Foreign relations of the Netherlands

Last updated

State coat of arms of the Netherlands.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Netherlands

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to the Atlantic cooperation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. While historically the Kingdom of the Netherlands was a neutral state, since 1945 it has become a member of NATO, the United Nations, the European Union and many other international organizations. The Dutch economy is very open and relies on international trade. During and after the 17th century—its Golden Age--the Dutch built up a commercial and colonial empire. It was a leading shipping and naval power and was often at war with England, its main rival. Its main colonial holding was Indonesia, which fought for and achieved independence after 1945. The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands. Foreign trade policy is handled by the European Union. The Dutch have been active in international peacekeeping roles.

Contents

History

Former colonial possessions of the Dutch Empire. Verwantschapslanden.png
Former colonial possessions of the Dutch Empire.

In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences. A rich worldwide Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on entrepreneurship and trade.

During the 18th century, the power and wealth of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more powerful British and French neighbors weakened it. Britain seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, turning it into New York. There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. The French Revolution spilled over after 1789, and a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795–1806. Napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810), and later simply a French imperial province.

In 1815–1940 it was neutral and played a minor role in world diplomacy, apart from a failed effort to control Belgium before giving up in 1839. [1] It was invaded and cruelly treated by Germany in 1940–45, with starvation and killing the Jews the main Nazi policies.

Policy

Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte with U.S. President Donald Trump in the Oval Office of the White House on 18 July 2019 President Trump Meets with the Prime Minister of the Netherlands (48317652116).jpg
Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte with U.S. President Donald Trump in the Oval Office of the White House on 18 July 2019

The Dutch Government conducted a review of foreign policy main themes, organization, and funding in 1995. The document "The Foreign Policy of the Netherlands: A Review" outlined the new direction of Dutch foreign policy. The Netherlands prioritizes enhancing European integration, maintaining relations with neighboring states, ensuring European security and stability (mainly through the mechanism of NATO and emphasizing the important role the United States plays in the security of Europe), and participating in conflict management and peacekeeping missions. The foreign policy review also resulted in the reorganization of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Through the creation of regional departments, the Ministry coordinates tasks previously divided among the international cooperation, foreign affairs, and economic affairs sections.

Atlantic cooperation

Protest in Hague against the deployment of Pershing II missiles, 1983 Anti kernwapendemonstratie in Den Haag ( 550 duizend deelnemers ) overzichten, Bestanddeelnr 253-8821.jpg
Protest in Hague against the deployment of Pershing II missiles, 1983

Dutch security policy is based primarily on membership in NATO, which the Netherlands co-founded in 1949. Because of Dutch participation in NATO nuclear weapons are stationed in the Netherlands, see Volkel Air Base.

The Dutch also pursue defense cooperation within Europe, both multilaterally – in the context of the Western European Union and the European Security and Defence Policy of the EU – and bilaterally, as in the German-Netherlands Corps. In recent years, the Dutch have become significant contributors to UN peacekeeping efforts around the world as well as to the Stabilization Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR) in Bosnia.

European integration

The Dutch have been strong advocates of European integration, and most aspects of their foreign, economic, and trade policies are coordinated through the European Union (EU). The Dutch postwar customs union with Belgium and Luxembourg (the Benelux group) paved the way for the formation of the European Community (precursor to the EU), of which the Netherlands was a founding member. Likewise, the Benelux abolition of internal border controls was a model for the wider Schengen Accord, which today has 29 European signatories (including the Netherlands) pledged to common visa policies and free movement of people across common borders.

The Dutch stood at the cradle of the 1992 Maastricht Treaty and have been the architects of the Treaty of Amsterdam concluded in 1998. The Dutch have thus played an important role in European political and monetary integration; indeed, until the year 2003, Dutchman Wim Duisenberg headed the European Central Bank. In addition, Dutch financial minister Gerrit Zalm was the main critic of the violation of the Stability and Growth Pact by France and Germany in 2004 and 2005.

Involvement in Developing Countries

The Netherlands is among the world's leading aid donors, giving almost $8  billion, about 0.8% of its gross national income (GNI) in official development assistance (ODA). It is one of five countries worldwide that meets the longstanding UN ODA target of 0.7% ODA/GNI. The country consistently contributes large amounts of aid through multilateral channels, especially the United Nations Development Programme, the international financial institutions, and EU programs. A large portion of Dutch aid funds also is channeled through private ("co-financing") organizations that have almost total autonomy in choice of projects.

The Netherlands is a member of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which recently initiated economic reforms in central Europe. The Dutch strongly support the Middle East peace process and in 1998 earmarked $29  million in contributions to international donor-coordinated activities for the occupied territories and also for projects in which they worked directly with Palestinian authorities. These projects included improving environmental conditions and support for multilateral programs in cooperation with local non-governmental organizations. In 1998, the Dutch provided significant amounts of aid to the former Yugoslavia and Africa. The Dutch consistently provide significant amounts of humanitarian relief aid to the victims of the worst natural disasters, such as the Hurricane Mitch in Central America in 1998, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami in South and Southeast Asia, the Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005, 2010 Haiti earthquake, and more recent catastrophes in Pakistan and Burma including the Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines in 2013, and 2015 Nepal earthquake.

Export assistance grants

"Developing countries aspiring to purchase foreign goods and services to invest in, inter alia, port facilities, roads, public transport, health care, or drinking water facilities may be eligible for a special Dutch grant facility. The grant facility, known as ORET (a Dutch acronym for Ontwikkelingsrelevante Exporttransacties, or Development-Related Export) serves to award grants to governments of developing countries for making payments to foreign suppliers." [2]

International law

UN vote on adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons on 7 July 2017
Yes No Did not vote Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.svg
UN vote on adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons on 7 July 2017
     Yes     No     Did not vote

A centuries-old tradition of legal scholarship has made the Netherlands the home of the International Court of Justice; the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal; the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia; the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; and the International Criminal Court (ICC). In addition it hosts the European police organization, Europol; and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

International organizations

As a relatively small country, the Netherlands generally pursues its foreign policy interests within the framework of multilateral organizations. The Netherlands is an active and responsible participant in the United Nations system as well as other multilateral organizations such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO), and International Monetary Fund.

The Netherlands is one of the founding members of what today is the European Union. It was one of the first countries to start European integration, through the Benelux in 1944 and the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. Being a small country with a history of neutrality it was the host country for the important Maastricht Treaty and Amsterdam Treaty and is the seat of the International Court of Justice.

International issues

Nord Stream opening ceremony on 8 November 2011 with Angela Merkel, Dmitry Medvedev, Mark Rutte and Francois Fillon. Nord Stream ceremony.jpeg
Nord Stream opening ceremony on 8 November 2011 with Angela Merkel, Dmitry Medvedev, Mark Rutte and François Fillon.

The country is one of the major producers of illicit amphetamines and other synthetic drugs. It also functions as an important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe. A large portion of the world's XTC consumption is supplied by illegal laboratories from the Netherlands.[ citation needed ]

The Dutch also work with the U.S. and other countries on international programs against drug trafficking and organized crime. The Dutch-U.S. cooperation focuses on joint anti-drug operations in the Caribbean, including an agreement establishing Forward Operating Locations on the Dutch Kingdom islands of Curaçao and Aruba. The Netherlands is a signatory to international counter-narcotics agreements, a member of the United Nations International Drug Control Program, the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs, and is a contributor to international counter-narcotics.

From June 26 until December 22, 2006, two children, Ammar (12–13) and Sara (10–11), lived in the Dutch embassy in Damascus because of a child custody dispute between the Dutch mother, supported by Dutch law and the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, and the Syrian father, supported by Syrian law (Syria is no participant of this convention). The children had been living in Syria since 2004, after an alleged international child abduction by the father from the Netherlands to Syria, during a family contact in which he supposedly would visit Paris with them. The children fled to the embassy because they would like to live with their mother in the Netherlands. Minister of Foreign Affairs Ben Bot traveled to Damascus, negotiated and on December 22 the children finally could return to the Netherlands.

The father claims that the Dutch government has promised not to prosecute him for the abduction. However, a Dutch prosecutor claims that he is free to prosecute the father and may well do that and that the Dutch have only retracted the international request to arrest him outside the Netherlands. [3]

Mark Rutte's government provided materials to the Levant Front rebel group in Syria. [4] In September 2018, the Dutch public prosecution department declared the Levant Front to be a "criminal organisation of terrorist intent", describing it as a "salafist and jihadistic" group that "strives for the setting up of the caliphate". [5]

In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including the Netherlands, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China’s mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps. [6] [7]

Former colonies

The Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba are dependencies of the Netherlands. The latter three are part of the Netherlands proper and are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Suriname and Indonesia became independent of the Netherlands in the period of decolonization: Suriname in 1975 and Indonesia in 1945 (it was not until August 16, 2005 that the Dutch government recognized 1945 and not 1949 as the latter's year of independence).

Bilateral relations

Africa

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria See Foreign relations of Algeria
  • Algeria has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Algiers.
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola See Foreign relations of Angola
  • Angola has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Rotterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Luanda.
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin See Foreign relations of Benin
  • Benin is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Brussels.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Cotonou.
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso
  • Burkina Faso is represented in the Netherlands by its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and an honorary consulate in Rotterdam. [8]
  • The Netherlands are represented in Burkina Faso by their embassy in Bamako, Mali. [9]
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi See Foreign relations of Burundi
  • Burundi has an embassy in The Hague.
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Bujumbura.
Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt See Foreign relations of Egypt
  • Egypt has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Cairo.
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia See Foreign relations of Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Brussels.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana See Foreign relations of Ghana
  • Ghana has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Accra.
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast See Foreign relations of Ivory Coast
  • Ivory Coast has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Abidjan.
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya See Kenya–Netherlands relations
  • Kenya has an embassy in The Hague.
  • the Netherlands has an embassy in Nairobi.
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco See Morocco–Netherlands relations
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique See Foreign relations of Mozambique
  • Mozambique is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Paris.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Maputo.
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria See Foreign relations of Nigeria
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda See Foreign relations of Rwanda
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Kigali.
  • Rwanda has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal See Foreign relations of Senegal
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa See Netherlands–South Africa relations
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan See Foreign relations of Sudan
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania See Foreign relations of Tanzania
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia See Foreign relations of Tunisia
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda See Foreign relations of Uganda
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Kampala.
  • Uganda is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Paris.
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe See Foreign relations of Zimbabwe
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Paris.

Americas

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina See Foreign relations of Argentina
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 1987-04-13

Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 13, 1987. [18]

Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia See Foreign relations of Bolivia
  • Bolivia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands is accredited to Bolivia from its embassy in Lima, Peru.
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil See Foreign relations of Brazil
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1939-01See Canada–Netherlands relations

Canada has an embassy in The Hague and the Netherlands has one in Ottawa, and three Consulates-General in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Canada and the Netherlands have worked closely together on many foreign issues and enjoy an especially close relationship. To fostering business and commercial relations between the Netherlands and Canada the Dutch business community set up the Netherlands-Canadian Chamber of Commerce. [21] They are both members of the United Nations (and its Specialized Agencies) the World Trade Organization, Interpol, they are both founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. Canada and the Netherlands also work together on such issues as the prohibition and elimination of anti-personnel mines, the control of the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, eradicating the worst forms of child labour, the provision of rapid reaction peacekeeping forces to the United Nations (SHIRBRIG) and regional security issues such as Bosnia (SFOR) and Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE).

Flag of Chile.svg  Chile See Foreign relations of Chile
  • Chile has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Amsterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Santiago.
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 1829See Foreign relations of Colombia

Relations between Colombia and the Netherlands were established in 1829.

Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in San José.
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba See Foreign relations of Cuba
  • Cuba has an embassy in The Hague and two consulates-general in Amsterdam and Rotterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Havana.
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador
  • El Salvador has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in San José, Costa Rica.
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 1970-15-05

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 May 1970. [28] Guyana was made up of three former Dutch colonies: (Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo (colony)) which were brought together by the British and renamed collectively British Guiana.

Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1827See Mexico–Netherlands relations

On September 27, 1993 the Netherlands Ministry of Finance announced The Netherlands – Mexico Tax Treaty and Protocol. The regulations detail the formalities residents of the Netherlands must observe "in order to be exempt from, or obtain a refund of, the Mexican withholding taxes on dividends, interest and royalties." [29] In 2008 Mexico and the Netherlands modified their existing tax treaty, initially signed in 1993 to strength cooperation to curb tax evasion. [30] [31]

Flag of Panama.svg  Panama
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Rotterdam.
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru See Foreign relations of Peru
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 1975-25-11See Netherlands–Suriname relations
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1781See Netherlands–United States relations

The bilateral relations between the two nations are based on historical and cultural ties as well as a common dedication to individual freedom and human rights. The Netherlands shares with the United States a liberal economic outlook and is committed to free trade. The Netherlands is the third-largest direct foreign investor in the United States, [36] and Dutch holding companies employ more than 650,000 Americans. [37] The United States is the third-largest direct foreign investor in the Netherlands.

The United States and the Netherlands often have similar positions on issues and work together both bilaterally and multilaterally in such institutions as the United Nations and NATO. The Dutch have worked with the United States at the World Trade Organization, in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, as well as within the European Union to advance the shared U.S. goal of a more open and market-led global economy.

The United States and the Netherlands joined NATO as charter members in 1949. The Dutch were allies with the United States in the Korean War and the first Gulf War and have been active in global peacekeeping efforts in the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq. Netherlands also support and participate in NATO and EU training efforts in Iraq. They are active participants in the International Security Assistance Force and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.

Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay See Netherlands–Uruguay relations
  • Netherlands is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires. [40]
  • Uruguay has an embassy in The Hague. [41]
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela

Asia

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Kabul.
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 1992-01-30See Armenia–Netherlands relations
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan See Azerbaijan–Netherlands relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Baku.
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 1971-01-04See Bangladesh–Netherlands relations
  • Bangladesh has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Dhaka.
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan See Foreign relations of Bhutan
  • Bhutan is represented to the Netherlands through embassy in Brussels.
  • Netherlands is represented to Bhutan through embassy in Delhi.
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei See Foreign relations of Brunei
  • Brunei is represented in the Netherlands through embassy in London, UK.
  • Netherlands is represented in Brunei through embassy in Bangkok, Thailand.
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia See Foreign relations of Cambodia
  • Cambodia is represented in the Netherlands by its embassy in Paris.
  • Netherlands is represented in Cambodia by its embassy in Hanoi.
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China See China–Netherlands relations
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia See Georgia–Netherlands relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Tbilisi.
Flag of India.svg  India 1947-15-8See India–Netherlands relations
  • India has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Delhi and consulates-general Bangalore and Mumbai.
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia See Indonesia–Netherlands relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in The Hague. [45]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Jakarta. [46]
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran See Iran–Netherlands relations
  • Iran has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tehran.
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 1949See Israel–Netherlands relations

In 1947, the Netherlands voted in favor of the United Nations Resolution 181. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1949. [47]

Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 1609See Japan–Netherlands relations

Relations between Japan and the Netherlands date back to 1609, when the first formal trade relations were established. [50] [51] The relations between Japan and the Netherlands after 1945 have been a triangular relationship. The invasion and occupation of the Netherlands East Indies during World War II, brought about the destruction of the colonial state in Indonesia, as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government as they could, weakening the post war grip the Netherlands had over the territory. Under pressure from the United States, the Netherlands recognised Indonesian sovereignty in 1949 (see United States of Indonesia).

  • Japan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tokyo and a consulate-general in Osaka.
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan See Foreign relations of Jordan
  • Jordan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Amman.
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 1992See Kazakhstan–Netherlands relations

The Netherlands is Kazakhstan's largest foreign investor and the second largest European Union partner in terms of foreign trade turnover with Kazakhstan. [52]

  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Astana.
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait See Foreign relations of Kuwait
  • Kuwait has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Kuwait City.
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos See Foreign relations of Laos
  • Laos is represented in the Netherlands through embassy in Paris.
  • Netherlands is represented in Laos through embassy in Hanoi.
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon
  • Lebanon has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Beirut.
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 1957-31-08See Malaysia–Netherlands relations
The graves of Dutch dignitaries in Melaka's ruined St. Paul's Church. Melaka-St-Paul-Dutch-graves-2183.jpg
The graves of Dutch dignitaries in Melaka's ruined St. Paul's Church.

The Dutch involvement in the Malay Peninsula used to be much more extensive than it is now. The Dutch established relations with the Sultanate of Johor in the early 17th century, and in 1641 they captured the Portuguese colony of Malacca (on the south-eastern coast of today's Peninsular Malaysia). With a long interruption during the Napoleonic Wars, the Dutch Malacca era lasted until 1824. In the 20th century, the Netherlands established diplomatic relations with Malaysia soon after the Asian state became independent. The erudite Dutch Sinologist and author Robert van Gulik (who was raised in the former Dutch East Indies himself) served as the ambassador of the Netherlands in Kuala Lumpur in the early 1960s. During his diplomatic service there he became closely acquainted with Malaysia's gibbons (he kept a few in his ambassadorial residence) and became sufficiently interested in this ape species to start the study of its role in ancient Chinese culture, the results of which he later published in his last book (Gibbon in China). [53]

Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 1972-06-03See Foreign relations of Mongolia
  • Both countries were establishment of diplomatic relations began on 06 March 1972.
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar See Foreign relations of Myanmar
  • Myanmar is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in London, UK.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Yangon.
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal See Foreign relations of Nepal
  • Nepal is represented to the Netherlands by its embassy in Brussels.
  • Netherlands is represented to Nepal by its embassy in Delhi.
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 2001-01-15 [54]
  • The establishment of diplomatic relations between the North Korea and the Netherlands was on January 15, 2001. [54]
Flag of Oman.svg  Oman See Foreign relations of Oman
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Muscat.
  • Oman has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1947-15-8See Netherlands–Pakistan relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Islamabad and a consulate-general in Karachi.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines See Netherlands–Philippines relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar See Foreign relations of Qatar
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia See Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 1965-09-08See Netherlands–Singapore relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Singapore.
  • Singapore has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1961-01-04 [55] See Netherlands–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Kingdom of the Netherlands began on April 1, 1961.

  • Relations between the Netherlands and South Korea are excellent. The Netherlands are known in the country, thanks to increasing trade and the investments made by Dutch businesses.
  • Political relations
    • South Koreans still appreciate the contribution made by Dutch troops, serving under the UN flag, during the Korean War of 1950–1953. The Netherlands was an ally to South Korea throughout the war, against communist North Korea (backed by the Soviet Union). The Netherlands still monitors developments between South Korea and North Korea with interest, and remain an ally. In 2011 the Netherlands and South Korea marked 50 years of diplomatic relations.
    • The Netherlands frequently serves as an example to South Korea, for example in the areas of development cooperation and water management. In 2011, for instance, a South Korean delegation visited parts of the Room for the River project – designed to make the Dutch river delta safer by 2015 – to gain inspiration for a South Korean water management plan. [56]
  • The Netherlands has a Working Holiday Program Agreement with South Korea. Citizens of both countries can live and work in the other for up to two years.
  • The number of the South Korean citizens living in the Netherlands in 2012 was about 2,602.
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 1948See Foreign relations of Sri Lanka
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Colombo.
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand See Foreign relations of Thailand
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1612See Netherlands–Turkey relations
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates See Foreign relations of the United Arab Emirates
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam See Foreign relations of Vietnam
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Sana'a.
  • Yemen has an embassy in The Hague.

Europe

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 1970 [63] See Albania–Netherlands relations
  • Albania has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tirana.
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria See Foreign relations of Austria
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 1994See Belarus–Netherlands relations
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium See Belgium–Netherlands relations

Relations were established after the independence of Belgium. Both nations are allies and have cultural similarities.

  • Belgium has an embassy in The Hague. [66]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Brussels and a consulate-general in Antwerp. [67]
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia & Herzegovina
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Sarajevo.
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria See Foreign relations of Bulgaria
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia See Foreign relations of Croatia
  • Croatia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus See Foreign relations of Cyprus
  • Cyprus has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Prague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 1645 [70] See Denmark – Netherlands relations
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia
  • Estonia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland See Foreign relations of Finland
  • Finland has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union.
Flag of France.svg  France See France–Netherlands relations
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1871See Germany–Netherlands relations
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece See Greece–Netherlands relations
  • Greece has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Holy See
  • Holy See has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy to the Holy See is located outside Vatican territory in Rome.
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary See Foreign relations of Hungary
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland
  • Iceland is represented in the Netherlands by its embassy in Oslo, Norway. [77]
  • The Netherlands is represented in Iceland by its embassy in Brussels, Belgium. [78]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland See Foreign relations of Ireland
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy See Foreign relations of Italy
  • Italy has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia
  • Latvia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Riga.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania
  • Lithuania has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Vilnius.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta See Foreign relations of Malta
  • Malta has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Valletta.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 1992-07-10
  • Moldova has an embassy in The Hague and an honorary consulate in Amsterdam.
  • The Netherlands is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and through an honorary consulate in Chisinau.
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Skopje.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway See Foreign relations of Norway
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in The Hague and two consulates-general in Amsterdam and Rotterdam.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland See Foreign relations of Poland
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal See Foreign relations of Portugal
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 1880-02-13See Netherlands–Romania relations
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Bucharest and three honorary consulates.
  • Romania has an embassy in The Hague and four honorary consulates.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 1991

Both countries were establishment of diplomatic relations in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union. Peter the Great studied in Holland. During the Cold War, all the Dutch consecutive governments perceived the Warsaw pact including the Soviet Union and Russia as a threat to its safety.

Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 1899-04-26
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 1993-01-01See Netherlands–Slovakia relations
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 1991-06-25See Netherlands–Slovenia relations
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain See Foreign relations of Spain
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden See Foreign relations of Sweden
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland See Foreign relations of Switzerland
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1612See Turkey in Asia Above
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 1992See Foreign relations of Ukraine
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom See Netherlands–United Kingdom relations

Oceania

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia See Australia–Netherlands relations
  • Australia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand See Netherlands–New Zealand relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Wellington.
  • New Zealand has an embassy in The Hague.
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands
Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu

Vanuatu has an honorary consulate in Gravenhage. [94]

See also

Notes

  1. A. Vandenbosch, Dutch Foreign Policy since 1815 (1959).
  2. ORET flyer, via Google Docs. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
  3. See also NL: Ammar en Sara (in Dutch)
  4. "Dutch govt under fire for Syria opposition support". MSN. September 11, 2018. Archived from the original on February 1, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
  5. "Dutch funded 'jihadist' group in Syria, terror trial may now falter". Dutch News. September 11, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
  6. "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?". The Diplomat . July 15, 2019.
  7. "More than 20 ambassadors condemn China's treatment of Uighurs in Xinjiang". The Guardian. July 11, 2019.
  8. "Netherlands Embassy in Pretoria, South Africa". Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  9. "South African Embassy in the Netherlands" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  10. "Embajada de la República Argentina en Reino de los Países Bajos" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  11. "Embajada del Reino de los Países Bajos en Buenos Aires, Argentina". Archived from the original on February 20, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  12. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 30, 2017. Retrieved December 6, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. Embassy of Brazil in The Hague (in English and Portuguese)
  14. "Embaixada do Reino dos Países Baixos em Brasília, Brasil". Archived from the original on February 20, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  15. "NCCC – Home". Netherlandscanada.nl. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  16. "Government of Canada – Gouvernement du Canada" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  17. "The Embassy and Consulates – Kingdom of the Netherlands, Canada". Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  18. "Embajada de Colombia en Países Bajos" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  19. "Embajada del Reino de los Países Bajos en Bogotá, Colombia". Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  20. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. "Mexico: Netherlands And Mexican Regulations To The Netherlands – Mexico Treaty Announced". Deloitte & Touche . September 23, 1997. Retrieved June 6, 2009. In a press release dated 14 March 1997, the Netherlands Ministry of Finance announced the Netherlands and Mexican regulations under the Netherlands – Mexico tax treaty and protocol, both of 27 September 1993. The Mexican regulations deal with the formalities to be observed by residents of the Netherlands in order to be exempt from, or obtain a refund of, the Mexican withholding taxes on dividends, interest and royalties.
  22. "Mexico, Netherlands amend treaty to curb tax evasion". Xinhua . 2008. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2009. Mexico and the Netherlands modified a tax treaty signed in 1993 in a bid to strength cooperation to curb tax evasion, Mexican Treasury and Public Credit Ministry said on Friday.
  23. "Mexico: New protocol to the Mexico/Netherlands tax treaty". PricewaterhouseCoopers . 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2009. The Mexican ministry of finance and the Dutch ambassador to Mexico signed a new protocol to the Mexico-Netherlands tax treaty, which includes the following relevant modifications ...
  24. "Bienvenidos a la portada" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  25. "Nederlandse Ambassade in Mexico-Stad, Mexico" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  26. "Nederlandse ambassade in Paramaribo, Suriname". Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  27. "Welcome to the Frontpage". Archived from the original on February 26, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  28. Foreign investment in U.S. companies soaring Archived July 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  29. "Key Factors for Locating European Headquarters in the Netherlands – Netherlands Foreign Investment Agency". Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  30. "The Netherlands Embassy in Washington, D.C., United States". Archived from the original on February 21, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  31. "Embassy of the United States The Hague, Netherlands" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  32. "Consulado Honorario del Reino de los Países Bajos en Montevideo (Uruguay)". Archived from the original on February 20, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  33. "Servicios al Ciudadano – Embajadas" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  34. Helix Consulting LLC. "Embassy of Armenia in the Kingdom of the Netherlands" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  35. "Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Tbilisi, Georgia". Archived from the original on February 18, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  36. Harper affirms Canadian position on Armenian Genocide Archived February 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  37. "Embassy of Indonesia – The Hague". Archived from the original on March 8, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  38. "Netherlands Embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia". Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  39. Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Israel (in Dutch only) [ dead link ]
  40. "Error-2010-f3" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  41. "עולם הבלוגים". Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  42. Mitsubishi Corporation – Regional Report on the Kingdom of the Netherlands Archived November 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  43. 400 jaar handel – Four centuries of Japanese–Dutch trade relations: 1609–2009
  44. "Kazakhstan's 25th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations". www.diplomatmagazine.nl.
  45. Robert van Gulik, The gibbon in China. An essay in Chinese animal lore. E.J.Brill, Leiden, Netherlands. (1967)
  46. 1 2 "북한과 네덜란드의 관계" (in Korean). Terms.naver.com. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  47. "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea-Europe" (in Korean). Mofa.go.kr. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  48. "Relations between the Netherlands and South Korea | International relations". Government.nl. July 1, 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  49. "Nederlandse Ambassade in Seoul, Zuid-Korea". Zuidkorea.nlambassade.org. September 19, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  50. https://www.netherlandsandyou.nl/your-country-and-the-netherlands/south-korea
  51. "Embassy of the Republic of Korea to the Kingdom of the Netherlands" (in Korean). Nld.mofa.go.kr. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  52. http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/nl-ko/index.do
  53. "Dutch embassy in Ankara". Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved November 15, 2009.
  54. Turkish embassy in The Hague Archived January 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  55. Gregory, Gene (April 27, 1971). "Maoist Albania Desires Better Western Relations". Merced Sun-Star. p. 24. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  56. Austrian embassy in The Hague (in Dutch and German only) Archived July 21, 2012, at Archive.today
  57. "Nederlandse Ambassade in Wenen, Oostenrijk". Archived from the original on November 6, 2011. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  58. "Nederlandse ambassade in Brussel, België". Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  59. "Diplomatie" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  60. Bulgarian embassy The Hague Archived June 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  61. Dutch embassy Sofia Archived December 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  62. Farrar McDermott, Hugh (1855). Letters on the Sound-dues-queston: I-VII. p. 37. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
  63. Danish embassy in The Hague (in Danish and Dutch only) Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  64. "Dutch embassy in Copenhagen". Archived from the original on February 24, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
  65. "Embassy of France in The Hague, Netherlands". EmbassyPages.com. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  66. "Embassy of the Netherlands in Paris, France". EmbassyPages.com. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  67. Dutch embassy in Budapest Archived September 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  68. Hungarian embassy in The Hague
  69. "Department of Foreign Affairs". Archived from the original on February 20, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  70. "Netherlands Embassy in Dublin, Ireland". Archived from the original on February 20, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  71. Dutch embassy in Belgrade Archived April 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  72. "Index of /~yuambanl" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  73. "Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Bratislava, Slovakia". Archived from the original on February 7, 2011. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  74. Dutch embassy in Ljubljana [ dead link ]
  75. "Embassy of the Republic of Slovenia Hague" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  76. Dutch embassy in Kiev Archived February 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  77. "Oekraine" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  78. "The Netherlands Embassy :: Visit/Contact the Embassy". Archived from the original on January 10, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  79. About us
  80. "Worldwide organisations" . Retrieved February 20, 2015.

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Foreign relations of Azerbaijan

The Republic of Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.

Foreign relations of Belarus summary of bilateral relations between Belarus and other countries

The Byelorussian SSR was one of only two Soviet republics to be separate members of the United Nations. Both republics and the Soviet Union joined the UN when the organization was founded in 1945.

The Republic of Estonia gained its independence from the Russian Empire on 24 February 1918 and established diplomatic relations with many countries via membership of the League of Nations. The forcible incorporation of Estonia into the Soviet Union in 1940 was not generally recognised by the international community and the Estonian diplomatic service continued to operate in some countries. Following the restoration of independence from the Soviet Union, Russia was one of the first nations to re-recognize Estonia's independence. Estonia's immediate priority after regaining its independence was the withdrawal of Russian forces from Estonian territory. In August 1994, this was completed. However, relations with Moscow have remained strained primarily because Russia decided not to ratify the border treaty it had signed with Estonia in 1999.

The foreign relations of Finland are the responsibility of the president of Finland, who leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government. Implicitly the government is responsible for internal policy and decision making in the European Union. Within the government, preparative discussions are conducted in the government committee of foreign and security policy, which includes the Prime Minister and at least the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Defence, and at most four other ministers as necessary. The committee meets with the President as necessary. Laws concerning foreign relations are discussed in the parliamentary committee of foreign relations. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs implements the foreign policy.

Foreign relations of France Overview of relations

In the 19th century France built a new French colonial empire second only to the British Empire. It was humiliated in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which marked the rise of Germany to dominance in Europe. France was on the winning side of the First World War, but fared poorly in the Second World War. It fought losing wars in Indochina and Algeria. The Fourth Republic collapsed and the Fifth Republic began in 1958 to the present. Under Charles De Gaulle it tried to block American and British influence on the European community. Since 1945 France has been a founding member of the United Nations, of NATO, and of the European Coal and Steel Community. As a charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies.

The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) is a Central European country and member of the European Union, G4, G8, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It maintains a network of 229 diplomatic missions abroad and holds relations with more than 190 countries. As one of the world's leading industrialized countries it is recognized as a major power in European and global affairs.

Foreign relations of Hungary

Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs. The foreign policy of Hungary is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade.

Foreign relations of Japan

The foreign relations of Japan are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.

Foreign relations of Latvia

The foreign relations of Latvia are the primary responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Today's Republic of Latvia regards itself as a continuation of the 1918–1940 republic. After the declaration on the restoration of its full independence on August 21, 1991, Latvia became a member of the United Nations on September 17, 1991, and is a signatory to a number of UN organizations and other international agreements. Latvia welcomes further cooperation and integration with NATO, European Union, OECD and other Western organizations. It also seeks more active participation in UN peacekeeping efforts worldwide.

The foreign policy of Lebanon reflects its geographic location, the composition of its population, and its reliance on commerce and trade. Until 2005, Lebanon's foreign policy had been heavily influenced by Syria. The framework for relations was first codified in May 1991, when Lebanon and Syria signed a treaty of mutual cooperation. This treaty came out of the Taif Agreement, which stipulated that "Lebanon is linked to Syria by distinctive ties deriving strength from kinship, history, and common interests." The Lebanese-Syria treaty calls for "coordination and cooperation between the two countries" that would serve the "interests of the two countries within the framework of sovereignty and independence of each." Numerous agreements on political, economic, security, and judicial affairs have followed over the years.

Foreign relations of Mexico

The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the President of the United Mexican States and managed through the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs. The principles of the foreign policy are constitutionally recognized in the Article 89, Section 10, which include: respect for international law and legal equality of states, their sovereignty and independence, non-intervention in the domestic affairs of other countries, peaceful resolution of conflicts, and promotion of collective security through active participation in international organizations. Since the 1930s, the Estrada Doctrine has served as a crucial complement to these principles.

Foreign relations of Peru

Peru is an important first-tier state in South America, Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Alberto Fujimori's tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001.

Foreign relations of Argentina

This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Argentina. At the political level, these matters are officially handled by the Ministry of Foreign Relations, also known as the Cancillería, which answers to the President. The Minister of Foreign Relations, since December 2019, is Chancellor Felipe Sola.

Netherlands–United States relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the United States of America

Netherlands–United States relations are bilateral relations between the Netherlands and the United States. They are described as "excellent" by the United States Department of State and "close" by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. Official relations were established in 1782 and, as the two were never at war or in serious conflict, were referred to by U.S. President Ronald Reagan in 1982 as "the longest unbroken, peaceful relationship that we have had with any other nation." The two countries have cooperated much in recent decades in anti-terrorism, anti-piracy and peacekeeping missions in the European, Middle Eastern and Central American regions. They are also the third largest and largest direct foreign investors in each other's economies.

Germany–Netherlands relations Diplomatic relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Kingdom of the Netherlands

German–Dutch relations refer to diplomatic, military and cultural relations between the bordering nations of Germany and the Netherlands. Relations between the modern states started after Germany became united in 1871. Before that the Netherlands had relations with Prussia and other, smaller Germanic nations. Both countries have had their respective territories governed by various states such as the Western Roman Empire, the Frankish Empire, and the Holy Roman Empire. An important factor in Dutch-German relations is the fact that William the Silent, Prince of Orange – leader of the Dutch Revolt and Vader des Vaderlands of the Netherlands – belonged to the German House of Nassau.

Dutch Argentines are Argentine citizens of full or partial Dutch ancestry or people who emigrated from the Netherlands and reside in Argentina. Dutch immigration to Argentina has been one of many migration flows from Europe in that country, although it has not been as numerous as in other cases. However, Argentina received a large contingent of Dutch since 1825. The largest community is in the city of Tres Arroyos in the south of the province of Buenos Aires.

Mexico–Netherlands relations Diplomatic relations between the United Mexican States and the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Mexico–Netherlands relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Mexico and the Netherlands. Both nations are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the United Nations.

France–Netherlands relations Diplomatic relations between the French Republic and the Kingdom of the Netherlands

The French–Dutch relations refer to the interstate and bilateral relations between France and the Netherlands. The two countries notably share a border division in the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, to which the northern part of the island is a French overseas collectivity known as the Collectivity of Saint Martin, while the southern part of the island is a Dutch constituent country known as Sint Maarten. Relations between the two countries date back to the 17th and 18th centuries when a conflict led to the transformation of the Dutch Republic to the Batavian Republic and eventually the Kingdom of Holland. The two countries currently enjoy close cultural and economic relations. Both nations are members of the OECD, as well as founding members of the European Union, NATO, and the United Nations.

Netherlands–Spain relations

Netherlands–Spain relations are the bilateral and diplomatic relations between these two countries. Spain has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate general in Amsterdam. The Netherlands has an embassy in Madrid and nine honorary consulates in Barcelona, Bilbao, Ceuta, Gijón, Palma, Benidorm, Sevilla, Tenerife, Torremolinos and Valencia. The relations between both countries are defined mainly by their membership in the European Union and by being allies in the NATO, as well as belonging to numerous International Organizations.