now at a very good level. In the early 1990s, the issue regarding property restitution to the Istrian exiles was hindering the development of a good relationship between the two countries. By 1996, however, the issue had been set aside, with Italy renouncing any revision of the Treaty of Osimo, allowing a significant improvement in relations. Italy was a firm supporter of Slovene EU and NATO membership, helping Slovenia technically and legislatively master its bid for membership in European and transatlantic institutions.
In 2001, the Italian Parliament finally approved the legislation resolving the last open issues regarding the Slovenian minority in Italy. The legislation, welcomed by both the representatives of the Slovenian minority in Friuli Venezia Giulia and the Slovenian government, started to be implemented in 2007, removing the last pending issue between the two countries. Since then, Italo-Slovene relations can be characterized as excellent. Although there do not appear to be any scheduled flights between the two countries and the train service, which used to be frequent, has been limited to one train a day in each direction (a night service from Budapest to Venice and back) until December 2011, when it was discontinued, thus leaving no railway connection between the two countries.
|Kosovo||See Kosovo–Slovenia relations |
Slovenia has a record of supporting the U.S. position on Kosovo, both in regular public statements by top officials and on the Security Council. Prior and during the Kosovo War of 1999, Slovenian top government officials called repeatedly for Slobodan Milošević's compliance with NATO demands. Slovenia granted NATO use of its airspace and offered further logistical support. It also has pledged personnel to support NATO humanitarian operations in the region. Slovenia helped Macedonia deal with the refugee crisis by providing 880 million sit (US$4.9 million) of humanitarian aid, in addition to granting a concession for imported agricultural products. The Slovene Government allocated 45 million SIT (US$250,000) to help Albania, Montenegro, and the Republic of Macedonia, one-third of which went to the latter. Slovenia took in over 4,100 Kosovar refugees during the crisis.
|Latvia||See Latvia–Slovenia relations|
|Moldova||See Moldova–Slovenia relations |
Moldova recognized the Republic of Slovenia at an unknown date. Diplomatic relations were established on October 27, 1993. Both countries are represented in each other through their embassies in Budapest (Hungary).
|Montenegro||21 June 2006||See Montenegro–Slovenia relations|
|Netherlands||25 June 1991||See Netherlands–Slovenia relations |
|North Macedonia||See North Macedonia–Slovenia relations |
The two countries have very close political and economic relations. Once part of SFR Yugoslavia, the two republics declared independence in 1991 (Slovenia in June, Macedonia in September) and recognised each other's independence on 12 February 1992. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on 17 March 1992. Slovenia supports North Macedonia's sovereignty, territorial integrity, its Euro-integration and visa liberalisation. A significant number of Slovenian investments ended up in North Macedonia. In 2007, about 70 million euros were invested. In January 2009, the Macedonian prime minister Nikola Gruevski announced, that he expects more Slovenian investments in infrastructure and energy projects. Over 70 Slovenian companies are present on the Macedonian market.
|Poland||10 April 1992|
|Portugal||See Portugal–Slovenia relations|
|Romania||28 August 1992||See Romania–Slovenia relations|
|Russia||25 May 1992||See Russia–Slovenia relations|
|Serbia||9 December 2000||See Serbia–Slovenia relations|
|Slovakia||See Slovakia–Slovenia relations|
|Spain||See Slovenia–Spain relations|
|Sweden||See Slovenia–Sweden relations|
|Ukraine||10 March 1992|
As one of the oldest Euro-Atlantic member states in the region of Southeast Europe, Greece enjoys a prominent geopolitical role as a middle power, due to its political and geographical proximity to Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Its main allies are the United States, France, Italy, Bulgaria, the other NATO countries, Cyprus and the rest of the European Union.
The foreign relations of North Macedonia since its independence in 1991 have been characterized by the country's efforts to gain membership in international organizations such as NATO and the European Union and to gain international recognition under its constitutional name, overshadowed by a long-standing, dead-locked dispute with neighboring Greece. Greek objections to the country's name have led to it being admitted to the United Nations and several other international fora only under the provisional designation Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Slovak Republic has been a member of European Union since 2004. Slovakia has been an active participant in U.S.- and NATO-led military actions. There is a joint Czech-Slovak peacekeeping force in Kosovo. After the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack on the United States, the government opened its airspace to coalition planes. In June 2002, Slovakia announced that they would send an engineering brigade to Afghanistan.
The foreign relations of Albania are its relations with other governments and peoples. Foreign relations are conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tirana. The current minister is Olta Xhaçka. Albania is a sovereign country in Southern Europe, and the Mediterranean that declared its independence on 28 November 1912. Its foreign policy, has maintained a policy of complementarism by trying to have friendly relations with all countries. Since the collapse of Communism in 1990, Albania has extended its responsibilities and position in European and international affairs, supporting and establishing friendly relations with other nations around the world.
Foreign relations of Portugal are linked with its historical role as a major player in the Age of Discovery and the holder of the now defunct Portuguese Empire. Portugal is a European Union member country and a founding member of NATO. It is a committed proponent of European integration and transatlantic relations. Augusto Santos Silva is the current Minister of Foreign Affairs of Portugal.
Foreign relations of the Republic of Bulgaria are the Bulgarian government's external relations with the outside world. Bulgaria has generally good foreign relations with its neighbors and has proved to be a constructive force in the region under socialist and democratic governments alike. Promoting regional stability, Bulgaria hosted a Southeast European Foreign Ministers meeting in July 1996, and an OSCE conference on Black Sea cooperation in November 1995. Bulgaria also participated in the 1996 South Balkan Defense Ministerial in Albania and is active in the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative. Bulgaria's main focus is the Euro-Atlantic integration since 1997 and the efforts of the governments since then led to admission to NATO in 2004 and the European Union in 2007. Its main allies are Greece and Romania, while it maintains good relations with Serbia and the rest of the Balkans. Republic of North Macedonia is very important state in Bulgarian foreign and internal policy due to the historical, ethnical and cultural connections.
Mexico–Serbia relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Mexico and Serbia. Both nations were founding members of the Group of 77 and the United Nations.
North Macedonia–Slovenia relations are foreign relations between the Republic of North Macedonia and the Republic of Slovenia. Both countries are members of the Council of Europe, and NATO. The two countries have very close political and economic relations. Once part of SFR Yugoslavia, the two republics declared independence in 1991 and recognised each other's independence on 12 February 1992. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on 17 March 1992. Slovenia supports North Macedonia's sovereignty, territorial integrity, its Euro-integration and visa liberalisation. A significant number of Slovenian investments ended up in North Macedonia. In 2007, about 70 million euros were invested. In January 2009, the prime minister of North Macedonia Nikola Gruevski announced, that he expects more Slovenian investments in infrastructure and energy projects. Over 70 Slovenian companies are present on the market of North Macedonia.
The Albanians in Germany refers to the Albanian migrants in Germany and their descendants. They mostly trace their origins to Albania, Kosovo and to a lesser extent to North Macedonia and other Albanian-speaking territories in the Balkan Peninsula. Their exact number is difficult to determine as some ethnic Albanians hold German, North Macedonian, Serbian or another Former Yugoslavian citizenship.
Mexico–Slovenia relations refers to foreign relations between Mexico and Slovenia. Both nations are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the United Nations.
North Macedonia–Serbia relations are bilateral relations between the Republic of North Macedonia and the Republic of Serbia.
Czech Republic–North Macedonia relations refers to the bilateral political relations between the Czech Republic and the Republic of North Macedonia. North Macedonia has an embassy in Prague, whilst the Czech Republic has a consular agency in Skopje. Both countries are members of the Council of Europe, and NATO. Also Czech Republic is an EU member and North Macedonia is an EU candidate.
Holy See–North Macedonia relations refer to the bilateral political relations between the Holy See and the Republic of North Macedonia.
Italy–Taiwan relations refers to bilateral relations between Italy and Taiwan. Relations have been conducted on an unofficial basis since Italy severed diplomatic relations with Taiwan on 6 November 1970 and established relations with the People's Republic of China.
Brazil-Slovenia relations refers to the bilateral relations between Brazil and Slovenia. Both nations are members of the United Nations.
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