Former municipality of Borculo
Borculo is a town in the eastern Netherlands, in the municipality of Berkelland, Gelderland. Borculo was an independent municipality until 2005, when it merged with Eibergen, Neede, and Ruurlo. Other population centers in the municipality of Borculo were nearby Geesteren, Gelselaar, and Haarlo.
The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.
Berkelland is a municipality in the Netherlands province of Gelderland. It was created on 1 January 2005 from the merger of the former municipalities of Borculo, Eibergen, Neede, and Ruurlo. The new municipality was named after the Berkel, a small river.
Gelderland is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. With a land area of nearly 5,000 km2, it is the largest province of the Netherlands and shares borders with six other provinces and Germany.
Borculo began as a settlement near where, at the time, the Berkel joined a smaller stream called the Grolse Slinge.In the 12th century a castle called the Hof van Borculo was built. A defensive wall surrounding the village was constructed in 1348. The village received city rights in 1375. The city wall is demolished, but parts of the defensive moat which was also used as a trading route over the Berkel to the city's along the Berkel (such as Zutphen), can still be found in Borculo.
Zutphen is a city and municipality located in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands. It lies some 30 km northeast of Arnhem, on the eastern bank of the river IJssel at the point where it is joined by the Berkel. First mentioned in the 11th century, the place-name appears to mean "south fen". In 2005, the municipality of Zutphen was merged with the municipality of Warnsveld, retaining its name. In 2017, the municipality had a population of 47,423.
Borculo was then ruled by the counts of Limburg and Bronkhorst. In the long conflict (known as the "Borculo question") between the heirs of the last count of Limburg-Bronkhorst, Joost (deceased in 1553 without children), and the Prince-Bishop of Munster over ownership of Borculo, the Court of Gelderland ruled on 20 December 1615 in favour of count Joost van Limburg and Bronkhorst. The ruling was imposed by troops from Zutphen, taking over the castle and city of Lichtenvoorde in December 1615, and the castle and city of Borculo in February 1616 after short combat. Prince Bishop Christoph Bernhard von Galen, tried again twice to keep Borculo under Munster's authority, but without success. Thereafter, Borculo definitely belonged to the province of Guelders instead of Munster.
Lichtenvoorde is a town in the Netherlands, in the municipality of Oost Gelre.
In 1777 the region came into the possession of Stadtholder William V, after which the castle was demolished and rebuilt. Most of the castle was demolished in 1869-1870, but parts of the keep still exist. These parts are hidden below the library and cultural centre, although they were visible to the public for several years. Due to wear, these parts were buried again.
A keep is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars have debated the scope of the word keep, but usually consider it to refer to large towers in castles that were fortified residences, used as a refuge of last resort should the rest of the castle fall to an adversary. The first keeps were made of timber and formed a key part of the Motte-and-Bailey castles that emerged in Normandy and Anjou during the 10th century; the design spread to England as a result of the Norman invasion of 1066, and in turn spread into Wales during the second half of the 11th century and into Ireland in the 1170s. The Anglo-Normans and French rulers began to build stone keeps during the 10th and 11th centuries; these included Norman keeps, with a square or rectangular design, and circular shell keeps. Stone keeps carried considerable political as well as military importance and could take up to a decade or more to build.
Borculo is probably known best for the tornado that destroyed much of the village on 10 August 1925. Tornadoes that are this disastrous are very rare in the Netherlands. The Queen of the Netherlands is still Lady of Borculo.
A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. The windstorm is often referred to as a twister, whirlwind or cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name a weather system with a low-pressure area in the center around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, and they are often visible in the form of a condensation funnel originating from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud, with a cloud of rotating debris and dust beneath it. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (180 km/h), are about 250 feet (80 m) across, and travel a few miles before dissipating. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour (480 km/h), are more than two miles (3 km) in diameter, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles.
The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and, as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the Constitution of the Netherlands. Consequently, a fairly large portion of the Dutch Constitution is devoted to the monarch; roughly a third of the document describes the succession, mechanisms of accession and abdication to the throne, the roles and responsibilities of the monarch and the formalities of communication between the Staten-Generaal and the role of the monarch in the creation of laws.
The river IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel to avoid confusion with the Hollandse IJssel, is the branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. The Romans knew the river as Isala. The IJssel flows from Westervoort, east of the city of Arnhem, until it discharges into the IJsselmeer. The River IJssel is one of the three major distributary branches into which the Rhine divides shortly after crossing the German-Dutch border.
Heerlen is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands. It is the third largest settlement proper in the province of Limburg. Measured as municipality, it is the fourth municipality in the province of Limburg.
Groenlo is a city in the municipality of Oost Gelre, situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands, on the German border, within a region in the province of Gelderland called the Achterhoek. Groenlo was a municipality until 1 January 2005, when it merged with Lichtenvoorde. Until 19 May 2006 Groenlo was the official name of Oost Gelre. As of 1 January 2006 Groenlo, including its hamlet Zwolle, counted a population of 10,067. Groenlo is known locally and historically as Grolle, Groll or Grol.
Harderwijk is a municipality and city almost at the exact geographical centre of the Netherlands.
Lochem is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. On 1 January 2005, the municipality merged with the municipality of Gorssel.
Ruurlo is a town and former municipality in the province of Gelderland in the eastern part of the Netherlands. In 2004 it had a population of 8,676.
Limbourg or Limbourg-sur-Vesdre is a city located in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium.
Bronkhorst is a village in the municipality of Bronckhorst, Gelderland, the Netherlands. Technically, it is a city and with only 157 inhabitants (2010), it is one of the smallest cities in the Netherlands.
The Achterhoek is a region in the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Rekken is a small village in the Dutch municipality of Berkelland. It lies in the most northeast corner of the province Gelderland, about half a mile from the German border. The river Berkel enters The Netherlands east of Rekken. Rekken is also known in international aviation, by the VHF omnidirectional range called 'Rekken' (RKN).
Bredevoort or Brevoort is a small city with Town privileges of about 1600 inhabitants, located in the municipality of Aalten, Netherlands. It is situated between the towns of Aalten and Winterswijk.
The Battle of Zutphen was fought on 22 September 1586, near the village of Warnsveld and the town of Zutphen, the Netherlands, during the Eighty Years' War. It was fought by the forces of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, aided by the English, against the Spanish. In 1585, England signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the States-General of the Netherlands and formally entered the war against Spain. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was appointed as the Governor-General of the Netherlands and sent there in command of an English army to support the Dutch rebels. When Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and commander of the Spanish Army of Flanders, besieged the town of Rheinberg during the Cologne War, Leicester, in turn, besieged the town of Zutphen, in the province of Gelderland and on the eastern bank of the river IJssel.
Georg of Limburg, count of Limburg, son of Adolf of Limburg, count of Limburg.
Moritz of Limburg Stirum (1633–1664) was the son of Hermann Otto I of Limburg-Styrum.
Terhorst is a little hamlet of 33 houses and part of the village of Banholt, which is in the municipality of Eijsden-Margraten in the province of Limburg, Netherlands. In the middle of the village, Terhorst has its own little chapel built in 1949 and every year in August there is the traditional annual Chapel party (kapelfeest). There are several old farmhouses originally built in the 18th century and is a popular area for walking. From Terhorst one can reach Banholt, Noorbeek, Mheer, Reijmerstok, Terlinden and Hoogcruts.
The house of Limburg Stirum, which adopted its name in the 12th century from the sovereign county of Limburg an der Lenne in what is now Germany, is one of the oldest families in Europe. It is the eldest and only surviving branch of the House of Berg, which was among the most powerful dynasties in the region of the lower Rhine during the Middle Ages. Some historians link them to an even older dynasty, the Ezzonen, going back to the 9th century.
Agnes of Limburg-Styrum was abbess of the abbeys at Elten, Vreden. Borghorst, and Freckenhorst.