Franco-Dutch War

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Franco-Dutch War
De bestorming van Coevorden, 30 december 1672 Rijksmuseum SK-A-486.jpeg
Painting of the capture of Coevorden by Dutch troops commanded by Carl von Rabenhaupt in December 1672
Date7 April 1672 – 17 September 1678
(6 years, 5 months, 1 week and 3 days)
Location
Result French territorial gains in the Peace of Nijmegen; creation of anti-French coalition
Territorial
changes

Spain cedes Franche-Comté and cities in the Spanish Netherlands to France

France restores Charleroi to Spain, occupies Imperial cities of

Contents

Freiburg and Kehl
Belligerents
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg  France
Flag of England.svg  England (1672–74)
Sweden-Flag-1562.svg Sweden (1675)
Flag of the Prince-Bishopric of Munster.svg Münster (1672–1673)
Black St George's Cross.svg Cologne (1672–1673)
Statenvlag.svg  Dutch Republic
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg  Holy Roman Empire (1673)
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain (1673)
Lorraine.svg Lorraine
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark (1674)
Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Brandenburg (1673)
Flag of England.svg  England (1678)
Commanders and leaders
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Louis XIV
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Turenne   1675
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Condé
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Luxembourg
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Vivonne
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg de Créquy
Flag of Sweden.svg Königsmarck
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Schomberg
Statenvlag.svg William of Orange
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Montecuccoli
Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Frederick William
Statenvlag.svg de Ruyter   1676
Lorraine.svg Charles IV   1675
Lorraine.svg Charles V
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Villahermosa
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg San Germán
Strength
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg 253,000 (1678) [1] Unknown
Casualties and losses
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg 120,000 killed or wounded [2] 100,000 casualties [2]
175,000 dead [2]

The Franco-Dutch War, often just the Dutch War (French : Guerre de Hollande, Dutch : Hollandse Oorlog), was a conflict that lasted from 1672 to 1678 between the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of France, each supported by allies. France had the support of England and Sweden, while the Dutch were supported by Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Dutch language West Germanic language

Dutch(Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

Dutch Republic Republican predecessor state of the Netherlands from 1581 to 1795

The Dutch Republic, or the United Provinces, was a confederal republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. It was a predecessor state of the Netherlands and the first Dutch nation state.

The war began in May 1672 when France invaded the Netherlands and nearly over-ran it, an event still referred to as het Rampjaar or 'Disaster Year'. [3] By late July, the Dutch position had stabilised, with support from Emperor Leopold, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain; this was formalised in the August 1673 Treaty of the Hague, joined by Denmark in January 1674.

<i>Rampjaar</i> The year 1672, in Dutch history

In Dutch history, the year 1672 was known as the rampjaar, the "disaster year." That year, following the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War and the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch Republic was simultaneously attacked by England, France, and the prince-bishops Bernhard von Galen, bishop of Münster, and Maximilian Henry of Bavaria, archbishop of Cologne. The invading armies quickly defeated most of the Dutch States Army and conquered part of the Republic.

Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Croatia and King of Bohemia

Leopold I was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia. The second son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain, Leopold became heir apparent in 1654 by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV. Elected in 1658, Leopold ruled the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1705, becoming the longest-ruling Habsburg emperor.

Brandenburg-Prussia former country

Brandenburg-Prussia is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701. Based in the Electorate of Brandenburg, the main branch of the Hohenzollern intermarried with the branch ruling the Duchy of Prussia, and secured succession upon the latter's extinction in the male line in 1618. Another consequence of the intermarriage was the incorporation of the lower Rhenish principalities of Cleves, Mark and Ravensberg after the Treaty of Xanten in 1614.

Faced by a financial crisis, Sweden agreed to remain neutral in return for French subsidies, but became involved in the 1675–1679 Scanian War with its regional rivals Denmark and Brandenburg. On balance, the cost of funding the Swedish army made its support largely negative for France.

Swedish Empire the years 1611–1721 in the history of Sweden

The Swedish Empire was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries. The beginning of the Empire is usually taken as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, and its end as the loss of territories in 1721 following the Great Northern War.

Scanian War part of the Northern Wars involving the union of Denmark-Norway, Brandenburg and Sweden

The Scanian War was a part of the Northern Wars involving the union of Denmark–Norway, Brandenburg and Sweden. It was fought from 1675 to 1679 mainly on Scanian soil, in the former Danish provinces along the border with Sweden and in Northern Germany. While the latter battles are regarded as a theater of the Scanian war in English, Danish and Swedish historiography, they are seen as a separate war in German historiography, called the Swedish-Brandenburgian War.

The period of English participation as an ally of France is also known as the Third Anglo-Dutch War; the alliance was always unpopular and domestic opposition led to its exit in the February 1674 Treaty of Westminster. [4] In November 1677, William of Orange married his cousin Mary, niece to Charles II of England and England agreed a defensive alliance with the Dutch in March 1678.

Third Anglo-Dutch War conflict

The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic, that lasted between April 1672 and early 1674. It was part of the larger conflict between the Dutch Republic and her allies and France, and the third of a series of naval wars between the English and the Dutch.

The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Signed by the Netherlands and England, it provided for the return of the colony of New Netherland to England and renewed the Treaty of Breda of 1667. It also provided for a mixed commission for the regulation of commerce, particularly in the East Indies.

William III of England 17th-century Stadtholder, Prince of Orange and King of England, Scotland and Ireland

William III, also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".

Under the Peace of Nijmegen, France returned Charleroi to Spain. In return, it received the Franche-Comté and cities in Flanders and Hainaut, essentially establishing modern France's northern border. However, it also marked the highpoint of French expansion under Louis and William's arrival as leader of an anti-French coalition, which would hold together in the 1688–1697 Nine Years War and 1701–1714 War of the Spanish Succession.

Charleroi Municipality in French Community, Belgium

Charleroi is a city and a municipality of Wallonia, located in the province of Hainaut, Belgium. By January 1, 2008, the total population of Charleroi was 201,593. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,462 square kilometres (564 sq mi) with a total population of 522,522 by January 1, 2008, ranking it as the 5th most populous in Belgium after Brussels, Antwerp, Liège, and Ghent. The inhabitants are called Carolorégiens or simply Carolos.

Franche-Comté Region in France

Franche-Comté is a cultural and historical region of eastern France. It is composed of the modern departments of Doubs, Jura, Haute-Saône and the Territoire de Belfort. In 2016, its population was 1,180,397.

County of Flanders French fiefdom and historic territory in the Low Countries

The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries.

Origins

Louis XIV, ca 1661; his wars dominated Europe for 50 years Louis-xiv-lebrunl.jpg
Louis XIV, ca 1661; his wars dominated Europe for 50 years

The 16th and 17th centuries in Europe were dominated by the rivalry between French Bourbons and their Hapsburg rivals in Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. Largely Catholic France supported the Protestant Dutch Republic in their 1568–1648 Eighty Years War against Spain and in 1635 entered the Thirty Years' War as part of the anti-Imperial Protestant alliance. [5] The 1648 Peace of Westphalia ended the wider war but the subsidiary Franco-Spanish War continued until the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees; when it ended, Spain was no longer the dominant power in Europe.

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

House of Habsburg Austrian dynastic family

The House of Habsburg, also called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, and Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.

Holy Roman Empire varying complex of lands that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.

Louis XIV took control of government in 1661 and embarked on an expansionist foreign policy, capturing large parts of the Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comté in the 1667–1668 War of Devolution. This concerned the Dutch, who preferred a weak Spain as a neighbour, rather than a strong and ambitious France; their Triple Alliance with England and Sweden forced Louis to relinquish many of his gains in the 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Angered by what he viewed as ingratitude, Louis widened his targets to include the United Provinces but first moved to break up the Alliance before making another attempt. In 1670, Charles II of England signed the Treaty of Dover, agreeing to support France against the Dutch, and to supply 6,000 English and Scottish troops for the French army. [6] The Treaty contained various secret provisions, not revealed until 1771, one being the payment to Charles of £230,000 per year for the services of this Brigade. [7]

Additional agreements with the Bishopric of Münster and Electorate of Cologne allowed French forces to bypass Dutch forward defences in the Spanish Netherlands. Diplomatic preparations were completed in April 1672, when Charles XI of Sweden accepted French subsidies in return for Swedish neutrality and an undertaking to attack Brandenburg-Prussia, if it intervened on the side of the Dutch. [8]

Preparations

Measures taken by Louvois, Louis' Secretary of War, allowed France to mobilise about 180,000 men, of which 120,000 were allocated to operations directly against the Dutch Republic. This was split into two main sections, one based in Charleroi, then held by France and led by Marshall Turenne, with another under Condé in Sedan. Both would march through the pro-French Prince-Bishopric of Liège, join near Maastricht and gain control of the Lower Rhine. [9]

A third army primarily composed of German mercenaries paid by France's allies of Münster and Cologne and commanded by Marshall Luxembourg was based on the Rhine itself, which would attack the duchy of Cleves and the region of Nijmegen. [9] Finally, a fourth element was the landing of an English amphibious force near Ostend, as part of an agreement that England would be given control of key ports in the Spanish Netherlands. England declared war on the Dutch Republic on 7 April 1672, in a manufactured diplomatic incident known as the 'Merlin' affair. [10]

French Offensive; 1672-1674

The 1672 French offensive; the alliance with Munster and Cologne allowed them to bypass Spanish possessions in the Low Countries 1672 Dutch War.jpg
The 1672 French offensive; the alliance with Münster and Cologne allowed them to bypass Spanish possessions in the Low Countries
Dutch position, summer of 1672: French-held areas in black Debruijn holland map.gif
Dutch position, summer of 1672: French-held areas in black

The French offensive began when Louis arrived in Charleroi on 5 May 1672; avoiding a direct assault on Maastricht, they first occupied the forts of Tongeren, Maaseik and Valkenburg. [9] On 11 May, Turenne's army of 50,000 advanced along the Rhine, supported by forces from Münster and the Electorate of Cologne. They captured Rheinberg, Wesel, Burick and Orsoy and by the middle of July, the major Dutch fortresses of Nijmegen and Fort Crèvecœur near 's-Hertogenbosch had also fallen. [11]

These losses initially caused panic and a divided States General asked Louis for peace terms. On 7 June, Dutch Admiral Michiel de Ruyter boldly attacked an Anglo-French fleet assembling off the English coast at Southwold; the Battle of Solebay was a tactical draw but a strategic Dutch victory, as it prevented an attempted Anglo-French blockade. [11]

Negotiations provided time to finish the Dutch Water Line and after William of Orange had withdrawn his forces behind them, the gates were opened on 22 June 1672, flooding the land. The French terms caused outrage when the Dutch received them on 1 July; in addition to the French retaining their existing gains, the Dutch were given the choice of surrendering their southern fortresses, permitting religious freedom for Catholics and a payment of six million guilders, or a single payment of sixteen million guilders. [12]

The result was to bolster Dutch resistance; on 4 July, William was appointed Stadtholder and first repelled an invasion force from Münster at Groningen in July, then recaptured much of the territory lost in June. [13] In August, Johan and Cornelis de Witt, whose policies were blamed for the Dutch collapse, were lynched by an Orangist mob, leaving William in control. [14]

The Dutch position had stabilised, while concern at French gains brought the support of Brandenburg-Prussia, Emperor Leopold and Charles II of Spain. [15] Instead of a rapid victory, Louis was forced into another war of attrition around the French frontiers; in August, Turenne ended his offensive against the Dutch and proceeded to Germany with 25,000 infantry and 18,000 cavalry. [16] Frederick William and Leopold combined their forces of around 25,000 under the Imperial general Raimondo Montecuccoli; he crossed the Rhine at Koblenz in January 1673 but Turenne forced him to retreat into northern Germany. [17]

Louis XIV at Maastricht, 1673 Adam Frans van der Meulen - Louis XIV Arriving in the Camp in front of Maastricht - WGA15110.jpg
Louis XIV at Maastricht, 1673

Until the advent of railways in the 19th century, goods and supplies were largely transported by water, making rivers such as the Lys, Sambre and Meuse vital for trade and military operations. [18] The primary French objective in 1673 was the capture of Maastricht, which controlled a key access point on the Meuse; the city surrendered on 30 June. [19]

In June 1673, the French occupation of Kleve and lack of money temporarily drove Brandenburg-Prussia out of the war in the Peace of Vossem. [20] However, in August, the Dutch, Spain and Austria, supported by other German states, agreed the anti-French Alliance of the Hague, joined by Charles IV of Lorraine in October. In September, William recaptured Naarden, while Münster and Cologne left the war in November; with the war expanding into the Rhineland and Spain, French troops withdrew from the Dutch Republic, retaining only Grave and Maastricht. [21]

The Dutch naval victory at Texel, August 1673 was a key moment in ensuring Dutch survival BattleOfTexel.jpg
The Dutch naval victory at Texel, August 1673 was a key moment in ensuring Dutch survival

The alliance between England and Catholic France had been unpopular from the start and although the real terms of the Treaty of Dover remained secret, many suspected them. [22] The Cabal ministry that managed government for Charles had gambled on a short war but when this proved not to be the case, opinion quickly turned against it, while the French were also accused of abandoning the English at Solebay. [23]

Opposition to the alliance with France further increased when Charles' heir, his Catholic brother James, was given permission to marry Mary of Modena, also a devout Catholic. In February 1673, Parliament refused to continue funding the war unless Charles withdrew a proposed Declaration of Indulgence and accepted a Test Act barring Catholics from public office. [24]

After Dutch naval forces defeated an Anglo-French fleet at Texel in August and captured the English settlement of New York City, pressure to end the war became unstoppable and England made peace with the Republic in the February 1674 Treaty of Westminster. [25] To offset these losses, Swedish forces in Swedish Pomerania attacked Brandenburg-Prussia in December 1674 after Louis threatened to withhold their subsidies; this sparked Swedish involvement in the 1675–1679 Scanian War, but their intervention proved of limited value to France. [26]

War Expands; 1674–1675

The Battle of Seneffe, 1674; a bloody but inconclusive battle Adam Frans van der Meulen - The Battle of Seneffe.jpg
The Battle of Seneffe, 1674; a bloody but inconclusive battle

In broad terms, French strategy now focused on retaking Spanish possessions gained in 1667–1668 but returned at Aix-La-Chappelle, while preventing Imperialist advances in the Rhineland. They also supported minor campaigns in Roussillon and Sicily that absorbed Spanish and Dutch naval resources. [27]

Flanders and Franche-Comté

In Northern Europe, the French recaptured Franche-Comté by July 1674, while Condé's army in the Spanish Netherlands remained on the defensive. With the advantage of superior numbers, the main Allied field army under William of Orange sought to take the initiative by invading French Flanders, supported by the Spanish, who wanted to recapture Charleroi. [28] This resulted in the indecisive Battle of Seneffe in August 1674; both sides suffered heavy casualties but while the Allies quickly replaced theirs, the French could not. [29] Seneffe confirmed Louis' preference for positional warfare, ushering in a period where siege and manoeuvre dominated military tactics. [30]

The biggest obstacle to Allied success in Flanders were their diverging objectives; the Imperialists wanted to prevent reinforcements reaching Turenne in the Rhineland while the Spanish aimed at recovering losses in the Spanish Netherlands. The Dutch were further split by internal disputes; the powerful Amsterdam mercantile body were anxious to end an expensive war once their commercial interests were secured, while William saw France as a long-term enemy that had to be defeated. This conflict increased once ending the war became a distinct possibility with the recapture of Grave in October 1674, leaving only Maastricht. [31]

Rhineland

Turenne, killed at Salzbach in 1675; the Rhineland campaign of 1674-1675 is often viewed as his most impressive Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne by Circle of Philippe de Champaigne.jpg
Turenne, killed at Salzbach in 1675; the Rhineland campaign of 1674–1675 is often viewed as his most impressive

During the winter of 1673–1674, Turenne based his troops in Alsace and the Palatinate; despite England's withdrawal from the war in February, his army of less than 8,000 retained a number of English regiments, as Charles II encouraged members to continue serving in order to keep his French subsidies. Monmouth and Churchill were among those who did so, but many others enrolled in the Dutch Scots Brigade, including John Graham, later Viscount Dundee. [32]

Turenne opened the 1674 campaign by crossing the Rhine in June with 7,000 men, hoping to attack Charles of Lorraine before he could combine with forces under Alexander von Bournonville. At the Battle of Sinsheim, the French routed a separate Imperial army led by Aeneas de Caprara but the delay allowed Bournonville to link up with Charles at Heidelberg; reinforced by additional troops, Turenne began crossing the Neckar river and as he did so, the Imperial troops retreated. [33]

Bournonville marched south to the Imperial City of Strasbourg, giving him a base for an attack on Alsace but before doing so, he awaited the arrival of 20,000 troops under Frederick William. To prevent this, Turenne made a night march that enabled him to surprise the Imperial army and comprehensively defeated it at Entzheim on 4 October. As was then accepted practice, Bournonville halted operations until spring but in his Winter Campaign 1674/1675, Turenne inflicted a series of defeats that secured Alsace. [34]

The 1675 Imperial campaign was directed by Montecuccoli, one of the few considered Turenne's equal, who was killed at the Battle of Salzbach on 27 July. [35] This was a serious blow for the French, who were forced back to the Vosges and defeated at the Battle of Konzer Brücke on 11 August. Condé, previously commander in Flanders, took over and stabilised the front but health issues forced him to retire in December 1675 and he was replaced by Créquy.

Spain and Sicily

Fort Bellegarde Bellegarde02.JPG
Fort Bellegarde

Activity on this front was largely limited to skirmishing in Roussillon between a French army under Frederick von Schomberg and Spanish forces led by the Duque de San Germán. The Spanish won a minor victory at Maureillas in June 1674 and captured Fort Bellegarde, ceded to France in 1659 and retaken by Schomberg in 1675. [36]

In Sicily, the French supported a successful revolt by the city of Messina against their Spanish overlords in 1674, obliging San Germán to transfer some of his troops. A French naval force under Jean-Baptiste de Valbelle managed to resupply the city in early 1675 and establish local naval supremacy. [37]

Negotiating the Peace; 1676-1678

Vauban's proposal for creating a Pre carre or 'duelling zone' on France's northern border, defended by a line of fortresses known as the Ceinture de fer (marked in red and green) Low Countries 1700 and entrenched lines.png
Vauban's proposal for creating a Pré carré or 'duelling zone' on France's northern border, defended by a line of fortresses known as the Ceinture de fer (marked in red and green)

On both sides, the last years of the war saw minimal return for their investment of men and money. [38] French strategy in Flanders was largely based on Vauban's proposed line of fortresses known as the Ceinture de fer or iron belt (see Map). [39] This aligned with Louis' preference for siege warfare, which was further reinforced by the death of Turenne and Condé's retirement; their passing removed two of the most talented and aggressive French generals of the 17th century and the only ones with sufficient stature to challenge him. [40]

In Germany, Imperial forces recaptured Philippsburg in September 1676 but the French stabilised their front. In an attempt to regain some of their losses, the Imperialists assembled an army in the Rhineland under Charles of Lorraine but minor defeats at Rheinfelden and Ortenbach in July 1678 ended these hops. The French followed up by capturing Kehl and the bridge over the Rhine near Strasbourg, thus ensuring control of Alsace. The Spanish theatre remained largely static; French victory at Espolla in July 1677 left the strategic position unchanged but their losses worsened the crisis faced by the Spanish administration. [41]

Dutch admiral De Ruyter was killed at Augusta in April 1676 and the French achieved naval supremacy in the Western Mediterranean when their galleys surprised the Dutch/Spanish fleet at anchor at Palermo in June. [42] However, French intervention had been opportunistic; friction arose with the anti-Spanish rebels, the cost of operations was prohibitive and Messina was evacuated in early 1678. [43]

Palermo, June 1676; the French destroy a combined Dutch/Spanish fleet at anchor Battle of Palermo 1676.jpg
Palermo, June 1676; the French destroy a combined Dutch/Spanish fleet at anchor

The peace talks that began at Nijmegen in 1676 were given a greater sense of urgency in November 1677 when William married his cousin Mary, Charles II of England's niece. An Anglo-Dutch defensive alliance followed in March 1678, although English troops did not arrive in significant numbers until late May. This allowed Louis to improve his negotiating position by capturing Ypres and Ghent in early March, before signing a peace treaty with the Dutch on 10 August. [44]

The Battle of Saint-Denis was fought three days later on 13 August, when a combined Dutch-Spanish force attacked the French army under Luxembourg. While a French tactical victory, it ensured Mons would remain in Spanish hands and on 19 August, Spain and France agreed an armistice, followed by a formal peace treaty on 17 September.

1678; The Peace of Nijmegen and its consequences

The Place des Victoires; built to celebrate French victory in 1678 Place de la Victoire, Paris 13 August 2016 001.jpg
The Place des Victoires; built to celebrate French victory in 1678

Louis' title of the 'Sun King' dates from after the Peace of Nijmegen but while undoubtedly a French victory, the terms were significantly worse than those available in July 1672 and it marked the highpoint of French expansion under his rule. [45] France returned Charleroi, Ghent and other towns in the Spanish Netherlands, in return for Spain ceding Franche-Comté, Ypres, Maubeuge, Câteau-Cambrésis, Valenciennes, Saint-Omer and Cassel; with the exception of Ypres, all of these remain part of modern France. [46]

France's ally Sweden regained Swedish Pomerania by the 1679 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye but this did little to improve its parlous financial position. In addition, Frederick William's resentment at being forced to give up what he saw as his own territory turned Brandenburg-Prussia into an implacable opponent. [47]

The Dutch recovered from the near disaster of 1672 to prove they were a permanent and significant power in Northern Europe. Arguably, their most lasting gain was William's marriage to Mary and his arrival as one of the most powerful statesmen in Europe, with sufficient stature to hold together an anti-French coalition. It also showed that while significant sections of the English mercantile and political class were anti-Dutch on commercial grounds, there was no popular support for an alliance with France.

In Spain, defeat led to the Queen Regent, Mariana of Austria, being replaced by her long-term rival, the pro-French John of Austria the Younger. She returned to power after his death in September 1679 but not before he arranged the marriage of Charles II of Spain to Louis' niece, 17-year-old Marie Louise of Orléans in November 1679. [48]

Louis had the enormous advantage of a unified strategy, in contrast to the differing objectives of his opponents; while this remained a factor, 1672-1678 showed the threat of French expansion over-ruled all other considerations and that France was not strong enough to impose its objectives without support. His inability to recognise this and the 1683–1684 War of the Reunions led to the creation of the anti-French Grand Alliance in 1688, which held together through the 1688–1697 Nine Years War and the 1701–1714 War of the Spanish Succession. [49]

Chronological list of key events

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The Treaty or Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye of 19 June (OS) or 29 June (NS) 1679 was a peace treaty between France and the Electorate of Brandenburg. It restored to France's ally Sweden her dominions Bremen-Verden and Swedish Pomerania, lost to Brandenburg in the Scanian War. Sweden ratified the treaty on 28 July 1679.

Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg German general, Landgraf of Hesse-Homburg

Frederick II of Hesse-Homburg, also known as the Prince of Homburg was Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg. He was also a successful and experienced general for the crowns of both Sweden and of Brandenburg, but is best remembered as the eponymous hero of Heinrich von Kleist's play Der Prinz von Homburg.

Siege of Cambrai (1677)

The Siege of Cambrai took place from 20 March to 19 April 1677 during the 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War; then part of the Spanish Netherlands, it was invested by a French army under the duc de Luxembourg. Siege operations were supervised by the military engineer Vauban; Louis XIV was present and nominally in command but he played little part in operations.

Siege of Besançon

The Siege of Besançon took place between 25 April to 22 May 1674 during the Franco-Dutch War, when French forces invaded Franche-Comté, then under Spanish rule. Under the 1678 Treaties of Nijmegen, the province was annexed by France and Besançon replaced Dole as the regional capital.

Battle of Sinsheim battle

The Battle of Sinsheim took place on 16 June 1674 during the 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War. An Imperial force commanded by Aeneas de Caprara was marching towards Heidelberg, in order to join their main army under Alexander von Bournonville. It was intercepted just outside Sinsheim by the French commanded by Turenne; the Imperialists repulsed the first two French assaults but were eventually forced to retreat.

The Battle of Entzheim took place on 4 October 1674 during the 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War, near Entzheim in modern Alsace, between a French army under Turenne and an Imperial force led by Alexander von Bournonville. The battle was inconclusive but Turenne achieved a strategic victory by preventing a far superior force from invading Eastern France.

The Battle of Mulhouse occurred on December 29, 1674, during the Franco-Dutch War between the French army and troops of the Holy Roman Empire and its allies, as part of Turenne's Winter Campaign. The French army was commanded by the Vicomte de Turenne and the imperial army was led by Prince Alexandre-Hippolyte de Bournonville.

George Ramsay (English Army officer) English Army officer

Lieutenant-General George Ramsay was a Scottish professional soldier who served with the British Brigade in the French army from 1674-1676, then with the Dutch Scots Brigade from 1676-1691.

James Douglas (English Army officer) Lieutenant-General James Douglas (1645-1690), Scots-born army officer

Lieutenant-General James Douglas (1645–1691) was a Scottish military officer who served successively with the French army and the Dutch Scots Brigade, was appointed Commander in Chief for Scotland by James II and held senior commands under William III in the 1689–1691 Williamite War in Ireland. He died of fever at Namur in the Spanish Netherlands in 1691 during the Nine Years War.

The Battle of Altenheim took place on 1 August 1675 during the 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War near Altenheim, in modern Baden-Württemberg, between a French army jointly commanded by the Marquis de Vaubrun and the Comte de Lorges and an Imperial Army under Raimondo Montecuccoli. Having lost their commander Marshall Turenne on 27 July, the French retreated over the Rhine, using the bridge at Altenheim; the Imperialists tried to prevent them but were unable to do so, despite heavy casualties on both sides.

Charles de Montsaulnin, Comte de Montal 17th century French military officer and noble

Charles de Montsaulnin, Comte de Montal (1619–1696) was a 17th century French military officer and noble who served in the wars of Louis XIV.

The Battle of Ortenbach, also known as the Battle of Gengenbach, took place on 23 July 1678 during the closing stages of the 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War, in the modern German state of Baden-Württemberg. It featured a French army commanded by François de Créquy and an Imperial force under Charles V, Duke of Lorraine.

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