James II of England

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James II and VII
James II by Peter Lely.jpg
Portrait by Peter Lely
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
Reign6 February 1685 – 11 December 1688
Coronation 23 April 1685
Predecessor Charles II
Successors William III & II and Mary II
Born14 October 1633
(N.S.: 24 October 1633)
St. James's Palace, London
Died16 September 1701 (aged 67) [1] (N.S.)
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Burial
Church of the English Benedictines, Paris [2]
Spouse
Issue
more...
House Stuart
Father Charles I of England
Mother Henrietta Maria of France
Religion
Signature JamesIISig.svg

James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S. – 16 September 1701 [1] ) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, [3] from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, his reign is now remembered primarily for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it also involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown. [4]

Old Style and New Style dates 16th-century changes in calendar conventions

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.

Glorious Revolution 17th Century British revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of England jointly with his wife, Mary II, James's daughter, after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of Rights 1689.

Kingdom of England historic sovereign kingdom on the British Isles (927–1649; 1660–1707)

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Contents

James inherited the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland with widespread support in all three countries, largely based on the principle of divine right or birth. [5] Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree; it was a political principle, rather than a religious one that ultimately led to his removal. [6]

In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the first on 10 June was the birth of James's son and heir James Francis Edward, threatening to create a Catholic dynasty and excluding his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. The second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel; this was viewed as an assault on the Church of England and their acquittal on 30 June destroyed his political authority in England. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war. [7]

Mary II of England joint Sovereign of England, Scotland, and Ireland

Mary II was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary. William and Mary, both Protestants, became king and queen regnant following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the adoption of the English Bill of Rights and the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII. William became sole ruler upon her death in 1694. He reigned as such until his own death in 1702, when he was succeeded by Mary's sister Anne.

William III of England Stadtholder, Prince of Orange and King of England, Scotland and Ireland

William III, also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".

Seven Bishops

The Seven Bishops of the Church of England were those imprisoned and tried for seditious libel related to their opposition to the second Declaration of Indulgence, issued by James II in 1688. In a major embarrassment to the Crown, they were found not guilty.

Representatives of the English political elite invited William to assume the English throne; after he landed in Brixham on 5 November 1688, James's army deserted and he went into exile in France on 23 December. In February 1689, Parliament held he had 'vacated' the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed their English colleagues by ruling James had 'forfeited' the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV.

The Invitation to William was a letter sent by seven notable Englishmen, later named the Immortal Seven, to William III, Prince of Orange, received by him on 30 June 1688. In England a Catholic male heir to the throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, had been born, and the letter asked William to force the ruling king, his uncle and father-in-law James II of England, by military intervention to make William's Protestant wife Mary, James's eldest daughter, heir, alleging that the newborn Prince of Wales was an impostor.

Brixham town and civil parish in Devon, England

Brixham is a small fishing town and civil parish in the district of Torbay in the county of Devon, in the south-west of England. Brixham is at the southern end of Torbay, across the bay from Torquay, and fishing and tourism are the major industries of the town. At the time of the 2011 census it had a population of 16,693.

Parliament of England historic legislature of the Kingdom of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it merged with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Early life

Birth

James with his father, Charles I, by Sir Peter Lely, 1647 Charles I and James II.png
James with his father, Charles I, by Sir Peter Lely, 1647

James, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St. James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633. [8] Later that same year, he was baptised by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury. [9] He was educated by private tutors, along with his brother, the future King Charles II, and the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham, George and Francis Villiers. [10] At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral; the position was initially honorary, but would become a substantive office after the Restoration, when James was an adult. [11]

Charles I of England 17th-century monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland

Charles I was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

Henrietta Maria of France queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I

Henrietta Maria of France was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II/VII.

William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury

William Laud was an English archbishop and academic. He was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633, during the personal rule of Charles I. Arrested in 1640, he was executed in 1645.

He was designated Duke of York at birth, [12] invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, [13] and formally created Duke of York in January 1644. [9] [12]

Duke of York British Royal and Aristocratic Titles

The Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of English monarchs. The equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany and Duke of York respectively.

Order of the Garter order of chivalry in England

The Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint.

Civil War

The King's disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War. James accompanied his father at the Battle of Edgehill, where he narrowly escaped capture by the Parliamentary army. [14] He subsequently stayed in Oxford, the chief Royalist stronghold, [15] where he was made a M.A. by the University on 1 November 1642 and served as colonel of a volunteer regiment of foot. [16] When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliamentary leaders ordered the Duke of York to be confined in St. James's Palace. [17] Disguised as a woman, [18] he escaped from the Palace in 1648 with the help of Joseph Bampfield, and crossed the North Sea to The Hague. [19]

When Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed James's older brother king as Charles II of England. [20] Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, and was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651. Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and consequently fled to France and exile. [20]

Exile in France

Turenne, James's commander in France Henri-turenne 2.jpg
Turenne, James's commander in France

Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, and later against their Spanish allies. [21] In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done". [21] Turenne's favour led to James being given command of a captured Irish regiment in December 1652, and being appointed Lieutenant-General in 1654. [18]

In the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, and an alliance was made. In consequence, James was expelled from France and forced to leave Turenne's army. [22] James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the wider political situation, and James ultimately travelled to Bruges and (along with his younger brother, Henry) joined the Spanish army under Louis, Prince of Condé in Flanders, where he was given command as Captain-General of six regiments of British volunteers [18] and fought against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes. [23]

During his service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage, Peter and Richard Talbot, and became somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers. [24] In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy. [25] Ultimately, he declined the position; by the next year the situation in England had changed, and Charles II was proclaimed King. [26]

Restoration

First marriage

James and Anne Hyde in the 1660s, by Sir Peter Lely James II and Anne Hyde by Sir Peter Lely.jpg
James and Anne Hyde in the 1660s, by Sir Peter Lely

After Richard Cromwell's resignation as Lord Protector in 1659 and the subsequent collapse of the Commonwealth in 1660, Charles II was restored to the English throne. Although James was the heir presumptive, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit the Crown, as Charles was still a young man capable of fathering children. [27] On 31 December 1660, following his brother's restoration, James was created Duke of Albany in Scotland, to go along with his English title, Duke of York. [28] Upon his return to England, James prompted an immediate controversy by announcing his engagement to Anne Hyde, the daughter of Charles's chief minister, Edward Hyde. [29]

In 1659, while trying to seduce her, James promised he would marry Anne. [30] Anne became pregnant in 1660, but following the Restoration and James's return to power, no one at the royal court expected a prince to marry a commoner, no matter what he had pledged beforehand. [31] Although nearly everyone, including Anne's father, urged the two not to marry, the couple married secretly, then went through an official marriage ceremony on 3 September 1660 in London. [31]

Their first child, Charles, was born less than two months later, but died in infancy, as did five further sons and daughters. [31] Only two daughters survived: Mary (born 30 April 1662) and Anne (born 6 February 1665). [32] Samuel Pepys wrote that James was fond of his children and his role as a father, and played with them "like an ordinary private father of a child", a contrast to the distant parenting common with royalty at the time. [33]

James's wife was devoted to him and influenced many of his decisions. [34] Even so, he kept mistresses, including Arabella Churchill and Catherine Sedley, and was reputed to be "the most unguarded ogler of his time". [35] Anne Hyde died in 1671.

Military and political offices

James in the 1660s by John Riley James II by John Riley.png
James in the 1660s by John Riley

After the Restoration, James was confirmed as Lord High Admiral, an office that carried with it the subsidiary appointments of Governor of Portsmouth and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. [36] Charles II also made his brother the Governor of the Royal Adventurers into Africa (later shortened to the Royal African Company) in October 1660; James retained the office until after the Glorious Revolution when he was forced to resign. When James commanded the Royal Navy during the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–1667) he immediately directed the fleet towards the capture of forts off the African coast that would facilitate English involvement in the slave trade (indeed English attacks on such forts occupied by the Dutch precipitated the war itself). [37] [38] James remained admiral of the fleet during the Third Anglo-Dutch Wars (1672–1674) during which significant fighting also occurred off the African coast. [39] Following the raid on the Medway in 1667, James oversaw the survey and re-fortification of the southern coast. [40] The office of Lord High Admiral, combined with his revenue from post office and wine tariffs (granted him by Charles upon his restoration) gave James enough money to keep a sizeable court household. [41]

In 1664, Charles granted American territory between the Delaware and Connecticut rivers to James. Following its capture by the English the former Dutch territory of New Netherland and its principal port, New Amsterdam, were named the Province and City of New York in James's honour. After the founding, the duke gave part of the colony to proprietors George Carteret and John Berkeley. Fort Orange, 150 miles (240 km) north on the Hudson River, was renamed Albany after James's Scottish title. [31] In 1683, he became the governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, but did not take an active role in its governance. [31]

In September 1666, his brother Charles put him in charge of firefighting operations in the Great Fire of London, in the absence of action by Lord Mayor Thomas Bloodworth. This was not a political office, but his actions and leadership were noteworthy. "The Duke of York hath won the hearts of the people with his continual and indefatigable pains day and night in helping to quench the Fire", wrote a witness in a letter on 8 September. [42]

Conversion to Roman Catholicism and second marriage

Wedding suit of James II, 1673 WLA vanda Wedding suit of James II 2.jpg
Wedding suit of James II, 1673

James's time in France had exposed him to the beliefs and ceremonies of the Roman Catholic Church; he and his wife, Anne, became drawn to that faith. [43] James took Catholic Eucharist in 1668 or 1669, although his conversion was kept secret for almost a decade as he continued to attend Anglican services until 1676. [44] In spite of his conversion, James continued to associate primarily with Anglicans, including John Churchill and George Legge, as well as French Protestants, such as Louis de Duras, the Earl of Feversham. [45]

Growing fears of Roman Catholic influence at court led the English Parliament to introduce a new Test Act in 1673. [46] Under this Act, all civil and military officials were required to take an oath (in which they were required to disavow the doctrine of transubstantiation and denounce certain practices of the Roman Church as superstitious and idolatrous) and to receive the Eucharist under the auspices of the Church of England. [47] James refused to perform either action, instead choosing to relinquish the post of Lord High Admiral. His conversion to Roman Catholicism was thereby made public. [46]

King Charles II opposed James's conversion, ordering that James's daughters, Mary and Anne, be raised in the Church of England. [48] Nevertheless, he allowed James to marry Mary of Modena, a fifteen-year-old Italian princess. [49] James and Mary were married by proxy in a Roman Catholic ceremony on 20 September 1673. [50] On 21 November, Mary arrived in England and Nathaniel Crew, Bishop of Oxford, performed a brief Anglican service that did little more than recognise the marriage by proxy. [51] Many British people, distrustful of Catholicism, regarded the new Duchess of York as an agent of the Papacy. [52] James was noted for his devotion. He once said, "If occasion were, I hope God would give me his grace to suffer death for the true Catholic religion as well as banishment." [53]

Exclusion Crisis

In 1677, James reluctantly consented to his daughter Mary's marriage to the Protestant Prince William III of Orange (who was also James's nephew, the son of his sister Mary), acquiescing after his brother Charles and William had agreed upon the marriage. [54] Despite the Protestant marriage, fears of a potential Catholic monarch persisted, intensified by the failure of Charles II and his wife, Catherine of Braganza, to produce any children. A defrocked Anglican clergyman, Titus Oates, spoke of a "Popish Plot" to kill Charles and to put the Duke of York on the throne. [55] The fabricated plot caused a wave of anti-Catholic hysteria to sweep across the nation.

The Duke of Monmouth was involved in plots against James. James Scott, Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch by Jan van Wyck cropped.jpg
The Duke of Monmouth was involved in plots against James.

In England, the Earl of Shaftesbury, a former government minister and now a leading opponent of Catholicism, attempted to have James excluded from the line of succession. [56] Some members of Parliament even proposed that the crown go to Charles's illegitimate son, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. [57] In 1679, with the Exclusion Bill in danger of passing, Charles II dissolved Parliament. [58] Two further Parliaments were elected in 1680 and 1681, but were dissolved for the same reason. [59] The Exclusion Crisis contributed to the development of the English two-party system: the Whigs were those who supported the Bill, while the Tories were those who opposed it. Ultimately, the succession was not altered, but James was convinced to withdraw from all policy-making bodies and to accept a lesser role in his brother's government. [60]

On the orders of the King, James left England for Brussels. [61] In 1680, he was appointed Lord High Commissioner of Scotland and took up residence at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh to suppress an uprising and oversee royal government. [62] James returned to England for a time when Charles was stricken ill and appeared to be near death. [63] The hysteria of the accusations eventually faded, but James's relations with many in the English Parliament, including the Earl of Danby, a former ally, were forever strained and a solid segment turned against him. [64]

Return to favour

In 1683, a plot was uncovered to assassinate Charles and James and spark a republican revolution to re-establish a government of the Cromwellian style. [65] The conspiracy, known as the Rye House Plot, backfired upon its conspirators and provoked a wave of sympathy for the King and James. [66] Several notable Whigs, including the Earl of Essex and the King's illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth, were implicated. [65] Monmouth initially confessed to complicity in the plot, implicating fellow-plotters, but later recanted. [65] Essex committed suicide and Monmouth, along with several others, was obliged to flee into Continental exile. [67] Charles reacted to the plot by increasing repression of Whigs and dissenters. [65] Taking advantage of James's rebounding popularity, Charles invited him back onto the privy council in 1684. [68] While some in the English Parliament remained wary of the possibility of a Catholic king, the threat of excluding James from the throne had passed.

Reign

Accession to the throne

Coronation procession of King James II and Queen Mary of Modena, 1685 The Coronation Procession of King James II and Queen Mary of Modena (c. 1685).jpg
Coronation procession of King James II and Queen Mary of Modena, 1685

Charles died in 1685 from apoplexy after converting to Catholicism on his deathbed. [69] Having no legitimate children, Charles was succeeded by his brother James, who reigned in England and Ireland as James II, and in Scotland as James VII. There was little initial opposition to his accession, and there were widespread reports of public rejoicing at the orderly succession. [70] James wanted to proceed quickly to the coronation, and was crowned with his wife at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1685. [71] The new Parliament that assembled in May 1685, which gained the name of "Loyal Parliament", was initially favourable to James, and the new King sent word that even most of the former exclusionists would be forgiven if they acquiesced to his rule. [70] Most of Charles's officers continued in office, the exceptions being the promotion of James's brothers-in-law, the Earls of Clarendon and Rochester, and the demotion of Halifax. [72] Parliament granted James a generous life income, including all of the proceeds of tonnage and poundage and the customs duties. [73] James worked harder as king than his brother had, but was less willing to compromise when his advisers disagreed. [74]

Two rebellions

James portrayed c. 1685 in his role as head of the army, wearing a general officer's state coat James II (1685).jpg
James portrayed c. 1685 in his role as head of the army, wearing a general officer's state coat

Soon after becoming king, James faced a rebellion in southern England led by his nephew, the Duke of Monmouth, and another rebellion in Scotland led by Archibald Campbell, the Earl of Argyll. [75] Argyll and Monmouth both began their expeditions from Holland, where James's nephew and son-in-law, the Prince of Orange, had neglected to detain them or put a stop to their recruitment efforts. [76]

Argyll sailed to Scotland and, on arriving there, raised recruits mainly from his own clan, the Campbells. [77] The rebellion was quickly crushed, and Argyll was captured at Inchinnan on 18 June 1685. [77] Having arrived with fewer than 300 men and unable to convince many more to flock to his standard, he never posed a credible threat to James. [78] Argyll was taken as a prisoner to Edinburgh. A new trial was not commenced because Argyll had previously been tried and sentenced to death. The King confirmed the earlier death sentence and ordered that it be carried out within three days of receiving the confirmation.

Monmouth's rebellion was coordinated with Argyll's, but the former was more dangerous to James. Monmouth had proclaimed himself King at Lyme Regis on 11 June. [79] He attempted to raise recruits but was unable to gather enough rebels to defeat even James's small standing army. [80] Monmouth's rebellion attacked the King's forces at night, in an attempt at surprise, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor. [80] The King's forces, led by Feversham and Churchill, quickly dispersed the ill-prepared rebels. [80] Monmouth was captured and later executed at the Tower of London on 15 July. [81] The King's judges—most notably, George Jeffreys—condemned many of the rebels to transportation and indentured servitude in the West Indies in a series of trials that came to be known as the Bloody Assizes. [82] Some 250 of the rebels were executed. [81] While both rebellions were defeated easily, they hardened James's resolve against his enemies and increased his suspicion of the Dutch. [83]

Religious liberty and the dispensing power

To protect himself from further rebellions, James sought safety by enlarging his standing army. [84] This alarmed his subjects, not only because of the trouble soldiers caused in the towns, but because it was against the English tradition to keep a professional army in peacetime. [85] Even more alarming to Parliament was James's use of his dispensing power to allow Roman Catholics to command several regiments without having to take the oath mandated by the Test Act. [84] When even the previously supportive Parliament objected to these measures, James ordered Parliament prorogued in November 1685, never to meet again in his reign. [86] In the beginning of 1686 two papers were found in Charles II's strong box and his closet, in his own hand, stating the arguments for Catholicism over Protestantism. James published these papers with a declaration signed by his sign manual and challenged the Archbishop of Canterbury and the whole Anglican episcopal bench to refute Charles's arguments: "Let me have a solid answer, and in a gentlemanlike style; and it may have the effect which you so much desire of bringing me over to your church." The Archbishop refused on the grounds of respect for the late king. [87]

Rochester, once amongst James's supporters, turned against him by 1688, as did most Anglicans. Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester.jpg
Rochester, once amongst James's supporters, turned against him by 1688, as did most Anglicans.

James advocated repeal of the penal laws in all three of his kingdoms, but in the early years of his reign he refused to allow those dissenters who did not petition for relief to receive it. [88] James sent a letter to the Scottish Parliament at its opening in 1685, declaring his wish for new penal laws against refractory Presbyterians and lamented that he was not there in person to promote such a law. In response, the Parliament passed an Act that stated, "whoever should preach in a conventicle under a roof, or should attend, either as preacher or as a hearer, a conventicle in the open air, should be punished with death and confiscation of property". [89] In March 1686, James sent a letter to the Scottish Privy Council advocating toleration for Catholics but not for rebellious Presbyterian Covenanters. [90] Presbyterians would later call this period "The Killing Time".

James allowed Catholics to occupy the highest offices of the kingdoms, and received at his court the papal nuncio, Ferdinando d'Adda, the first representative from Rome to London since the reign of Mary I. [91] James's Jesuit confessor, Edward Petre, was a particular object of Protestant ire. [92] When the King's Secretary of State, the Earl of Sunderland, began replacing office-holders at court with Catholic favourites, James began to lose the confidence of many of his Anglican supporters. [93] Sunderland's purge of office-holders even extended to the King's Anglican brothers-in-law (the Hydes) and their supporters. [93] Catholics made up no more than one-fiftieth of the English population. [94] In May 1686, James sought to obtain a ruling from the English common-law courts that showed his power to dispense with Acts of Parliament was legal. He dismissed judges who disagreed with him on this matter, as well as the Solicitor General Heneage Finch. [95] The case, Godden v. Hales, affirmed his dispensing power, [96] with eleven out of the twelve judges in Godden ruling in favour of the dispensing power. [97]

In 1687, James issued the Declaration of Indulgence, also known as the Declaration for Liberty of Conscience, in which he used his dispensing power to negate the effect of laws punishing Catholics and Protestant Dissenters. [98] He attempted to garner support for his tolerationist policy by giving a speaking tour in the West of England in the summer of 1687. As part of this tour, he gave a speech at Chester where he said, "suppose... there should be a law made that all black men should be imprisoned, it would be unreasonable and we had as little reason to quarrel with other men for being of different [religious] opinions as for being of different complexions." [99] At the same time, James provided partial toleration in Scotland, using his dispensing power to grant relief to Catholics and partial relief to Presbyterians. [100]

1686 statue of James II in Trafalgar Square, London James II statue 1.jpg
1686 statue of James II in Trafalgar Square, London

In 1688, James ordered the Declaration read from the pulpits of every Anglican church, further alienating the Anglican bishops against the Catholic governor of their church. [101] While the Declaration elicited some thanks from Catholics and dissenters, it left the Established Church, the traditional ally of the monarchy, in the difficult position of being forced to erode its own privileges. [101] James provoked further opposition by attempting to reduce the Anglican monopoly on education. [102] At the University of Oxford, James offended Anglicans by allowing Catholics to hold important positions in Christ Church and University College, two of Oxford's largest colleges. He also attempted to force the Protestant Fellows of Magdalen College to elect Anthony Farmer, a man of generally ill repute who was believed to be secretly Catholic, [103] as their president when the Protestant incumbent died, a violation of the Fellows' right to elect a candidate of their own choosing. [102]

In 1687 James prepared to pack Parliament with his supporters so that it would repeal the Test Act and the penal laws. James was convinced by addresses from Dissenters that he had their support and so could dispense with relying on Tories and Anglicans. James instituted a wholesale purge of those in offices under the crown opposed to James's plan, appointing new lords-lieutenant and remodelling the corporations governing towns and livery companies. [104] In October James gave orders for the lords-lieutenant in the provinces to provide three standard questions to all members of the Commission of the Peace: 1. Would they consent to the repeal of the Test Act and the penal laws? 2. Would they assist candidates who would do so? 3. Would they accept the Declaration of Indulgence? During the first three months of 1688, hundreds of those asked the three questions who gave hostile replies were dismissed. [105] Corporations were purged by agents, known as the regulators, who were given wide discretionary powers in an attempt to create a permanent royal electoral machine. [106] Most of the regulators were Baptists and the new town officials that they recommended included Quakers, Baptists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians and Catholics, as well as Anglicans. [107] Finally, on 24 August 1688, James ordered the issue of writs for a general election. [108] However, upon realising in September that William of Orange was going to land in England, James withdrew the writs and subsequently wrote to the lords-lieutenant to inquire over allegations of abuses committed during the regulations and election preparations as part of the concessions James made to win support. [109]

Glorious Revolution

James's nephew and son-in-law, William, was invited to "save the Protestant religion". Willem III (1650-1702), prins van Oranje. Stadhouder, sedert 1689 tevens koning van Engeland Rijksmuseum SK-A-1228.jpeg
James's nephew and son-in-law, William, was invited to "save the Protestant religion".

In April 1688, James re-issued the Declaration of Indulgence, subsequently ordering Anglican clergy to read it in their churches. [110] When seven Bishops, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, submitted a petition requesting the reconsideration of the King's religious policies, they were arrested and tried for seditious libel. [111] Public alarm increased when Queen Mary gave birth to a Roman Catholic son and heir, James Francis Edward, on 10 June that year. [112] When James's only possible successors were his two Protestant daughters, Anglicans could see his pro-Catholic policies as a temporary phenomenon, but when the prince's birth opened the possibility of a permanent Catholic dynasty, such men had to reconsider their position. [113] Threatened by a Catholic dynasty, several influential Protestants claimed the child was supposititious and had been smuggled into the Queen's bedchamber in a warming pan. [114] They had already entered into negotiations with the Prince of Orange when it became known the Queen was pregnant, and the birth of a son reinforced their convictions. [115]

On 30 June 1688, a group of seven Protestant nobles invited the Prince of Orange to come to England with an army. [116] By September, it had become clear that William sought to invade. [117] Believing that his own army would be adequate, James refused the assistance of Louis XIV, fearing that the English would oppose French intervention. [117] When William arrived on 5 November 1688, many Protestant officers, including Churchill, defected and joined William, as did James's own daughter, Anne. [118] James lost his nerve and declined to attack the invading army, despite his army's numerical superiority. [119] On 11 December, James tried to flee to France, first throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames. [120] He was captured in Kent; later, he was released and placed under Dutch protective guard. Having no desire to make James a martyr, the Prince of Orange let him escape on 23 December. [120] James was received by his cousin and ally, Louis XIV, who offered him a palace and a pension.

Engraving showing Louis XIV greeting the exiled James II in 1689 La Reception faite au Roy d'Angleterre par le Roy a St. Germain en Laye le VIIe janvier 1689.jpg
Engraving showing Louis XIV greeting the exiled James II in 1689

William convened a Convention Parliament on 22 January 1689 [121] to decide how to handle James's flight. While the Parliament refused to depose him, they declared that James, having fled to France and dropped the Great Seal into the Thames, had effectively abdicated the throne, and that the throne had thereby become vacant. [122] To fill this vacancy, James's daughter Mary was declared queen; she was to rule jointly with her husband William, who would be king. The Parliament of Scotland on 11 April 1689, declared James to have forfeited the throne. [123] The English Parliament passed a Bill of Rights that denounced James for abusing his power. The abuses charged to James included the suspension of the Test Acts, the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for merely petitioning the crown, the establishment of a standing army, and the imposition of cruel punishments. [124] The Bill also declared that henceforth, no Roman Catholic was permitted to ascend the English throne, nor could any English monarch marry a Roman Catholic. [125]

Later years

War in Ireland

With the assistance of French troops, James landed in Ireland in March 1689. [126] The Irish Parliament did not follow the example of the English Parliament; it declared that James remained King and passed a massive bill of attainder against those who had rebelled against him. [127] At James's urging, the Irish Parliament passed an Act for Liberty of Conscience that granted religious freedom to all Roman Catholics and Protestants in Ireland. [128] James worked to build an army in Ireland, but was ultimately defeated at the Battle of the Boyne on 1 July 1690[O.S.] when William arrived, personally leading an army to defeat James and reassert English control. [129] James fled to France once more, departing from Kinsale, never to return to any of his former kingdoms. [129] Because he deserted his Irish supporters, James became known in Ireland as Séamus an Chaca or "James the Shit". [130] [131] Despite this popular perception, Breandán Ó Buachalla argued that "Irish political poetry for most of the eighteenth century is essentially Jacobite poetry", [132] and both Ó Buachalla and Éamonn Ó Ciardha argued that James and his successors played a central role as messianic figures throughout the eighteenth century for all classes in Ireland. [133]

Return to exile and death

The Chateau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, James's home during his final exile Chateau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye01.jpg
The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, James's home during his final exile
Tomb of James II in the parish church of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, commissioned in 1828 by George IV when the church was rebuilt. James II Tomb.jpg
Tomb of James II in the parish church of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, commissioned in 1828 by George IV when the church was rebuilt.

In France, James was allowed to live in the royal château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. [134] James's wife and some of his supporters fled with him, including the Earl of Melfort; most, but not all, were Roman Catholic. [135] In 1692, James's last child, Louisa Maria Teresa, was born. [136] Some supporters in England attempted to assassinate William III to restore James to the throne in 1696, but the plot failed and the backlash made James's cause less popular. [137] Louis XIV's offer to have James elected King of Poland in the same year was rejected, for James feared that acceptance of the Polish crown might (in the minds of the English people) render him incapable of being King of England. After Louis concluded peace with William in 1697, he ceased to offer much in the way of assistance to James. [138]

During his last years, James lived as an austere penitent. [139] He wrote a memorandum for his son advising him on how to govern England, specifying that Catholics should possess one Secretary of State, one Commissioner of the Treasury, the Secretary at War, with the majority of the officers in the army. [140]

He died aged 67 of a brain haemorrhage on 16 September 1701 at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. [141] [142] James's heart was placed in a silver-gilt locket and given to the convent at Chaillot, and his brain was placed in a lead casket and given to the Scots College in Paris. His entrails were placed in two gilt urns and sent to the parish church of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and the English Jesuit college at Saint-Omer, while the flesh from his right arm was given to the English Augustinian nuns of Paris. [143]

The rest of James's body was laid to rest in a triple sarcophagus (consisting of two wooden coffins and one of lead) at the Chapel of Saint Edmund in the Church of the English Benedictines in the Rue St. Jacques in Paris, with a funeral oration by Henri-Emmanuel de Roquette. [141] James was not buried, but put in one of the side chapels. Lights were kept burning round his coffin until the French Revolution. In 1734, the Archbishop of Paris heard evidence to support James's canonisation, but nothing came of it. [141] During the French Revolution, James's tomb was raided. [2]

Succession

James's son was known as "James III and VIII" to his supporters, and "The Old Pretender" to his enemies. Pretend3.jpeg
James's son was known as "James III and VIII" to his supporters, and "The Old Pretender" to his enemies.

James's younger daughter Anne succeeded when William died in 1702. The Act of Settlement provided that, if the line of succession established in the Bill of Rights were extinguished, the crown would go to a German cousin, Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and to her Protestant heirs. [144] Sophia was a granddaughter of James VI and I through his eldest daughter, Elizabeth Stuart, the sister of Charles I. Thus, when Anne died in 1714 (less than two months after the death of Sophia), she was succeeded by George I, Sophia's son, the Elector of Hanover and Anne's second cousin. [144]

James's son James Francis Edward was recognised as king at his father's death by Louis XIV of France and James's remaining supporters (later known as Jacobites) as "James III and VIII". [145] He led a rising in Scotland in 1715 shortly after George I's accession, but was defeated. [146] Jacobites rose again in 1745 led by Charles Edward Stuart, James II's grandson, and were again defeated. [147] Since then, no serious attempt to restore the Stuart heir has been made. Charles's claims passed to his younger brother Henry Benedict Stuart, the Dean of the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church. [148] Henry was the last of James II's legitimate descendants, and no relative has publicly acknowledged the Jacobite claim since his death in 1807. [149]

Historiography

Macaulay wrote in the Whig tradition. Thomas Babington Macaulay2.jpg
Macaulay wrote in the Whig tradition.
Belloc was a notable apologist for James II. Belloc side.jpg
Belloc was a notable apologist for James II.

Historical analysis of James II has been somewhat revised since Whig historians, led by Lord Macaulay, cast James as a cruel absolutist and his reign as "tyranny which approached to insanity". [150] Subsequent scholars, such as G. M. Trevelyan (Macaulay's great-nephew) and David Ogg, while more balanced than Macaulay, still characterised James as a tyrant, his attempts at religious tolerance as a fraud, and his reign as an aberration in the course of British history. [151] In 1892, A. W. Ward wrote for the Dictionary of National Biography that James was "obviously a political and religious bigot", although never devoid of "a vein of patriotic sentiment"; "his conversion to the church of Rome made the emancipation of his fellow-catholics in the first instance, and the recovery of England for catholicism in the second, the governing objects of his policy." [152]

Hilaire Belloc, a writer and Catholic apologist, broke with this tradition in 1928, casting James as an honourable man and a true advocate for freedom of conscience, and his enemies "men in the small clique of great fortunes ... which destroyed the ancient monarchy of the English". [153] However, he observed that James "concluded the Catholic church to be the sole authoritative voice on earth, and thenceforward ... he not only stood firm against surrender but on no single occasion contemplated the least compromise or by a word would modify the impression made."

By the 1960s and 1970s, Maurice Ashley and Stuart Prall began to reconsider James's motives in granting religious toleration, while still taking note of James's autocratic rule. [154] Modern historians have moved away from the school of thought that preached the continuous march of progress and democracy, Ashley contending that "history is, after all, the story of human beings and individuals, as well as of the classes and the masses." [155] He cast James II and William III as "men of ideals as well as human weaknesses". [155] John Miller, writing in 2000, accepted the claims of James's absolutism, but argued that "his main concern was to secure religious liberty and civil equality for Catholics. Any 'absolutist' methods ... were essentially means to that end." [156]

In 2004, W. A. Speck wrote in the new Oxford Dictionary of National Biography that "James was genuinely committed to religious toleration, but also sought to increase the power of the crown." [157] He added that, unlike the government of the Netherlands, "James was too autocratic to combine freedom of conscience with popular government. He resisted any check on the monarch's power. That is why his heart was not in the concessions he had to make in 1688. He would rather live in exile with his principles intact than continue to reign as a limited monarch." [157]

Tim Harris's conclusions from his 2006 book summarised the ambivalence of modern scholarship towards James II:

The jury will doubtless remain out on James for a long time ... Was he an egotistical bigot ... a tyrant who rode roughshod over the will of the vast majority of his subjects (at least in England and Scotland) ... simply naïve, or even perhaps plain stupid, unable to appreciate the realities of political power ... Or was he a well-intentioned and even enlightened ruler—an enlightened despot well ahead of his time, perhaps—who was merely trying to do what he thought was best for his subjects? [158]

In 2009, Steven Pincus confronted that scholarly ambivalence in 1688: The First Modern Revolution. Pincus claims that James's reign must be understood within a context of economic change and European politics, and makes two major assertions about James II. The first of these is that James purposefully "followed the French Sun King, Louis XIV, in trying to create a modern Catholic polity. This involved not only trying to Catholicize England ... but also creating a modern, centralizing, and extremely bureaucratic state apparatus." [159] The second is that James was undone in 1688 far less by Protestant reaction against Catholicization than by nationwide hostile reaction against his intrusive bureaucratic state and taxation apparatus, expressed in massive popular support for William of Orange's armed invasion of England. Pincus presents James as neither naïve nor stupid nor egotistical. Instead, readers are shown an intelligent, clear-thinking strategically motivated monarch whose vision for a French authoritarian political model and alliance clashed with, and lost out to, alternative views that favoured an entrepreneurial Dutch economic model, feared French power, and were outraged by James's authoritarianism.

Scott Sowerby countered Pincus's thesis in 2013 in Making Toleration: The Repealers and the Glorious Revolution. He noted that English taxes remained low during James II's reign, at about 4% of the English national income, and thus it was unlikely that James could have built a bureaucratic state on the model of Louis XIV's France, where taxes were at least twice as high as a proportion of GDP. [160] Sowerby also contends that James's policies of religious toleration attracted substantial support from religious nonconformists, including Quakers, Baptists, Congregationalists and Presbyterians, who were attracted by the king's push for a new "Magna Carta for liberty of conscience". [161] The king was overthrown, in Sowerby's view, largely because of fears among the Dutch and English elites that James might be aligning himself with Louis XIV in a supposed "holy league" to destroy Protestantism across northern Europe. [162] Sowerby presents James's reign as a struggle between those who believed that the king was sincerely devoted to liberty of conscience and those who were sceptical of the king's espousals of toleration and believed that he had a hidden agenda to overthrow English Protestantism.

Titles, styles, honours, and arms

Titles and styles

Half crown coin of James II, 1686 James2coin.jpg
Half crown coin of James II, 1686

The official style of James in England was "James the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." The claim to France was only nominal, and was asserted by every English King from Edward III to George III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled. In Scotland, he was "James the Seventh, by the Grace of God, King of Scotland, England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." [3]

James was created "Duke of Normandy" by King Louis XIV of France on 31 December 1660. [12]

Honours

Arms

Prior to his accession, James's coat of arms was the royal arms (which he later inherited), differenced by a label of three points Ermine. [163] His arms as king were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland).

Issue

Scottish and English Royalty
House of Stuart
Coat of Arms of England (1660-1689).svg
James II & VII
Children
Mary II
Queen Anne
Prince James
Princess Louisa Maria
Grandchildren
Prince Charles
Henry Benedict, Cardinal York
Illegitimate great-grandchildren
Charlotte, Duchess of Albany
NameBirthDeathNotes
By Anne Hyde
Charles, Duke of Cambridge 22 October 16605 May 1661 
Mary II 30 April 166228 December 1694married 1677, William III, Prince of Orange; no issue
James, Duke of Cambridge 11 or 12 July 166320 June 1667 
Anne 6 February 16651 August 1714married 1683, Prince George of Denmark; no surviving issue
Charles, Duke of Kendal 4 July 166622 May 1667 
Edgar, Duke of Cambridge 14 September 16678 June 1671 
Henrietta13 January 166915 November 1669 
Catherine9 February 16715 December 1671 
By Mary of Modena
Unnamed childMarch or May 1674miscarriage
Catherine Laura10 January 16753 October 1675died of convulsions. [164]
Unnamed childOctober 1675stillborn
Isabel (or Isabella)28 August 16762 or 4 March 1681buried in Westminster Abbey on 4 March (Old Style) as "The Lady Isabella, daughter to the Duke of York" [165]
Charles, Duke of Cambridge 7 November 167712 December 1677died of smallpox [164]
Elizabethc. 1678 
Unnamed childFebruary 1681stillborn
Charlotte Maria16 August 168216 October 1682died of convulsions [164] and buried in Westminster Abbey on 8 October (Old Style) as "The Lady Charlott-Marie, daughter to the Duke of York" [166]
Unnamed childOctober 1683stillborn
Unnamed childMay 1684miscarriage
James, Prince of Wales "the Old Pretender" 10 June 16881 January 1766married 1719, Clementina Sobieska; had issue
Louisa Maria Teresa 28 June 169218 April 1712 
By Arabella Churchill
Henrietta FitzJames 16673 April 1730Married first Henry Waldegrave; had issue. Married secondly Piers Butler, 3rd Viscount Galmoye; no issue.
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick 21 August 167012 June 1734Married twice; had issue.
Henry FitzJames, 1st Duke of Albemarle August 1673December 1702Married Marie Gabrielle d'Audibert de Lussan; had issue.
Arabella FitzJames16747 November 1704Became a nun under the name Ignatia. [167]
By Catherine Sedley
Catherine Darnleyc. 168113 March 1743Alleged daughter. Married firstly, James Annesley, 3rd Earl of Anglesey and had issue. Married secondly, John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby and had issue. [167]
James Darnley168422 April 1685
Charles DarnleyDied young. [167]

Ancestry

Notes

  1. 1 2 An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.
  2. 1 2 Miller, 240; Waller, 401; MacLeod, 349. MacLeod and Waller say all of James's remains were lost in the French Revolution. McFerran says parts of his bowel sent to the parish church of St. Germain-en-Laye were rediscovered in 1824 and are the only known remains left. The English Illustrated Magazine s article on St. Germain from September 1901 concurs. Hilliam, 205. Hilliam disputes that his remains were either scattered or lost, stating that when revolutionaries broke into the church, they were amazed at the body's preservation and it was put on public exhibition where miracles were said to have happened. Hilliam states that the body was then kept "above ground" until George IV heard about it and ordered the body buried in the parish church of St Germain-en-Laye in 1824.
  3. 1 2 "No. 2009". The London Gazette . 16 February 1684. p. 1.
  4. Quinn, Stephen. "The Glorious Revolution". Economic History Association EH.net. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  5. Harris, 6–7
  6. Harris, Tim; Taylor, Stephen, eds. (2015). The Final Crisis of the Stuart Monarchy. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 144–159. ISBN   1783270446.
  7. Harris, 264–268
  8. Miller, 1
  9. 1 2 Callow, 31
  10. Callow, 34
  11. Miller, 10; Callow, 101
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 Weir, Alison (1996). 258. Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. Revised Edition. Random House, London. ISBN   0-7126-7448-9.
  13. Callow, 36
  14. The Complete Peerage, Volume XII. St Catherine's Press. 1959. p. 914. Edited by Geoffrey H. White and R.S. Lea, see under Duke of York.
  15. Callow, 42; Miller, 3
  16. The Complete Peerage, Volume XII. pp. 914–915.
  17. Callow, 45
  18. 1 2 3 The Complete Peerage, Volume XII. p. 915.
  19. Callow, 48–50
  20. 1 2 Royle, 517
  21. 1 2 Miller, 16–17
  22. Miller, 19–20
  23. Miller, 19–25
  24. Miller, 22–23
  25. Miller, 24
  26. Miller, 25
  27. Callow, 89
  28. George Edward Cokayne, ed. Vicary Gibbs, The Complete Peerage , volume I (1910) p. 83.
  29. Callow, 90
  30. Miller, 44
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 Miller, 44–45
  32. Waller, 49–50
  33. The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Monday 12 September 1664; Miller, 46
  34. Miller, 45–46
  35. Miller, 46. Samuel Pepys recorded in his diary that James "did eye my wife mightily". Ibid. James's taste in women was often maligned, with Gilbert Burnet famously remarking that James's mistresses must have been "given him by his priests as a penance." Miller, 59.
  36. Callow, 101
  37. Brewer, Holly (October 2017). "Slavery, Sovereignty, and 'Inheritable Blood': Reconsidering John Locke and the Origins of American Slavery". American Historical Review. 122 (4): 1038–1078. doi:10.1093/ahr/122.4.1038.
  38. Miller, 43–44
  39. Davies, Kenneth Gordon (1957). The Royal African Company (first ed.). London: Longmans, Green & Co. p. 61. ISBN   978-0689702396 . Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  40. Callow, 104
  41. Miller, 42
  42. Spelling modernized for clarity; quoted by Adrian Tinniswood (2003). 80. By Permission of Heaven: The Story of the Great Fire of London. London: Jonathan Cape.
  43. Miller, 58–59; Callow, 144–145. Callow writes that Anne "made the greatest single impact upon his thinking" and that she converted shortly after the Restoration, "almost certainly before her husband". Ibid., 144.
  44. Callow, 143–144; Waller, 135
  45. Callow, 149
  46. 1 2 Miller, 69–71
  47. Kenyon, 385
  48. Waller, 92
  49. Waller, 16–17
  50. Miller, 73
  51. Turner, 110–111
  52. Waller, 30–31
  53. Miller, 99
  54. Miller, 84; Waller, 94–97. According to Turner, James's reaction to the agreement was "The King shall be obeyed, and I would be glad if all his subjects would learn of me to obey him". Turner, 132.
  55. Miller, 87
  56. Miller, 99–105
  57. Harris, 74
  58. Miller, 93–95
  59. Miller, 103–104
  60. Miller, 90
  61. Miller, 87–91
  62. Miller, 95
  63. Miller, 98–99
  64. Miller, 89; Callow, 180–183
  65. 1 2 3 4 Miller, 115–116
  66. Miller, 116; Waller, 142–143
  67. Miller, 116–117
  68. Miller, 117
  69. Miller, 118–119
  70. 1 2 Miller, 120–121
  71. Harris, 45. The English coronation only crowned James King of England and Ireland; James was never crowned in Scotland, but was proclaimed King of Scotland around the same time.
  72. Miller, 121
  73. Harris, 44–45
  74. Miller, 123
  75. Miller, 140–143; Harris, 73–86
  76. Miller, 139–140
  77. 1 2 Harris, 75–76
  78. Harris, 76
  79. Harris, 82–85
  80. 1 2 3 Miller, 141
  81. 1 2 Harris, 88
  82. Miller, 141–142
  83. Miller, 142
  84. 1 2 Miller, 142–143
  85. Harris, 95–100
  86. Miller, 146–147
  87. Macaulay, 349–350
  88. Macaulay, 242; Harris, 480–481. Covenanters, as they did not recognize James (or any uncovenanted king) as a legitimate ruler, would not petition James for relief from the penal laws.
  89. Macaulay, 242; Harris, 70
  90. Macaulay, 385–386; Turner, 373
  91. Miller 142; Macaulay, 445
  92. Harris, 195–196
  93. 1 2 Miller, 150–152
  94. Macaulay, 444
  95. Macaulay, 368
  96. Miller, 156–157; Harris, 192–195
  97. Macaulay, 368–369; Harris, 192
  98. Kenyon, 389–391
  99. Sowerby, 42
  100. Macaulay, 429; Harris, 480–482
  101. 1 2 Harris, 216–224
  102. 1 2 Harris, 224–229
  103. Farmer's exact religious affiliation is unclear. Macaulay says Farmer "pretended to turn Papist". Prall, at 148, calls him a "Catholic sympathizer". Miller, at 170, says "although he had not declared himself a Catholic, it was believed he was no longer an Anglican." Ashley, at 89, does not refer to Farmer by name, but only as the King's Catholic nominee. All sources agree that Farmer's bad reputation as a "person of scandalous character" was as much a deterrent to his nomination as his uncertain religious loyalties. See, e.g., Prall, 148.
  104. Jones, 132
  105. Jones, 132–133
  106. Jones, 146
  107. Sowerby, 136–143
  108. Jones, 150
  109. Jones, 159
  110. Harris, 258–259
  111. Harris, 260–262; Prall, 312
  112. Miller 186–187; Harris, 269–272
  113. Harris, 271–272; Ashley, 110–111
  114. Gregg, Edward. Queen Anne. Yale University Press (2001), 58.
  115. Waller, 43–46; Miller, 186–187
  116. Ashley, 201–202
  117. 1 2 Miller, 190–196
  118. Waller, 236–239
  119. Miller, 201–203
  120. 1 2 Miller, 205–209
  121. Claydon; Plumb
  122. Miller, 209. Harris, 320–328, analyses the legal nature of the abdication; James did not agree that he had abdicated.
  123. Devine, 3; Harris, 402–407
  124. Ashley, 206–209; Harris, 329–348
  125. Harris, 349–350
  126. Miller, 222–224
  127. Miller, 226–227
  128. Harris, 440
  129. 1 2 Harris, 446–449
  130. Fitzpatrick, Brendan (1988). New Gill History of Ireland 3: Seventeenth-Century Ireland – The War of Religions. Dublin. p. 253. ISBN   0-7171-1626-3.
  131. Szechi, Daniel (1994). The Jacobites, Britain and Europe, 1688–1788. Manchester University Press. p. 48. ISBN   0-7190-3774-3.
  132. Ó Buachalla, Breandán (Spring–Summer 1992). "Irish Jacobite Poetry". The Irish Review. No. 12 , p. 40.
  133. Ó Buachalla, Breandán (1996). Aisling Ghéar. An Clóchomhar Tta: Baile Átha Cliath, and Ó Ciardha, Éamonn (2002). Ireland and the Jacobite Cause, 1685–1766. Four Courts, Dublin.
  134. Miller, 235
  135. Miller, 235–236
  136. Scottish Royal Lineage – The House of Stuart Part 4 of 6 online at burkes-peerage.net. Retrieved 9 February 2008
  137. Miller, 238; Waller, 350
  138. Miller, 239
  139. Miller, 234–236
  140. Macaulay, 445
  141. 1 2 3 Miller, 240
  142. Parish register of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, with transcription, at Association Frontenac-Amériques (in French)
  143. Mann, 223
  144. 1 2 Harris, 493
  145. MacLeod, 349
  146. MacLeod, 361–363
  147. MacLeod, 365–371
  148. MacLeod, 371–372
  149. MacLeod, 373–374
  150. Macaulay, 239
  151. See Prall, vii–xv, for a more detailed historiography.
  152. Wikisource-logo.svg  "James II of England"  . Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  153. Belloc, vii
  154. See Ashley, 196–198; Prall, 291–293
  155. 1 2 Ashley, 9
  156. Miller, ix
  157. 1 2 W. A. Speck, "James II and VII (1633–1701)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, May 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2007. He "wished that all his subjects could be as convinced as he was that the Catholic church was the one true church. He was also convinced that the established church was maintained artificially by penal laws that proscribed nonconformity. If these were removed, and conversions to Catholicism were encouraged, then many would take place. In the event his optimism was misplaced, for few converted. James underestimated the appeal of Protestantism in general and the Church of England in particular. His was the zeal and even bigotry of a narrow-minded convert..."
  158. Harris, 478–479
  159. Pincus, 475
  160. Sowerby, 51–53
  161. Sowerby, 43–44
  162. Sowerby, 227–239
  163. Velde, Francois R. "Marks of cadency in the British royal family".
  164. 1 2 3 Weir, 260
  165. J. L. Chester, The Marriage, Baptismal, and Burial Registers of the Collegiate Church or Abbey of St. Peter, Westminster, Volume 10 (Harleian Society, 1876), p. 201
  166. Chester (1876), p. 206
  167. 1 2 3 Weir, 263
  168. 1 2 Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 27.
  169. 1 2 Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 50.
  170. 1 2 3 4 Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 140.

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Charles Middleton, 2nd Earl of Middleton English and Scottish politician

Charles Middleton, 2nd Earl of Middleton, Jacobite 1st Earl of Monmouth, PC was a Scottish and English politician who held several offices under Charles II and James II & VII. He served as Secretary of State for Scotland, the Northern Department and the Southern Department, before acting as chief advisor to James II and then his son James III during their exile in France.

The Declaration of Indulgence or Declaration for Liberty of Conscience was a pair of proclamations made by James II of England and VII of Scotland in 1687. The Indulgence was first issued for Scotland on 12 February and then for England on 4 April 1687. It was a first step at establishing freedom of religion in the British Isles, although the king's intention was to promote his own minority religion, Catholicism, reviled by most of his subjects.

Williamite War in Ireland

The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691), was a conflict between Jacobites and Williamites over who would be monarch of the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of Ireland. It is also called the Jacobite War in Ireland or the Williamite–Jacobite War in Ireland.

The Killing Time period of conflict in Scottish history (1680-88)

The Killing Time was a period of conflict in Scottish history between the Presbyterian Covenanter movement, based largely in the south west of the country, and the government forces of Kings Charles II and James VII. The period, roughly from 1680 to the Glorious Revolution of 1688, was subsequently called The Killing Time by Robert Wodrow in his The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution, published in 1721–22. It is an important episode in the martyrology of the Church of Scotland.

Robert Lundy,, was a Scottish army officer best known for serving as Governor of Londonderry during the early stages of the Siege of Derry.

John Drummond, 1st Earl of Melfort Scottish politician

John Drummond, 1st Earl of Melfort, styled Duke of Melfort in the Jacobite peerage (1649-1714), was a Scottish politician and supporter of James II, whom he joined in exile after the 1688 Glorious Revolution. He served as the first Jacobite Secretary of State but his personal unpopularity with other Jacobites led to his resignation in 1694. He failed to regain his former influence and died in Paris in 1714.

George Douglas, 1st Earl of Dumbarton Scottish nobleman and soldier

Major-General George Douglas, Earl of Dumbarton and Lord of Ettrick KT was a Scottish professional soldier, who spent much of his career in the service of Louis XIV. In 1678, he returned to England; as a Catholic, he was a trusted servant of James II & VI and went into exile with him after the 1688 Glorious Revolution. He died at the palace of St Germain-en-Laye in March, 1692.

The Patriot Parliament is the name given to the session of the Irish Parliament called by King James II of Ireland during the War of the Two Kings in 1689. The parliament met in one session, from 7 May 1689 to 20 July 1689, and was the only session of the Irish Parliament under King James II.

Battle of Loup Hill

The Battle of Loup Hill was a minor skirmish fought on the slopes of Loup Hill in Kintyre on 16 May 1689 between Scottish Jacobite and government troops.

Stuart period period in British history coinciding with the reign of the House of Stuart

The Stuart period of British history lasted from 1603 to 1714 during the dynasty of the House of Stuart. The period ended with the death of Queen Anne and the accession of King George I from the German House of Hanover.

Convention Parliament (1689) Parliament of England held in 1689

The English Convention (1689) was an assembly of the Parliament of England which transferred the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland from James II to William III and Mary II.

Loyal Parliament English parliament of King James II

The Loyal Parliament was the only Parliament of England of King James II, in theory continuing from May 1685 to July 1687, but in practice sitting during 1685 only. It gained its name because at the outset most of its members were loyal to the new king. The Whigs, who had previously resisted James's inheriting the throne, were outnumbered both in the Commons and in the Lords.

Glorious Revolution in Scotland

The Glorious Revolution in Scotland was part of a series of events between 1688-1689 in England and Scotland known as the Glorious Revolution. It covers the deposition of James VII of Scotland and II of England, his replacement by his daughter Mary and her husband William and the political settlement thereafter. Scotland and England were linked but separate countries, each with its own Parliament and decisions in one did not bind the other.

James Douglas (English Army officer) Lieutenant-General James Douglas (1645-1690), Scots-born army officer

Lieutenant-General James Douglas (1645–1691) was a Scottish military officer who served successively with the French army and the Dutch Scots Brigade, was appointed Commander in Chief for Scotland by James II and held senior commands under William III in the 1689–1691 Williamite War in Ireland. He died of fever at Namur in the Spanish Netherlands in 1691 during the Nine Years War.

References

Further reading

James II of England
Born: 14 October 1633 Died: 16 September 1701
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles II
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
1685–1688
Vacant
Title next held by
William III and Mary II
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Winchilsea
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1660–1673
Succeeded by
John Beaumont
Political offices
Vacant
Title last held by
The Lord Cottington
Lord High Admiral of England
1660–1673
Succeeded by
Charles II
Preceded by
The Duke of Lennox
Lord High Admiral of Scotland
1673–1688
Vacant
Title next held by
The Duke of Hamilton
Preceded by
The Duke of Lauderdale
Lord High Commissioner to
the Parliament of Scotland

1680–1685
Succeeded by
The Duke of Queensberry
Preceded by
Charles II
Lord High Admiral
1685–1688
Succeeded by
William III
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
 TITULAR 
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
1688–1701
Succeeded by
James III & VIII