Coat of arms of Slovenia

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Coat of arms of Slovenia
Coat of Arms of Slovenia.svg
Armiger Republic of Slovenia
Adopted1991

The Slovene coat of arms consists of a red bordered blue shield on which there is a stylised white Mount Triglav, under which there are two wavy lines representing the sea and the rivers of the country. Above Mount Triglav, there are three golden six-pointed stars representing the Counts of Celje. [1] It was designed in 1991 by Marko Pogačnik and adopted on 24 June 1991.

Contents

History

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Lesser Coat of Arms of Yugoslavia 1918-1941 Lesser Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.png
Lesser Coat of Arms of Yugoslavia 1918–1941

Until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the Slovene Lands did not have a coat of arms representing the whole nation, instead it had a different coat of arms for every land.

When the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs merged with Kingdom of Serbia, Slovenia had its first real coat of arms, which actually was a heavily modified one from the Serbian Kingdom. The coat of arms presents the Serbian shield with white cross on the left, the Croatian shield on the right and under both there is a blue shield representing Slovenes. An image of the royal Yugoslav coat of arms can be seen on the 10-Yugoslav dinar banknote of 1926. [2]

Socialist Republic of Slovenia

The former coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia (1945-1991) Coat of Arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia.svg
The former coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia (1945–1991)

The coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia was designed by Branko Simčič on the basis of the symbol of the Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation. The sea and the mount Triglav motive appeared in the coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, one of six constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The former coat of arms was rounded by wheat with linden leaves and featured a red star at the top. There was also the other coat of arms which presented Yugoslavia as a whole.

Republic of Slovenia

The tender for the design of the new coat of arms of Slovenia was published in May 1991. It was won by Marko Pogačnik. He based his design on the understanding of Slovenia as a macroregional entity and on the work by France Prešeren and Jože Plečnik. In regard, to Prešeren, the coat of arms depicts the description of nature given by the poet in his epic-lyric poem The Baptism on the Savica . In regard to Plečnik, the coat of arms follows the coat of arms of Slovenia, carved upon the design by the architect in 1934 at the column of the Virgin Mary, which stands in front of the parish church in Bled. [3]

Pogačnik's design was proclaimed the new official coat of arms of Slovenia with the constitutional amendment C 100 and became valid on 24 June 1991.

Historical symbols

Symbolics

The geometrical rule for the construction of the national coat of arms of Slovenia Grb Republike Slovenije - geometrijsko pravilo.GIF
The geometrical rule for the construction of the national coat of arms of Slovenia

The designer, Marko Pogačnik, has described the coat of arms as a cosmogram, which creates an energetic field protecting the country and stimulating its inner potentials. [4]

According to Pogačnik, the Triglav symbolises the male principle. There are two white bending lines below it, representing the Triglav Lakes Valley and the Slovene sea and rivers in general, or the female principle. Above Triglav, there are three golden, six-pointed stars, forming a triangle and symbolising democracy. The stars are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje. [5]

As a work of arts, published in the official journal Official Gazette , the national coat of arms of Slovenia qualifies as an official work and is per Article 9 of the Slovene Copyright and Related Rights Act not protected by the copyrights. [6] Its usage is regulated by the Act Regulating the Coat-of-Arms, Flag and Anthem of the Republic of Slovenia and the Flag of the Slovene Nation, published in the Official Gazette in 1994. [7]

Criticism

The coat of arms of the Republic of Slovenia has been criticized by the herald Aleksander Hribovšek as heraldically lacking in a number of views. For example, he has stated that it has no official blazon, and its form of shield is not heraldically recognised. Mount Triglav and the sea are represented incorrectly, and he criticised the choice of Triglav as a symbol. [8]

Related Research Articles

Triglav mountain in Slovenia

Triglav, with an elevation of 2,863.65 metres (9,395.2 ft), is the highest mountain in Slovenia and the highest peak of the Julian Alps. The mountain is the pre-eminent symbol of the Slovene nation. It is the centrepiece of Triglav National Park, Slovenia's only national park. Triglav was also the highest peak in Yugoslavia before Slovenia's independence in 1991.

Flag of Slovenia National flag

The national flag of Slovenia features three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovene coat of arms located in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands. The coat of arms is a shield with the image of Mount Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines representing the Adriatic Sea and local rivers, and above it are three six-pointed golden stars arranged in an inverted triangle which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries.

Coat of arms of Croatia coat of arms

The coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia consists of one main shield and five smaller shields which form a crown over the main shield. The main coat of arms is a checkerboard (chequy) that consists of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields. It's also informally known in Croatian as šahovnica. The five smaller shields represent five different historical regions within Croatia.

Coat of arms of Bosnia and Herzegovina coat of arms

The coat of arms of Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted in 1998, replacing the previous design that had been in use since 1992 when Bosnia and Herzegovina gained independence. It follows the design of the national flag. The three pointed shield is used to symbolize the three major ethnic groups of Bosnia, as well as allude to the shape of the country.

"Naprej, zastava slave" or "Naprej, zastava Slave" is a former national anthem of Slovenia, used from 1860 to 1989. It is now used as the official service song of the Slovenian Armed Forces.

Coat of arms of Serbia Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Serbia is the official coat of arms of the Republic of Serbia. It is closely modelled after the royal coat of arms of the Kingdom of Serbia, and it was officially adopted by the National Assembly in 2004 and later slightly redesigned in 2010. The coat of arms consists of two main heraldic symbols which represent the national identity of the Serbian people across the centuries, the Serbian eagle and the Serbian cross.

Aljaž Tower triangulation station

Aljaž Tower or the Triglav Tower is a tower, a storm shelter and a triangulation point on the summit of Mount Triglav in northwestern Slovenia. Along with Triglav, it is a landmark of Slovenia and a symbol of the Slovenehood. The tower was designed by Jakob Aljaž, a priest in the Upper Carniolan village of Dovje, who also had it erected. Today it is owned by the state, tended by the Ljubljana Matica Alpine Club and stands on a parcel belonging to the Municipality of Bohinj.

Triglav Lakes Valley Valley in the Julian Alps, Slovenia

The Triglav Lakes Valley is a rocky hanging valley in the Julian Alps in Slovenia, below the sheer sides of Mount Tičarica and Mount Zelnarica southwest of Triglav. The valley is also called the Seven Lakes Valley, although there are ten and not seven lakes in the valley. It is above the tree line and is geologically alpine karst; therefore it has also been termed the Sea of Stone Valley.

Duchy of Carniola historical state, Habsburgian crown land

The Duchy of Carniola was an imperial estate of the Holy Roman Empire, established under Habsburg rule on the territory of the former East Frankish March of Carniola in 1364. A hereditary land of the Habsburg Monarchy, it became a constituent land of the Austrian Empire in 1804 and part of the Kingdom of Illyria until 1849. A separate crown land from 1849, it was incorporated into the Cisleithanian territories of Austria-Hungary from 1867 until the state's dissolution in 1918. Its capital was Ljubljana.

Marko Pogačnik Slovenian artist and author

Marko Pogačnik is a Slovenian artist and author.

A cosmogram is a flat geometric figure depicting a cosmology. Some of them were created for meditational purpose. Mandalas are the best known cosmograms, but similar diagrams, known as schema, were also used in western Europe during the Middle Ages.

Socialist heraldry

Socialist heraldry, also called communist heraldry, consists of emblems in a style typically adopted by socialist states and filled with communist symbolism. Although commonly called coats of arms, most such devices are not actually coats of arms in the heraldic sense and should therefore not be called arms at all. Many communist governments purposely diverged from the traditional forms of European heraldry in order to distance themselves from the monarchies that they usually replaced, with actual coats of arms being seen as symbols of the monarchs.

National symbols of Slovenia

The National symbols of Slovenia are the symbols used in Slovenia and abroad to represent the nation and its people.

National Assembly Building of Slovenia

The National Assembly Building (Slovene: Zgradba Državnega zbora, also colloquially the Parliament in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is a modernist palace housing the legislature of Slovenia. Built between 1954 and 1959 by the architect Vinko Glanz, it is a three-storey building with an area of 2,200 m2. It is located on the Republic Square in the center of Ljubljana. Annual visitor numbers are around 13,000.

National anthem of Slovenia national anthem of Slovenia

The national anthem of Slovenia is based on "Zdravljica", a carmen figuratum poem by the 19th-century Romantic Slovene poet France Prešeren, inspired by the ideals of Liberté, égalité, fraternité, and set to music by Stanko Premrl. As the country's national anthem, it is one of the state symbols of Slovenia.

Architecture of Slovenia

The architecture of Slovenia has a long, rich and diverse history.

Serbian heraldry

The use of heraldry in Serbia or by Serbs is used by government bodies, subdivisions of the national government, organizations, corporations and by families. Serbian heraldry belongs culturally to the Byzantine tradition.

Emblem of Yugoslavia Socialist emblem

The emblem of Yugoslavia featured six torches, surrounded by wheat with a red star at its top, and burning together in one flame; this represented the brotherhood and unity of the six federal republics forming Yugoslavia: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. The date imprinted was 29 November 1943, the day the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) met in Jajce on its second meeting and formed the basis for post-war organisation of the country, establishing a federal republic. This day was celebrated as Republic Day after the establishment of the republic. The emblem of Yugoslavia, along with those of its constituent republics, are an example of socialist heraldry.

Slovenes of Croatia are one of 22 national minorities in Croatia. According to 2011 census, there were 10,517 Slovenes in Croatia, with majority living in only three counties Istria County, Primorje-Gorski Kotar County and consolidated city-county Zagreb.

Triglavka side cap that was a part of the Yugoslav Partisan uniform in Croatia, Slovenia and western Bosnia

The triglavka or Triglav cap or the partizanka or Partizan cap is a side cap that was a part of the Yugoslav Partisan uniform in Croatia, Slovenia and western Bosnia. There, it was the most characteristic part of Partisan clothing. Despite its common name in Slovenia, the cap's design was not inspired by Mount Triglav, but was a copy of a cap design used by soldiers of the Spanish Republican faction. The first Yugoslav models were made in the second half of 1941 in Zagreb by the Communist Party activist Dobrila Jurić for Vladimir Popović and Otmar Kreačić, former fighters in the International Brigades, and organizers of the Croatian Liberation Front. In occupied Yugoslavia, the cap originated in use among Croatian Partisans in western Yugoslavia, but quickly spread through the Partisan movement, particularly among Slovene Partisans.

References

  1. "Zakon o grbu, zastavi in himni Republike Slovenije ter o slovenski narodni zastavi" [The Law on the Coat of Arms, the Flag and the Anthem of the Republic of Slovenia and on the Slovene National Flag]. Uradni list [Official Gazette] (in Slovenian). 21 October 1994.
  2. 10 dinar note of 1926 Archived February 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  3. Teran Košir, Alenka (25 June 2011). "Pogačnik: Slovenija bi se morala osamosvojiti od civilizacije" [Pogačnik: Slovenia Should Become Independent from Civilisation]. Planet Siol.net (in Slovenian).
  4. Pogačnik, Marko (2003). "Interview with Marko Pogačnik, the designer of the Slovene coat of arms, carried out before the national celebration in 2003 by the Radio Maribor journalist Barbara Leskovar" (in Slovenian and English). Ljudmila.org.
  5. "Državni simboli niso čarovnija, so pa silen potencial" [National Symbols are not Magic, but Are a Strong Potential]. Primorske.si (in Slovenian). Primorske novice, d.o.o. 26 June 2011. ISSN   1580-4747.
  6. M. B. Jančič, M. B. Breznik, M. Damjan, M. Kovačič, M. Milohnić. Upravljanje avtorskih in sorodnih pravic na Internetu - Vidik javnih inštitucij (in Slovene) [The Management of Copyright and Related Rights on Internet - The Aspect of Public Institutions]. August 2010. Peace Institute; Faculty of Law, University of Ljubljana. Pg. 28.
  7. Zakon o grbu, zastavi in himni Republike Slovenije ter o slovenski narodni zastavi (Slovene) [Act Regulating the Coat-of-Arms, Flag and Anthem of the Republic of Slovenia and the Flag of the Slovene Nation]. Official Gazette. 67/1994.
  8. "Zgodovina slovenskih državnih grbov" [The History of the Slovene National Coats of Arms]. Slovenska heraldika [Slovene Heraldics] (in Slovenian). 20 December 2011.