Bredevoort

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Bredevoort
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Bredevoort
Location within the Netherlands
Coordinates: 51°57′0″N6°37′0″E / 51.95000°N 6.61667°E / 51.95000; 6.61667
Country Netherlands
Province Gelderland
Municipality Aalten
Population (1 January 2008)
  Total 1,525
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website www.bredevoort.nu

Bredevoort or Brevoort (Low Saxon) is a small city with Town privileges of about 1600 inhabitants, located in the municipality of Aalten, Netherlands. It is situated between the towns of Aalten and Winterswijk.

West Low German Group of Low German dialects spoken in parts of the Netherlands, northwestern Germany and southern Denmark

West Low German, also known as Low Saxon is a group of Low German dialects spoken in parts of the Netherlands, northwestern Germany and southern Denmark. It is one of two groups of mutually intelligible dialects, the other being East Low German dialects.

Town privileges features of European towns during most of the second millennium

Town privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. The city law customary in Central Europe probably dates back to Italian models, which in turn were oriented towards the traditions of the self-administration of Roman cities

Aalten Municipality in Gelderland, Netherlands

Aalten is a municipality and a village in the eastern Netherlands. The former municipalities of Bredevoort (1818) and Dinxperlo (2005) have been merged with Aalten.

Contents

Bredevoort has presented itself as Bredevoort boekenstad (Bredevoort book town ), after the examples of Hay-on-Wye in Wales and Redu in Belgium. There are now more than twenty second-hand book shops in the town.

Book town

A book town is a town or village with a large number of used book or antiquarian book stores. These stores, as well as literary festivals, attract bibliophile tourists. A number of the book towns are members of the International Organisation of Book Towns.

Hay-on-Wye Town in Brecknockshire, Wales

Hay-on-Wye, often abbreviated to just "Hay", is a small market town and community in the historic county of Brecknockshire (Breconshire) in Wales, currently administered as part of the unitary authority of Powys. With over twenty bookshops, it is often described as "the town of books", and is both the National Book Town of Wales and the site of the annual Hay Literary Festival.

Wales Country in northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.

Bredevoort was a herrschaft and a separate municipality until 1818. The villages Aalten, Dinxperlo and Winterswijk included the Fiefdom of Bredevoort when it became a part of Aalten in 1818. [1]

In the German feudal system, a Herrschaft was the fiefdom of a lord, who in this area exercised full feudal rights. It is the equivalent of the French term seigneurie and is often translated as "lordship" in English.

Dinxperlo Place in Gelderland, Netherlands

Dinxperlo is a town and former municipality in the eastern Netherlands, situated directly at the border with Germany. Since 1 January 2005, Dinxperlo has been part of the municipality of Aalten.

Winterswijk Municipality and town in Gelderland, Netherlands

Winterswijk is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. It has a population of 28,999 and is situated in the Achterhoek, which lies in the easternmost part of the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands.

History

The name Bredevoort appears for the first time on a list of properties belonging to the archbishop of Cologne in 1188, who owned shares of the castle Bredevoort. When the count of Steinfurt tried to sell his share of the castle to the bishop of Munster and the count of Loon tried to sell his share to the count of Gelderland, a conflict broke out between the bishop and the count of Gelderland. The fight lasted for almost two centuries.

Cologne Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, and its 1 million+ (2016) inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is also the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, and of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn. It is the largest city in the Central Franconian and Ripuarian dialect areas.

Steinfurt Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Steinfurt is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Steinfurt.

Munster province in Ireland

Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the south west of Ireland. In early Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was one of the kingdoms of Gaelic Ireland ruled by a "king of over-kings". Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In later centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties.

From 1326, after 4 years of battle between Reginald II, Duke of Guelders and Ludwig von Hessen  (de ) the Prince-Bishopric of Münster Bredevoort was actual part of Gelderland. Between 1326 and 1697 the municipality of Bredevoort repeatedly changed ownership. The former municipality of Bredevoort was composed of the city, the castle Bredevoort, and the villages Aalten, Dinxperlo and Winterswijk. Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange conquered Bredevoort in the year 1597 on the Spanish occupation. The Spanish reconquered the city in 1606, but Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange liberated the garrison and citizens who had retreated in the Castle of Bredevoort. In 1646, lightning hit the gunpowder tower of the castle, causing an explosion that destroyed parts of the castle and the town, killing Lord Haersolte of Bredevoort and his family, as well as others. Only one son, Anthonie, who was not home that day, survived. In the rampjaar ("disaster year") 1672 Bernhard von Galen reconquered the city and occupied city and herrschaft for almost two years. In 1697 received William III of England the city and herrschaft from the States of Gelderland. From that day until 1795 the city and herrschaft was a personal belonging to the House of Orange-Nassau. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands is still Lord of Bredevoort. After centuries of war, its fortifications were demolished by its inhabitants. [2] In 1818, the municipality of Bredevoort was dissolved to become part of the city Bredevoort under the newly formed municipality Aalten.

Reginald II, Duke of Guelders Dutch noble

Reginald II of Guelders, called "the Black", was Count of Guelders, and from 1339 onwards Duke of Guelders, and Zutphen, in the Low Countries, from 1326 to 1343. He was the son of Reginald I of Guelders and Marguerite of Flanders.

Prince-Bishopric of Münster

The Bishopric of Münster or Prince-Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony. From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, it was often held in personal union with one or more of the nearby ecclesiastical principalities of Cologne, Paderborn, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, and Liège.

Siege of Bredevoort (1597)

The Siege of Bredevoort in 1597 was a siege of Bredevoort by the military forces led by Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, during the Eighty Years War and the Anglo-Spanish War. The siege lasted from 1 October until 9 October; after that day Bredevoort was occupied by the besiegers. The siege was part of a campaign which Maurice conquered the cities Turnhout, Alphen, Rijnberk, Meurs, Bredevoort, Groenlo, Goor, Enschede, Oldenzaal, Ootmarsum and Lingen.

Sights

"Grote Gracht", the town ditch with remains of the former Star fort of Bredevoort Treurniet bredevoort.JPG
"Grote Gracht", the town ditch with remains of the former Star fort of Bredevoort
Gothic architecture style of architecture

Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was widely used, especially for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century.

Church (building) building constructed for Christian worship

A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for Christian worship services. The term is often used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is often arranged in the shape of a Christian cross. When viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area.

Rococo 18th-century artistic movement and style

Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", is a highly ornamental and theatrical style of decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding, white and pastel colors, sculpted molding, and trompe l'oeil frescoes to create the illusions of surprise, motion and drama. It first appeared in France and Italy in the 1730s and spread to Central Europe in the 1750s and 1760s. It is often described as the final expression of the Baroque movement.

Transportation

Aalten railway station is the nearest station. There is a half-hourly service between Arnhem and Winterswijk, which stops at this station. Arnhem railway station has half-hourly (or more) services to Amsterdam, Utrecht, Nijmegen, 's-Hertogenbosch, Breda, Tilburg and Alkmaar. If you travel to Winterswijk, you can then change onto a connecting train to Zutphen. From Zutphen you can travel to Apeldoorn, Dieren, Hengelo, Deventer and Zwolle.

To get to the station you can use bus service 191, which travels from Aalten station to Bredevoort and Lichtenvoorde.

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References

  1. Ad van der Meer and Onno Boonstra, Repertorium van Nederlandse gemeenten , KNAW, 2006.
  2. Staring Instituut: Bredevoort een Heerlijkheid", ISBN   90-900213-5-3 (first edition 1988)

Coordinates: 51°57′N6°37′E / 51.950°N 6.617°E / 51.950; 6.617