Prince of Orange

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Coat of Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884) Coat of Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884).svg
Coat of Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815–1884)
Coat of Arms of the counts of Orange of the first house of Orange. Blason Raymond IV des Baux.svg
Coat of Arms of the counts of Orange of the first house of Orange.
Coat of Arms of the city/town of Orange in the Vaucluse. They were granted to the city by the princes of Orange of the house of des Baux in the last quarter of the 12th century. Blason ville fr Orange (Vaucluse).svg
Coat of Arms of the city/town of Orange in the Vaucluse. They were granted to the city by the princes of Orange of the house of des Baux in the last quarter of the 12th century.

Prince of Orange (or Princess of Orange if the holder is female) is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France. Under the Treaty of Utrecht [3] of 1713, Frederick William I of Prussia ceded the Principality of Orange to King Louis XIV of France (while retaining the title as part of his dynastic titulature). After William III of England died without children, a dispute arose between Johan Willem Friso and Frederick I of Prussia, which was settled in the Treaty of Partition (1732); [4] consequently, Friso's son, William IV had to share use of the title "Prince of Orange" (which had accumulated prestige in the Netherlands and throughout the Protestant world) with Frederick William I of Prussia. [5] The title is traditionally borne by the heir apparent of the Dutch monarch. The title descends via absolute primogeniture since 1983, meaning that its holder can be either Prince or Princess of Orange.

A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either veneration, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted between the first and last name. Some titles are hereditary.

Principality of Orange

The Principality of Orange was, from 1163 to 1713, a feudal state in Provence, in the south of modern-day France, on the east bank of the river Rhone, north of the city of Avignon, and surrounded by the independent papal state of Comtat Venaissin.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Contents

The Dutch royal dynasty, the House of Orange-Nassau, is not the only family to claim the dynastical title. Rival claims to the title have been made by German emperors and kings of the House of Hohenzollern and by the head of the French noble family of Mailly. The current users of the title are Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands (Orange-Nassau), Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia (Hohenzollern), and Guy, Marquis de Mailly-Nesle (Mailly).

House of Orange-Nassau branch of the European House of Nassau

The House of Orange-Nassau, a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.

A substantive title is a title of nobility or royalty acquired either by individual grant or inheritance. It is to be distinguished from a title shared among cadets, borne as a courtesy title by a peer's relatives, or acquired through marriage.

House of Hohenzollern dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania

The House of Hohenzollern[ˈhoːəntsɔlɐn] is a German dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle. The first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061.

History

County of Orange

Composite portrait of four generations of Princes of Orange - William I (in role 1554-1584), Maurice (1618-1625) and Frederick Henry (1625-1647), William II (1647-1650), William III (1650-1702) - Willem van Honthorst, 1662 Nason, Pieter (attributed to) - Four generations Princes of Orange - William I, Maurice and Frederick Henry, William II and William III - 1662-1666.jpg
Composite portrait of four generations of Princes of Orange – William I (in role 1554–1584), Maurice (1618–1625) and Frederick Henry (1625–1647), William II (1647–1650), William III (1650–1702) – Willem van Honthorst, 1662

The title originally referred to Orange in the Vaucluse department in the Rhone valley of southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange, then of the House of Baux and the House of Châlon-Arlay before passing in 1544 to the House of Orange-Nassau.

Orange, Vaucluse Commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Orange is a commune in the Vaucluse Department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France, about 21 km (13 mi) north of Avignon. It has a primarily agricultural economy.

Vaucluse Department of France

The Vaucluse is a department of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in the southeast of France, named after the famous spring the Fontaine de Vaucluse. The name Vaucluse derives from the Latin Vallis Clausa as the valley here ends in a cliff face from which emanates a spring whose origin is so far in and so deep that it remains to be defined.

House of Baux family

The House of Baux is a French noble family from the south of France. It was one of the richest and most powerful families of Medieval Provence, known as the 'Race d’Aiglon'. They were independent Lords as castellan of Les Baux and Arles and wielded very considerable authority at local level. They held important fiefs and vast lands, including the principality of Orange.

The Principality originated as the County of Orange, a fief in the Holy Roman Empire, in the Empire's constituent Kingdom of Burgundy. It was awarded to William of Gellone (born 755), a grandson of Charles Martel and therefore a cousin of Charlemagne, around the year 800 for his services in the wars against the Moors and in the reconquest of southern France and the Spanish March. His Occitan name is Guilhem; however, as a Frankish lord, he probably knew himself by the old Germanic version of Wilhelm. William also ruled as count of Toulouse, duke of Aquitaine,[ citation needed ] and marquis of Septimania.

Fief System of economic governance during the Middle Ages in Europe.

A fief was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty. The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure: these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including governmental office, rights of exploitation such as hunting or fishing, monopolies in trade, and tax farms.

Holy Roman Empire varying complex of lands that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.

William of Gellone Count of Toulouse and saint

William of Gellone, the medieval William of Orange, was the second Duke of Toulouse from 790 until 811. In 804, he founded the abbey of Gellone. He was canonized a saint in 1066 by Pope Alexander II.

The horn that came to symbolize Orange when heraldry came in vogue much later in the 12th century represented a pun on William of Gellone's name in French, from the character his deeds inspired in the chanson de geste , the Chanson de Guillaume : "Guillaume au Court-nez" (William the Short-Nosed) or its homophone "Guillaume au Cornet" (William the Horn). [6] The chanson appears to incorporate material relating to William of Gellone's battle at the Orbieu or Orbiel river near Carcassonne in 793 as well as to his seizure of the town of Orange. [7]

<i>Chanson de geste</i> Medieval narrative in poetic form

The chanson de geste is a medieval narrative, a type of epic poem that appears at the dawn of French literature. The earliest known poems of this genre date from the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, before the emergence of the lyric poetry of the trouvères (troubadours) and the earliest verse romances. They reached their apogee in the period 1150–1250.

The Chanson de Guillaume or Chançun de Willame is a chanson de geste from the first half of the twelfth-century. The work is generally considered to have two distinct halves: the first tells of Guillaume of Orange, his nephew Vivien and the latter's young brother Gui and their various battles with Saracens at L'Archamp; in the second half of the poem, Guillaume is aided by Rainouard, a giant.

Orbieu river in France

The Orbieu is a 84.3-kilometre (52.4 mi) long river in the Aude département, in south central France. Its source is at Fourtou, in the Corbières. It flows generally northeast. It is a right tributary of the Aude into which it flows between Raissac-d'Aude and Marcorignan, 10 kilometres (6 mi) northwest of Narbonne.

Principality of Orange

As the kingdom of Burgundy fragmented in the early Middle Ages, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa elevated the lordship of Orange to a principality in 1163 to shore up his supporters in Burgundy against the Pope and the King of France. As the Empire's boundaries retreated from those of the principality, the prince acceded to the sovereign rights that the Emperor formerly exercised. [6] :7 As William the Silent wrote in his marriage proposal to the uncle of his second wife, the Elector August of Saxony, he held Orange as "my own free property", not as a fief of any suzerain; neither the Pope, nor the Kings of Spain or France. [8] [9] That historical position of honor and reputation would later drive William the Silent forward, as much as it also fueled the opposition of his great grandson William III to Louis XIV, when that king invaded and occupied Orange.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor German Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick I, also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152. He was crowned King of Italy on 24 April 1155 in Pavia and Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155 in Rome. Two years later, the term sacrum ("holy") first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire. He was later formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian; in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbart, which has the same meaning.

Augustus, Elector of Saxony German prince

Augustus was Elector of Saxony from 1553 to 1586.

William III of England 17th-century Stadtholder, Prince of Orange and King of England, Scotland and Ireland

William III, also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".

The last descendant of the original princes, René of Châlon, left the principality to his cousin William the Silent, who was not a descendant of the original Orange family but the heir to the principality of Orange by testament, however in violation against the inheritance pattern enacted by the last will of Marie des Baux, the Princess of Orange through kinship to whom Prince René derived his own right thereto.

Map of the principality of Orange in the 16th century. Oranje1547.png
Map of the principality of Orange in the 16th century.

In 1673, Louis XIV of France annexed all territory of the principality to France and to the royal domain, as part of the war actions against the stadtholder William III of Orange — who later became King William III of Great Britain. Orange ceased to exist as a sovereign realm, de facto.

In 1673, Louis XIV bestowed the titular princedom on Louis Charles de Mailly, Marquis de Nesle, whose wife was a direct descendant, and heiress-general by primogeniture, of the original princes of Orange. [10]

After the marquis (who died in 1713), the next holder was Louis of Mailly-Nesle  [ fr ], marquis de Nesle (1689–1764). Although no longer descended from Louis-Charles, a branch of the Mailly family still claim the title today.

In 1714 Louis XIV bestowed the usufruct of the principality on his kinsman, Louis Armand of Bourbon, Prince de Conti. After his death in 1727 the principality was deemed merged in the Crown by 1731. [11]

Abolition of the principality, continuation of the title

Because William III died without legitimate children, the principality was regarded as having been inherited by his closest cognate relative on the basis of the testament of Frederic-Henry, Frederick I of Prussia, who ceded the principality — at least the lands, but not the formal title — to France in 1713. [12] France supported his claim. In this way, the territory of the principality lost its feudal and secular privileges and became a part of France. The Treaty of Utrecht allowed the King of Prussia to erect part of the duchy of Gelderland (the cities of Geldern, Straelen and Wachtendonk with their bailiwicks, Krickenbeck, Viersen, the land of Kessel, the lordships of Afferden, Arcen-Velden-Lomm, Walbeck-Twisteden, Raay and Klein-Kevelaer, Well, Bergen and Middelaar) into a new Principality of Orange. [13] The kings of Prussia and the German emperors styled themselves Princes of Orange till 1918.

A detailed map of the principality in the first half of the 17th century reproduced from the famous 1627 Atlas of Willem Janszoon Blaeu. The area of the principality was approximately 12 miles long by 9 miles wide, or 108 sq. miles. Orange Principality Map.jpg
A detailed map of the principality in the first half of the 17th century reproduced from the famous 1627 Atlas of Willem Janszoon Blaeu. The area of the principality was approximately 12 miles long by 9 miles wide, or 108 sq. miles.

An agnatic relative of William III, John William Friso of Nassau, who was also cognatically descended from William the Silent, was designated the heir to the princes of Orange in the Netherlands by the last will of William III. Several of his descendants became stadtholders. They claim the principality of Orange on the basis of agnatic inheritance, similar to that of William the Silent, who had inherited Orange from his cousin René of Châlon. They did however have a claim, albeit distant, to the principality itself due to John William Friso's descent from Louise de Coligny, who was a descendant of the original Princes of Orange. (Louise's great grandmother, Anne Pot, Countess of St. Pol, was a descendant of Tiburge d'Orange, who married into the des Baux family) [15] [16] [17] [18]

They could also claim descent from the del Balzo, an Italian branch of the des Baux family, via the marriage of Princess Anne to William IV, Prince of Orange. Anne was the eldest daughter of George II of Great Britain, who was a descendant of Elizabeth Woodville, wife of Edward IV of England. Elizabeth Woodwille's grandmother was Margherita del Balzo, another descendant of Tiburge d'Orange. [19] [20] [21]

They also claimed on the basis of the testament of Philip William, Maurice and William III. Finally, they claimed on the basis that Orange was an independent state whose sovereign had the right to assign his succession according to his will. France never recognized any of this, nor allowed the Orange-Nassaus or the Hohenzollerns to obtain anything of the principality itself. The Oranje-Nassaus nevertheless assumed the title and also erected several of their lordships into a new principality of Orange. [22] [23] [24] From that derivation of the title comes the tradition of the house of Nassau-Dietz, the later stadtholders of the Netherlands, and the present-day royal family of the Netherlands, of holding this title. They maintain the tradition of William the Silent and the house of Orange-Nassau.

There are two other [25] claimants to this title:

Bearers of the title

As Counts of Orange

House of Orange

NoNamePictureBirthBecame Count(ess) of OrangeCeased to be Count(ess)DeathOther titlesSpouse
1.Pons de MevouillonBlismodis
2.Pons II de MevouillonRichilde
3.Laugier de NiceOdile de Provence
3.Rambaud de NiceAccelena d’Apt
4.Bertrand-Rambaud d'Orange1. Adélaïde de Cavenez
Gerberge
5. Raimbaut II ?
6.Tiburge d'Orange1. Giraud Adhémar de Monteil
2. Guillaume d'Aumelas
7. Raimbaut III of Orange Lord of AumelasNone

As sovereign prince of Orange

Until 1340, it was customary for all sons of the prince of Orange to inherit the title. Only the direct line of descent to Raimond V is shown here.

House of Baux

The house of Baux succeeded to the principality of Orange when Bertrand of Baux married the heiress of the last native count of Orange, Tiburge, daughter of William of Orange, Omelaz, and Montpellier. Their son was William I of Baux-Orange. Bertrand was the son of Raymond of Baux and Stephanie of Gevaudan. Stephanie was the younger daughter of Gerberga, the heiress of the counts of Provence. [6] For a genealogical table, see the reference cited: [26]

NoNamePictureBirthCreated Prince of OrangeCeased to be Prince of OrangeDeathOther titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
1. Prince Bertrand I Sceau baux-orange.jpg 1110/11151173
After the death of his brother-in-law, Raimbaut, Count of Orange, the County of Orange was elevated to a principality in 1163 by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.
April/October 1180 Lord of Baux Tibors de Sarenom

Bertrand I used as Prince of Orange the coat of arms of the House of Baux: a 16-pointed white star placed on a field of gules. Later on, the Princes of Orange quartered the legendary bugle-horn as a heraldic figure into their coat of arms.

House of Baux-Orange

NoNameArmsBirthBecame Prince of OrangeCeased to be Prince of OrangeDeathOther titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
2. Prince William I Blason Baux-Orange.svg 115531 October 1180bef. 30 July 1218Co-Prince (with brothers); Lord of Baux 1. Ermengarde of Mévouillon
2. Alix
3. Prince William II Blason Baux-Orange.svg 31 October 1180bef. 1 November 1239Co-Prince (with his brother); Lord of Baux Précieuse
4. Prince William III Blason Baux-Orange.svg aft. 1 November 12391257Co-Prince (with his uncle); Lord of Baux Giburg
5. Prince Raymond I Blason Baux-Orange.svg bef. 30 July 12181282Co-Prince (with his brother and nephew) Lord of Baux Malberjone of Aix
6. Prince Bertrand II Blason Baux-Orange.svg 1282aft. 21 July 1314 Lord of Baux Eleanore of Geneva
7. Prince Raymond II Blason Baux-Orange.svg aft. 21 July 13141340, aft. 9 September Lord of Baux and Condorcet Anne of Viennois
8. Prince Raymond III Blason Baux-Orange.svg aft. 9 September 134010 February 1393 Lord of Baux 1. Constance of Trian
2. Jeanne of Geneva
9. Princess Mary Blason Baux-Orange.svg 10 February 1393October 1417 Lady of Arlay, Cuiseaux, and Vitteaux Prince John I

House of Châlon-Arlay (also House of Ivrea of Anscarid dynasty)

The lords of Chalons and Arlay were a cadet branch of the ruling house of the county of Burgundy, the Anscarids or House of Ivrea. They married the heiress of Baux-Orange.

NoNamePictureArmsBirthBecame Prince of OrangeCeased to be Prince of OrangeDeathOther titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
10. Prince John I none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg 10 February 1393October 14172 September 1418 Lord of Arlay, Cuiseaux and Vitteaux Princess Mary
11. Prince Louis I none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg 1390October 14173 December 1463 Lord of Arlay, Arguel, Orbe, and Echelens 1. Jeanne of Montbéliard
2. Eleanor d'Armagnac
3. Blanche of Gamaches
12. Prince William II none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg 3 December 146327 September 1475 Lord of Arlay and Arguel Catherine of Brittany
13. Prince John II none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg 144327 September 147515 April 1502 Count of Tonnerre; Lord of Arlay, Arguel and Montfaucon; Admiral of Guyenne 1. Jeanne de Bourbon
2. Philiberte of Luxembourg
14. Prince Philibert Philbert Prince of Orange.png Blason FR Philibert de Chalon.svg 18 March 150215 April 15023 August 1530 Viceroy of Naples; Prince of Melfi; Duke of Gravina; Count of Tonnerre, Charny, Penthièvre; Viscount of Besançon; Lord of Arlay, Nozeroy, Rougemont, Orgelet and Montfaucon, Lieutenant-General in the Imperial army.no wife

House of Châlon-Orange

Rene inherited the principality of Orange from his uncle Philbert on the condition that he bear the name and arms of the house of Châlon-Orange. Therefore, he is usually counted as one of the Châlon-Orange and history knows him as Rene of Châlon, rather than "of Nassau". [6]

NoNamePictureArmsBirthBecame Prince of OrangeCeased to be Prince of OrangeDeathOther titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
15. Prince René Rene van Chalon.jpg Blason Rene de Nassau-Dillenbourg, Prince de Chalon-Orange.svg 5 February 15193 August 153015 July 1544 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Guelders; Count of Nassau, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Anna of Lorraine

House of Orange-Nassau (first incarnation)

William of Nassau inherited the principality of Orange from his cousin René. Although William descended from no previous Prince of Orange, as René had no children or siblings, he exercised his right as sovereign prince to will Orange to his first cousin on his father's side, who actually had no Orange blood. This began the Dutch Royal House of Orange-Nassau.

NoNamePictureArmsBirthBecame Prince of OrangeCeased to be Prince of OrangeDeathOther titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
16. Prince William I WilliamOfOrange1580.jpg Willem van Oranje wapen.svg .: [1] [27] [28] 24 April 153315 July 154410 July 1584 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Friesland; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Lands of Cuijk, City of Grave, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon.1. Anna van Egmont
2. Anna of Saxony
3. Charlotte de Bourbon
4. Louise de Coligny
17. Prince Philip William Workshop of Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt 003.jpg Blason Nassau-Orange.svg [29] 19 December 155410 July 158420 February 1618 Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Eindhoven, City of Grave, IJsselstein, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Éléonore de Bourbon
18. Prince Maurice Workshop of Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt 004.jpg Arms Maurice of Nassau prince of Orange.JPG [30] [31] [32] 14 November 156720 February 161823 April 1625 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, Overijssel and Groningen; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon.no wife
19. Prince Frederick Henry After Gerard van Honthorst 002.jpg Willem van Oranje wapen.svg [1] 29 January 158423 April 162514 March 1647 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Amalia of Solms-Braunfels
20. Prince William II After Gerard van Honthorst 003.jpg Willem van Oranje wapen.svg [1] 27 May 162614 March 16476 November 1650 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Mary, Princess Royal
21. William III King William III.jpg Willem van Oranje wapen.svg [1] 14 November 165014 November 16508 March 1702 King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Queen Mary II of England

Title without territory

House of Orange-Nassau (second incarnation)

The 2nd house of Orange-Nassau (see House of Orange-Nassau family tree) were cousins on their father and mother's side of the 1st house.

Head of house
NoNamePictureArmsHeir ofBirthBecame Prince of OrangeCeased to be Prince of OrangeDeathOther titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
22. Prince John William Friso JohanWillemFriso.jpg Arms of Johan Willem Friso as Prince of Orange.JPG [33] William III 4 August 16878 March 170214 July 1711 Stadtholder of Friesland and Groningen; Fürst of Nassau-DietzFürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, Spiegelberg, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel
23. Prince William IV Guillaume IV d'Orange-Nassau.jpg Blason Nassau-Orange.svg Prince John William Friso 1 September 171122 October 1751 General Stadtholder of the United Provinces; Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Anne, Princess Royal
24. Prince William V WillemV.png Blason Nassau-Orange.svg Prince William IV 8 March 174822 October 17519 April 1806 General Stadtholder of the United Provinces; Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Borculo, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Lichtenvoorde, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia
25.Prince William VI
later William I
Willemi.jpg Arms of Sovereign Prince William I of Orange.svg Prince William V 24 August 17729 April 180616 March 1815
title dropped when invested as first King of the Netherlands
7 October 1840 Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Borculo, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Lichtenvoorde, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Wilhelmine of Prussia
Netherlands heir apparent
NoNamePictureArmsHeir ofBirthBecame Heir to the Crown Created Prince(ss) of OrangeCeased to be Prince(ss) of OrangeDeathOther titles while Prince(ss) of OrangeSpouse
26.Prince William
later William II
YoungwilliamII.jpg Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884).svg [34] [35] William I 6 December 179216 March 1815
father's accession as King
7 October 1840
became King
17 March 1849 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia
27.Prince William
later William III
William III.jpg Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884).svg [34] [35] William II 19 February 18177 October 1840
father's accession as King
17 March 1849
became King
23 November 1890 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau Princess Sophie of Württemberg
28. Prince William Willem Nicolaas Alexander Frederik Karel Hendrik, kroonprins van Oranje, 1865.jpg Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884).svg [34] [35] William III 4 September 184017 March 1849
father's accession as King
11 June 1879 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau None
29. Prince Alexander Alexander, Prince of Orange, Prince of the Netherlands.jpg Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884).svg [34] [35] 25 August 185111 June 1879
brother's death
21 June 1884 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau None
30.Prince Willem-Alexander later Willem-Alexander
[36]
De Prins van Oranje, oktober 2006.jpg Arms of the children of Beatrix of the Netherlands.svg Beatrix 27 April 196730 April 1980
mother's accession as Queen regnant
30 April 2013
became King
Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg Princess Máxima of the Netherlands
31. Princess Catharina-Amalia
[37]
Wassenaar, najaar 2014, de Prinses van Oranje.jpg Arms of the children of Wilhelm-Alexander of the Netherlands.svg Willem-Alexander 7 December 200330 April 2013
father's accession as King
Incumbent Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau

House of Hohenzollern

  • Frederick I of Prussia (1702–1713), a senior descendant in female line from William the Silent, who ceded his claims to the lands of Orange to France in 1713, and his descendants, but kept his right to use the title in its German form: currently Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, "Prinz von Oranien" (1976–)

House of Mailly

  • Louis de Mailly, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, appointed by the French king, and his descendants, descended through another line of the house of Chalons-Arlay, currently Guy, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, Prince d'Orange.

House of Bourbon

Princes of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau

Historical background

William the Silent (Willem I) was the first stadtholder of the Dutch Republic and the most significant representative of the House of Orange in the Netherlands. He was count of a portion of the German territory of Nassau and heir to some of his father's fiefs in Holland. William obtained more extensive lands in the Netherlands (the lordship of Breda and several other dependencies) as an inheritance from his cousin René of Châlon, Prince of Orange, when William was only 11 years old. After William's assassination in 1584, the title passed to his son Philip William (who had been held hostage in Spain until 1596), and after his death in 1618, to his second son Maurice, and finally to his youngest son, Frederick Henry.

The title of Prince of Orange became associated with the stadtholder of the Netherlands.

William III (Willem III) was also King of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his legacy is commemorated annually by the Protestant Orange Order. William's mother, Mary, was the daughter of King Charles I of England and therefore a princess of England as well as Princess of Orange by marriage.

William III and Mary II had no legitimate children. After William's death in 1702, his heir in the Netherlands was John William Friso of Nassau-Diez, who assumed the title, King William having bequeathed it to him by testament. The other contender was the King in Prussia, who based his claim to the title on the will of Frederick Henry, William III's grandfather. Eventually, a compromise was reached by which both families were entitled to bear the title of Prince of Orange. By then, it was no more than a title because the principality had been annexed by Louis XIV of France.

Friso's line held it as their principal title during the 18th century. The French army expelled them from the Netherlands in 1795, but on their return, the Prince of Orange became the first sovereign of the Netherlands in 1813.

After the establishment of the current Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, the title was partly reconstitutionalized by legislation and granted to the eldest son of King William I of the Netherlands, Prince William, who later became William II of the Netherlands. Since 1983, the heir to the Dutch throne, whether male or female, bears the title Prince or Princess of Orange. [38] The first-born child of the heir to the Dutch throne bears the title Hereditary Prince(ss) of Orange. [39] When her father Willem-Alexander became King of the Netherlands following the abdication of Queen Beatrix, Princess Catharina-Amalia became the Princess of Orange.

Style

The Prince(ss) of Orange is styled His/Her Royal Highness the Prince(ss) of Orange (Dutch: Zijne/Hare Koninklijke Hoogheid de Prins(es) van Oranje).

During the 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries, the Prince(ss) of Orange was styled His/Her Highness the Prince(ss) of Orange (Dutch: Zijne/Hare Hoogheid de Prins(es) van Oranje), except for William III, who rated the "Royal/Koninklijke".

Arms

The princes of Orange in the 16th and 17th century used the following sets of arms. On becoming Prince of Orange, William placed the Châlon-Arlay arms in the center ("as an inescutcheon") of his father's arms. He used these arms until 1582 when he purchased the marquisate of Veere and Vlissingen. He then used the arms attributed to Frederick Henry, etc. with the arms of the marquisate in the top center, and the arms of the county of Buren in the bottom center. [27] Their growing complexity shows how arms are used to reflect the growing political position and royal aspirations of the house of Orange-Nassau.

When William VI of Orange returned to the Netherlands in 1813 and was proclaimed Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands, he quartered the former Arms of the Dutch Republic (1st and 4th quarter) with the "Châlon-Orange" arms (2nd and 3rd quarter), which had come to symbolize Orange. As an in escutcheon he placed his ancestral arms of Nassau. When he became King in 1815, he combined the Dutch Republic Lion with the billets of the Nassau arms and added a royal crown to form the Coat of arms of the Netherlands. In the 19th century, the Dutch Crown prince, who holds the title "Prince of Orange" ("Prins van Oranje"), and his son, who holds the title "Hereditary Prince of Orange" ("Erfprins van Oranje") had their own pre-defined arms. The House of Orange, now the Royal House of the Netherlands, and their descendants the House of Orange-Nassau, kept this title for their family. Wilhelmina further decreed that in perpetuity her descendants should be styled "princes and princesses of Orange-Nassau" and that the name of the house would be "Orange-Nassau" (in Dutch "Oranje-Nassau"). Since then, individual members of the House of Orange-Nassau are also given their own arms by the reigning monarch, similar to the United Kingdom. This is usually the royal arms, quartered with the arms of the principality of Orange, and an in escutcheon of their paternal arms. [42]

As a former territory of the Holy Roman Empire, the princes of Orange used an independent prince's crown. Sometimes, only the coronet part was used (see, here and here). After the establishment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, they used the Dutch Royal Crowns:

See also

Related Research Articles

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House of Chalon-Arlay noble family

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Princess Marie of the Netherlands daughter of Prince Frederick of the Netherlands

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References

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  41. Post, Pieter (1651). "Coat of Arms as depicted in "Begraeffenisse van syne hoogheyt Frederick Hendrick"". engraving, in the collection of. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  42. "Wapens van leden van het Koninklijk Huis". Coats of Arms of the Dutch Royal Family, Website of the Dutch Monarchy, the Hague. Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD), the Hague, the Netherlands. Archived from the original on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
  43. Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. vol.2. Genealogical Publishing Co. p. 297. ISBN   0-8063-4811-9 . Retrieved 26 May 2015. Ecartelé : au 1. d'azur, semé de billettes d'or au lion d'or, armé et lampassé de gueules, brochant sur le tout (Maison de Nassau) ; II, d'or, au léopard lionné de gueules, arméc ouronné et lampassé d'azur (Katzenelnbogen) ; III, de gueules à la fasce d'argent (Vianden) ; IV, de gueules à deux lions passant l'un sur l'autre ; sur-le-tout écartelé, aux I et IV de gueules, à la bande d'or (Châlon), et aux II et III d'or, au cor de chasse d'azur, virolé et lié de gueules (Orange) ; sur-le-tout-du-tout de cinq points d'or équipolés à quatre d'azur (Genève) ; un écusson de sable à la fasce d'argent brochant en chef (Marquis de Flessingue et Veere); un écusson de gueules à la fasce bretessée et contre-bretessée d'argent brochant en pointe (Buren)
  44. Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1875). Handboek der Wapenkunde. the Netherlands: Theod. Bom. pp. 347–348. De PRINS VAN ORANJE Gevierendeeld: 1 en 4 het koninklijke wapen; 2 en 3 nogmaals gevierendeeld van rood met een gouden schuinbalk, en van goud met een blaauwen, rood-gesnoerden en beslagen jagthoorn, benevens een hartschildje op het snijpunt, beladen met vijf gouden vakken grenzende aan vier blaauewe. Overigens geheel als het koninklijke wapen.
  45. Junius, J.H. (1894). Heraldiek. the Netherlands: Frederik Muller. p. 151. In Nederland voert de PRINS VAN ORANJE het koninklijk wapen gekwartileerd met dat van ORANJE-CHALONS.
  46. Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1875). Handboek der Wapenkunde. the Netherlands: Theod. Bom. p. 348. De ERFPRINS VAN ORANJE, casu quo: Gelijk de Prins van Oranje, met een rooden barensteel over de beide eerste kwartieren heen.
  47. Junius, J.H. (1894). Heraldiek. the Netherlands: Frederik Muller. p. 151. ...behalve de erfprins die 's vaders wapen met een barensteel breekt. Bij ons vorstenhuis is die barenstell altijk van keel.
  48. Klaas. "Maurits van Vollenhoven". Article on Maurits van Vollenhoven, 18-09-2008 10:28. klaas.punt.nl. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

Literature