Connecticut River

Last updated
Connecticut River
Connecticut River From Gillette Castle.jpg
The river as seen from the overlook behind Gillette Castle, Lyme, Connecticut
Connecticut River Map.gif
River map, with major tributaries and selected dams
Native nameKwenitegok (Abenaki) [1]
CountryUnited States
Region New England
State Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire
Cities Springfield, Massachusetts, Hartford, Connecticut
Physical characteristics
Source Fourth Connecticut Lake
  location Coos County, New Hampshire, United States
  coordinates 45°14′53″N71°12′51″W / 45.24806°N 71.21417°W / 45.24806; -71.21417
  elevation2,660 ft (810 m)
Mouth Long Island Sound
Old Saybrook and Old Lyme, Connecticut [2]
41°16′20″N72°20′03″W / 41.27222°N 72.33417°W / 41.27222; -72.33417 Coordinates: 41°16′20″N72°20′03″W / 41.27222°N 72.33417°W / 41.27222; -72.33417
Length410 mi (660 km)
Basin size11,260 sq mi (29,200 km2)
  location Thompsonville, Connecticut
  average18,400 cu ft/s (520 m3/s)
  minimum968 cu ft/s (27.4 m3/s)
  maximum282,000 cu ft/s (8,000 m3/s)
  location West Lebanon, New Hampshire
  average6,600 cu ft/s (190 m3/s)
Basin features
  left Chicopee River
  right White River
Protection status
Official nameConnecticut River Estuary and Tidal River Wetlands Complex
Designated14 October 1994
Reference no.710 [3]
Connecticut River
BSicon WKBHFa.svg
Fourth Connecticut Lake
BSicon WDOCKS.svg
Third Connecticut Lake
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Moose Falls Dam
BSicon RAoW1q.svg
US 3 square.svg US 3
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Second Connecticut Lake
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
First Connecticut Lake
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Perry Stream
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Lake Francis (Murphy Dam)
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
NH Route 145.svg NH 145 Pittsburg
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
Covered bridge
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Indian Stream
BSicon RAoW1q.svg
US 3 square.svg US 3
BSicon GRZa.svg
BSicon GRZeq.svg
BSicon WASSER.svg
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Halls Stream
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Lower Canaan Dam
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
Vermont 114.svg VT 114 Canaan
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Mohawk River
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
NH Route 26.svg NH 26 Colebrook
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
Vermont 105.svg VT 105 North Stratford
BSicon hKRZWaeq.svg
St. Lawrence & Atlantic RR
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Nulhegan River
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
Janice Peaslee Bridge
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Upper Ammonoosuc River
BSicon RAoW1q.svg
US 2 square.svg US 2 Lancaster
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Israel River
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
Mount Orne Covered Bridge
BSicon exhKRZWaeq.svg
Maine Central RR
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Johns River
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Gilman Dam
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Moore Dam
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
NH Route 18.svg NH 18 Littleton
BSicon RRoW1q.svg
I-93.svg I-93 Waterford
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Comerford Reservoir
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Passumpsic River
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
McIndoes Reservoir
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Ryegate Dam
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Ammonoosuc River
BSicon exhKRZWaeq.svg
Wells River Bridge
BSicon RAoW1q.svg
US 302 square.svg US 302 Woodsville
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Wells River
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Waits River
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
NH Route 25.svg NH 25 Bradford
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
Vermont 25A.svg VT 25A Fairlee
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
Vermont 113.svg VT 113 East Thetford
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Ompompanoosuc River
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
NH Route 10A.svg NH 10A Hanover
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Wilder Dam
BSicon RAoW1q.svg
US 4.svg US 4 West Lebanon
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
White River
BSicon exhKRZWaeq.svg
Boston & Maine
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Mascoma River
BSicon RRoW1q.svg
I-89.svg I-89 White River Junction
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Ottauquechee River
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
Covered bridge
BSicon hKRZWaeq.svg
New England Central RR
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
NH Route 12.svg NH 12 Claremont
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Sugar River
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Little Sugar River
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
Vermont 11.svg VT 11 Springfield
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Black River
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Williams River
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
Bellows Falls
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Bellows Falls Dam
BSicon hKRZWaeq.svg
New England Central RR
BSicon hKRZWaeq.svg
Vermont Railway
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
Bellows Falls
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Saxtons River
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Cold River
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
NH Route 123.svg NH 123 Walpole
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Partridge Brook
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
Vermont 9.svg VT 9 Brattleboro
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
West River
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Whetstone Brook
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
Vermont 119.svg VT 119 Hinsdale
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Vernon Dam
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Ashuelot River
BSicon GRZe.svg
BSicon GRZq.svg
BSicon WASSER.svg
BSicon hKRZWaeq.svg
New England Central RR
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
MA Route 10.svg Route 10 Northfield
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
MA Route 2.svg Route 2 Gill
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Millers River
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Turner Falls Dam
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
Gill–Montague Bridge
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
Turners Falls Road Bridge
BSicon RMoW1q.svg
General Pierce Bridge
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Deerfield River
BSicon fhKRZWaeq.svg
Canalside Rail Trail Bridge
BSicon hKRZWaeq.svg
Pan Am Railways
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
MA Route 116.svg Route 116 Sunderland
BSicon fhKRZWaeq.svg
Norwottuck Rail Trail Bridge
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
MA Route 9.svg Route 9 Northampton
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Fort River
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Mill River
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Manhan River
BSicon RAoW1q.svg
US 202.svg US 202 Holyoke
BSicon WRESVGa.svg
Holyoke Dam
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
MA Route 116.svg Route 116 Holyoke
BSicon hKRZWaeq.svg
Pan Am Railways
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
MA Route 141.svg Route 141 Holyoke
BSicon RRoW1q.svg
I-391.svg I-391
BSicon RRoW1q.svg
I-90.svg I-90 Chicopee
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Chicopee River
BSicon RRoW1q.svg
I-91.svg I-91
BSicon RAoW1q.svg
US 20.svg US 20 Springfield
BSicon hKRZWaeq.svg
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
MA Route 147.svg Route 147 Springfield
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Mill River
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Westfield River
BSicon RAoW1q.svg
US 5.svg US 5 Agawam
BSicon GRZq.svg
BSicon WASSER.svg
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
Connecticut Highway 190 wide.svg Route 190 Enfield
BSicon uePSLr.svg
Enfield Falls Canal
BSicon hKRZWaeq.svg
New Haven–Springfield Line
BSicon RYoW1q.svg
Connecticut Highway 140 wide.svg Route 140 Windsor Locks
BSicon RRoW1q.svg
I-91.svg I-91 Dexter Coffin Bridge
BSicon WABZg+l.svg
Scantic River
BSicon WABZg+r.svg
Farmington River
BSicon RRoW1q.svg
I-291.svg I-291 Windsor
BSicon hKRZWaeq.svg
Connecticut Southern RR
BSicon WWSEL.svg
BSicon uSKRZ-Ru.svg
I-84.svg I-84 Hartford
BSicon uSKRZ-Ru.svg
Connecticut Highway 2.svg Route 2 Founders Bridge
BSicon ueABZg+r.svg
Park River
BSicon ueABZg+l.svg
Hockanum River
BSicon uSKRZ-Au.svg
US 5.svg US 5 Charter Oak Bridge
BSicon uSKRZ-Yu.svg
Connecticut Highway 3.svg Route 3 Wethersfield
BSicon ueABZg+r.svg
Mattabesset River
BSicon uSKRZ-Yu.svg
Connecticut Highway 66.svg Route 66 Middletown
BSicon umKRZu.svg
Providence & Worcester RR
BSicon ueABZg+l.svg
Salmon River
BSicon uSKRZ-Yu.svg
Connecticut Highway 82.svg Route 82 East Haddam
BSicon ueABZg+l.svg
Eightmile River
BSicon uSKRZ-Ru.svg
I-95.svg I-95 Old Lyme
BSicon umKRZu.svg
Amtrak Northeast Corridor
BSicon ueABZg+l.svg
Lieutenant River
BSicon uDOCKSm.svg
Long Island Sound

The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for 406 miles (653 km) through four states. It rises 300 yards (270 m) south of the U.S. border with Quebec, Canada, and discharges at Long Island Sound. [4] Its watershed encompasses 11,260 square miles (29,200 km2), covering parts of five U.S. states and one Canadian province, via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers. [5] It produces 70% of Long Island Sound's fresh water, [5] discharging at 18,400 cubic feet (520 m3) per second. [6]


The Connecticut River Valley is home to some of the northeastern United States' most productive farmland, as well as the Hartford–Springfield Knowledge Corridor, a metropolitan region of approximately two million people surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts, and Hartford, Connecticut. [7]


The word "Connecticut" is a corruption of the Mohegan word quinetucket, which means "beside the long, tidal river". [8] The word came into English during the early 1600s to name the river, which was also called simply "The Great River". It was also known as the Fresh River, and the Dutch called it the Verse River. [9]

Early spellings of the name by European explorers included "Cannitticutt" in French [10] or in English. [11]

View of Springfield on the Connecticut River by Alvan Fisher (Brooklyn Museum) Brooklyn Museum - View of Springfield on the Connecticut River - Alvan Fisher - overall.jpg
View of Springfield on the Connecticut River by Alvan Fisher (Brooklyn Museum)
View of the City of Hartford, Connecticut by William Havell View of the City of Hartford Connecticut by William Havell.jpeg
View of the City of Hartford, Connecticut by William Havell

Pre-1614: American Indian populations

Archaeological digs reveal human habitation of the Connecticut River Valley for 6,000 years before present. [12] Numerous tribes lived throughout the fertile Connecticut River valley prior to Dutch exploration beginning in 1614. Information concerning how these tribes lived and interacted stems mostly from English accounts written during the 1630s. [13]

The Pequots dominated a territory in the southern region of the Connecticut River valley, stretching roughly from the river's mouth at Old Saybrook, Connecticut north to just below the Big Bend at Middletown. They warred with and attempted to subjugate neighboring agricultural tribes such as the Western Niantics, while maintaining an uneasy stand-off with their rivals the Mohegans. [14]

The Mattabesset (Tunxis) tribe takes its name from the place where its sachems ruled at the Connecticut River's Big Bend at Middletown, in a village sandwiched between the territories of the aggressive Pequots to the south and the more peaceable Mohegans to the north. [15]

The Mohegans dominated the region due north, where Hartford and its suburbs sit, particularly after allying themselves with the Colonists against the Pequots during the Pequot War of 1637. [16] Their culture was similar to the Pequots, as they had split off from them and become their rivals some time prior to European exploration of the area. [16]

The agricultural Pocomtuc tribe lived in unfortified villages alongside the Connecticut River north of the Enfield Falls on the fertile stretch of hills and meadows surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts. The Pocomtuc village of Agawam [17] eventually became Springfield, situated on the Bay Path where the Connecticut River meets the western Westfield River and eastern Chicopee River. [18] The Pocomtuc villagers at Agawam helped Puritan explorers settle this site and remained friendly with them for decades, unlike tribes farther north and south along the Connecticut River. [19] [20] The region stretching from Springfield north to the New Hampshire and Vermont state borders fostered many agricultural Pocomtuc and Nipmuc settlements, with its soil enhanced by sedimentary deposits. Occasionally, these villages endured invasions from more aggressive confederated tribes living in New York, such as the Mohawk, Mahican, and Iroquois tribes. [19] [20]

The Pennacook tribe mediated many early disagreements between colonists and other Indian tribes, with a territory stretching roughly from the Massachusetts border with Vermont and New Hampshire, northward to the rise of the White Mountains in New Hampshire. [21] The Western Abenaki (Sokoki) tribe lived in the Green Mountains region of Vermont but wintered as far south as the Northfield, Massachusetts, area. The (Sokoki) tribe migrated to Odanak, Quebec following the epidemics and the wars with the settlers but returned to Vermont. [22] [23] [24] [25] [26]

1614–1636: Dutch and Puritan settlement

In 1614, Dutch explorer Adriaen Block became the first European to chart the Connecticut River, sailing as far north as Enfield Rapids. [27] He called it the "Fresh River" and claimed it for the Netherlands as the northeastern border of the New Netherland colony. In 1623, Dutch traders constructed a fortified trading post at the site of Hartford, Connecticut called the Fort Huys de Hoop ("Fort House of Hope"). [28]

Four separate Puritan-led groups also settled the fertile Connecticut River Valley, and they founded the two large cities that continue to dominate the Valley: Hartford (est. 1635) and Springfield (est. 1636). The first group of pioneers left the Plymouth Colony in 1632 and ultimately founded the village of Matianuck (which became Windsor, Connecticut) several miles north of the Dutch fort. A group left the Massachusetts Bay Colony from Watertown, seeking a site where they could practice their religion more freely. With this in mind, they founded Wethersfield, Connecticut in 1633, several miles south of the Dutch fort at Hartford.

View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm--The Oxbow (1836) by Thomas Cole Cole Thomas The Oxbow (The Connecticut River near Northampton 1836).jpg
View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm—The Oxbow (1836) by Thomas Cole

In 1635, Reverend Thomas Hooker led settlers from Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he had feuded with Reverend John Cotton, to the site in Connecticut of the Dutch Fort House of Hope, where he founded Newtowne. [28] Shortly after Hooker's arrival, Newtowne annexed Matianuck based on laws articulated in Connecticut's settlement charter, the Warwick Patent of 1631. The patent, however, had been physically lost, and the annexation was almost certainly illegal. [29]

The fourth English settlement along the Connecticut River came out of a 1635 scouting party commissioned by William Pynchon to find the most advantageous site for commerce and agriculture, hoping to found a city there. His scouts located the Pocumtuc village of Agawam, where the Bay Path trade route crossed the Connecticut River at two of its major tributaries—the Chicopee River to the east and Westfield River to the west—and just north of Enfield Falls, the river's first unnavigable waterfall. Pynchon surmised that traders using any of these routes would have to dock and change ships at his site, thereby granting the settlement a commercial advantage. [30] It was initially named Agawam Plantation and was allied with the settlements to the south that became the state of Connecticut, but it switched allegiances in 1641 and was renamed Springfield in honor of Pynchon's native town in England. [30]

Of these settlements, Hartford and Springfield quickly emerged as powers. In 1641, Springfield splintered off from the Hartford-based Connecticut Colony, allying itself with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. For decades, Springfield remained the Massachusetts Bay Colony's westernmost settlement, on the northern border of the Connecticut Colony. By 1654, however, the success of these English settlements rendered the Dutch position untenable on the Connecticut River. A treaty moved the boundary westward between the Connecticut Colony and New Netherland Colony to a point near Greenwich, Connecticut. The treaty allowed the Dutch to maintain their trading post at Fort Huys de Hoop, which they did until the 1664 British takeover of New Netherland.

Border disputes

The Connecticut River Valley's central location, fertile soil, and abundant natural resources made it the target of centuries of border disputes, beginning with Springfield's defection from the Connecticut Colony in 1641, which brought the Massachusetts Bay Colony to the river. In 1640, Massachusetts Bay Colony asserted a claim to jurisdiction over lands surrounding the river; however, Springfield remained politically independent until tensions with the Connecticut Colony were exacerbated by a final confrontation later that year. [30]

The Memorial Bridge across the Connecticut River at Springfield, Massachusetts, the river's largest city Memorial Bridge, Springfield MA.jpg
The Memorial Bridge across the Connecticut River at Springfield, Massachusetts, the river's largest city

Hartford kept a fort at the mouth of the Connecticut River at Old Saybrook for protection against the Pequots, Wampanoags, Mohegans, and the New Netherland Colony. After Springfield broke ties with the Colony, the remaining Connecticut settlements demanded that Springfield's ships pay tolls when passing the mouth of the river. The ships refused to pay this tax without representation at Connecticut's fort, but Hartford refused to grant it. In response, the Massachusetts Bay Colony solidified its friendship with Springfield by levying a toll on Connecticut Colony ships entering Boston Harbor. Connecticut was largely dependent on sea trade with Boston and therefore permanently dropped its tax on Springfield, but Springfield allied with Boston nonetheless, drawing the first state border across the Connecticut River. [30]

The Fort at Number 4 in Charlestown, New Hampshire was the northernmost British colonial presence on the Connecticut River until the end of the French and Indian War in 1763. The Abenaki had resisted British colonial settlement for decades, but colonists began settling north of Brattleboro, Vermont following the war. [31] Settlement of the Upper Connecticut River Valley increased quickly, with population assessments of 36,000 by 1790. [31]

Vermont was claimed by both New Hampshire and New York, and was settled primarily through the issuance of land grants by New Hampshire Governor Benning Wentworth beginning in the 1740s. [32] New York protested these grants, and King George III decided in 1764 that the border between the provinces should be the western bank of the Connecticut River. [33] Ethan Allen, the Green Mountain Boys, and other residents of the disputed area resisted attempts by New York to exercise authority there, which resulted in the establishment of the independent Vermont Republic in 1777 [34] and its eventual accession to the United States in 1791 as the fourteenth state. [35] Boundary disputes between Vermont and New Hampshire lasted for nearly 150 years and were finally settled in 1933, when the U.S. Supreme Court reaffirmed King George's boundary as the ordinary low-water mark on the Vermont shore. In some places, the state line is now inundated by the impoundments of dams built after this time. [36]

The Treaty of Paris and the 19th century

The Windsor Locks Canal Company at Enfield Falls, the Connecticut River's first major barrier to navigation Windsor Locks Canal Company by Elias Friedman.JPG
The Windsor Locks Canal Company at Enfield Falls, the Connecticut River's first major barrier to navigation

The Treaty of Paris (1783) that ended the American Revolutionary War created a new international border between New Hampshire and the Province of Canada at "northwesternmost headwaters of the Connecticut". Several streams fit this description, and thus a boundary dispute led to the short-lived Indian Stream Republic, which existed from 1832 to 1835.

The broad, fertile Connecticut River Valley attracted agricultural settlers and colonial traders to Hartford, Springfield, and the surrounding region. The high volume and numerous falls of the river led to the rise of industry along its banks during the Industrial Revolution. The cities of Springfield and Hartford in particular became centers of innovation and "intense and concentrated prosperity." [37]

The Enfield Falls Canal was opened in 1829 to circumvent shallows around Enfield Falls, and the locks built for this canal gave their name to the town of Windsor Locks, Connecticut. [38] The Connecticut River Valley functioned as America's hub of technical innovation into the 20th century, particularly the cities of Springfield and Hartford, and thus attracted numerous railroad lines. The proliferation of the railroads in Springfield and Hartford greatly decreased the economic importance of the Connecticut River. From the late 1800s until today, it has functioned largely as a center of wildlife and recreation. [39]

Log drives and the early 20th century

The Oxbow, Connecticut River, circa 1910 The Oxbow, Connecticut River c 1910.jpg
The Oxbow, Connecticut River, circa 1910

Starting about 1865, [40] the river was used for massive logging drives from Third Connecticut Lake to initially water powered sawmills near Enfield Falls. Trees cut adjacent to tributary streams including Perry Stream and Indian Stream in Pittsburg, New Hampshire, Halls Stream on the Quebec–New Hampshire border, Simms Stream, the Mohawk River, and the Nulhegan River basin in Essex County, Vermont, would be flushed into the main river by the release of water impounded behind splash dams. Several log drivers died trying to move logs through Perry Falls in Pittsburg. Teams of men would wait at Canaan, Vermont, to protect the bridges from log jams. Men guided logs through a 400-foot (120 m) drop along the length of Fifteen-Mile Falls [40] (now submerged under Moore and Comerford reservoirs), and through Logan's Rips at Fitzdale, Mulligan's Lower Pitch, and Seven Islands. The White River from Vermont and Ammonoosuc River from New Hampshire brought more logs into the Connecticut. A log boom was built between Wells River, Vermont, and Woodsville, New Hampshire, to hold the logs briefly and release them gradually to avoid jams in the Ox Bow. Men detailed to this work utilized Woodsville's saloons and red-light district. [41] Some of the logs were destined for mills in Wilder and Bellows Falls, Vermont, while others were sluiced over the Bellows Falls dam. North Walpole, New Hampshire, contained twelve to eighteen saloons, patronized by the log drivers. [42] Mount Tom was the landmark the log drivers used to gauge the distance to the final mills near Holyoke, Massachusetts. [43] These spring drives were stopped after 1915, when pleasure boat owners complained about the hazards to navigation. [44] The final drive included 500 workers controlling 65 million feet of logs. [40] A final pulp drive consisted of 100,000 cords of four-foot logs in 1918. This was to take advantage of the wartime demand. [40]

The flood of 1936

In March 1936, due to a winter with heavy snowfall, an early spring thaw and torrential rains, the Connecticut River flooded, overflowing its banks, destroying numerous bridges and isolating hundreds of people who had to be rescued by boat.

The dam at Vernon, Vermont, was topped by 19 feet (5.8 m). Sandbagging by the National Guard and local volunteers helped prevent the dam's powerhouse from being overwhelmed, despite blocks of ice breaking through the upstream walls. [45]

In Northampton, Massachusetts, looting during the flood became a problem, causing the mayor of the city to deputize citizen patrols to protect flooded areas. Over 3,000 refugees from the area were housed in Amherst College and the Massachusetts State Agricultural College (now UMass Amherst).

Unprecedented accumulated ice jams compounded the problems created by the flood, diverting water into unusual channels and damming the river, raising water levels even further. When the jam at Hadley, Massachusetts, gave way, the water crest overflowed the dam at Holyoke, overwhelming the sandbagging there. The village of South Hadley Falls was essentially destroyed, and the southern parts of Holyoke were severely damaged, with 500 refugees.

Downtown Hartford, Connecticut, during the 1936 flood 1936Flood HartfordCT01.jpg
Downtown Hartford, Connecticut, during the 1936 flood

In Springfield, Massachusetts, 5 sq mi (13 km2), and 18 miles (29 km) of streets, were flooded, and 20,000 people lost their homes. The city lost power, and nighttime looting caused the police to issue a "shoot on sight" edict; 800 National Guard troops were brought in to help maintain order. Rescue efforts using a flotilla of boats saved people trapped in upper stories of buildings, bringing them to local fraternal lodges, schools, churches and monasteries for lodging, medical care, and food. The American Red Cross and local, state and federal agencies, including the WPA and the CCC, contributed aid and manpower to the effort. Flooding of roads isolated the city for a time. When the water receded, it left behind silt-caused mud which in places was 3 feet (1 m) thick; the recovery effort in Springfield, at the height of the American Great Depression, took approximately a decade.

Overall, the flood caused 171 deaths and US$500 million (US$9,800,000,000 with inflation [46] ) in damages. Across the northeast, over 430,000 people were made homeless or destitute by flooding that year. [47]

The Connecticut River Flood Control Compact between the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont was established in 1953 to help prevent serious flooding. [48]

1936–present: Water supply

The creation of the Quabbin Reservoir in the 1930s diverted the Swift River, which feeds the Chicopee River, a tributary of the Connecticut. This resulted in an unsuccessful lawsuit by the state of Connecticut against the diversion of its riparian waters. [49]

Demand for drinking water in eastern Massachusetts passed the sustainable supply from the existing system in 1969. Diverting water from the Connecticut River was considered several times, [50] but in 1986 the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority instead undertook a campaign of water conservation. Demand was reduced to sustainable levels by 1989, reaching approximately a 25% margin of safety by 2009. [51]


The Connecticut River is the largest river ecosystem in New England. Its watershed spans Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, small portions of Maine, and the Canadian province of Quebec. [5] [36] [52]

The Upper Connecticut River: New Hampshire and Vermont

The Connecticut Lakes, the source of the Connecticut River, near the border of New Hampshire and Quebec ConnLakes.jpg
The Connecticut Lakes, the source of the Connecticut River, near the border of New Hampshire and Quebec
Great Falls (Bellows Falls) at high flow under the Vilas Bridge, taken from the end of Bridge St on the Vermont side, looking upriver Great Falls (Bellows Falls) at high flow 2-26-2016.JPG
Great Falls (Bellows Falls) at high flow under the Vilas Bridge, taken from the end of Bridge St on the Vermont side, looking upriver

The Connecticut River rises from Fourth Connecticut Lake, a small pond 300 yards (270 m) south of the Canada–United States border in the town of Pittsburg, New Hampshire, at an elevation of 2,670 feet (810 m) above sea level. It flows through the remaining Connecticut Lakes and Lake Francis for 14 miles (23 km), all within the town of Pittsburg, and then widens as it delineates 255 miles (410 km) of the border between New Hampshire and Vermont. [52] The river drops more than 2,480 feet (760 m) in elevation as it winds south to the border of Massachusetts where it sits 190 feet (58 m) above sea level. [36] [53]

The region along the river upstream and downstream from Lebanon, New Hampshire, and White River Junction, Vermont, is known as the "Upper Valley". The exact definition of the region varies, but it generally is considered to extend south to Windsor, Vermont and Cornish, New Hampshire, and north to Bradford, Vermont and Piermont, New Hampshire. [54] In 2001, the Trust for Public Land purchased 171,000 acres (690 km2) of land in New Hampshire from International Paper, allowing the Connecticut Lakes Headwaters Partnership Task Force to plan the future protection of the land. [55] The property spans the towns of Pittsburg, Clarksville, and Stewartstown, New Hampshire, nearly 3 percent of the land in the state of New Hampshire. [56] The Trust for Public Land worked in partnership with the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, The Nature Conservancy of New Hampshire, and others to raise around $42 million. [55] A conservation easement over 146,000 acres (590 km2) of the property prohibits development of the land while allowing public access. [56] The forest is managed by the Lyme Timber Company, and the conservation easement over the land ensures sustainable forest management of the property. [56]

The Middle Connecticut River: Massachusetts through central Connecticut

Following the most recent ice age, the Middle Connecticut River Valley sat at the bottom of Lake Hitchcock. Its lush greenery and rich, almost rockless soil comes from the ancient lake's sedimentary deposits. [57] In the Middle Connecticut region, the river reaches its maximum depth – 130 feet (40 m) – at Gill, Massachusetts, around the French King Bridge, and its maximum width – 2,100 feet (640 m) – at Longmeadow, directly across from the Six Flags New England amusement park. [36] [58] The Connecticut's largest falls – South Hadley Falls – features a vertical drop of 58 feet (18 m). [5] Lush green forests and agricultural hamlets dot this middle portion of the Connecticut River; however, the region is best known for its numerous college towns, such as Northampton, South Hadley, and Amherst, as well as the river's most populous city, Springfield. The city sits atop bluffs beside the Connecticut's confluence with two major tributaries, the Chicopee River to the east and Westfield River to the west. [59] The region around the Connecticut River is known locally as the Pioneer Valley, and the name adorns many local civic organizations and local businesses. While the southern part of the valley in Massachusetts is heavily urbanized, the northern section is largely rural and the local agriculture is well known for Connecticut shade tobacco.

The Connecticut River is influenced by the tides as far north as Enfield Rapids in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, approximately 58 miles (93 km) north of the river's mouth. Two million residents live in the densely populated Hartford-Springfield region, which stretches roughly between the college towns of Amherst, Massachusetts, and Middletown, Connecticut. Hartford, the second-largest city and the only state capital on the river, is at the southern end of this region on an ancient floodplain that stretches to Middletown.

The Lower Connecticut River: Southern Connecticut to Long Island Sound

15 miles (24 km) south of Hartford, at Middletown, the Lower Connecticut River section begins with a narrowing of the river, and then a sharp turn southeast. Throughout southern Connecticut, the Connecticut passes through a thinly populated, hilly, wooded region before again widening and discharging into Long Island Sound between Old Saybrook and Old Lyme. Due to the presence of large, shifting sandbars at its mouth, the Connecticut is the only major river in the Northeastern United States without a port at its mouth. [60]

Mouth and tidelands

Satellite image of the Connecticut River depositing silt into Long Island Sound Sediment Spews from Connecticut River.jpg
Satellite image of the Connecticut River depositing silt into Long Island Sound

The Connecticut River carries a heavy amount of silt from as far north as Quebec, especially during the spring snow melt. This results in a large sandbar near the river's mouth which is a formidable obstacle to navigation. The Connecticut is one of the few major rivers in the United States without a major city at its mouth because of this obstacle. Major cities on the Connecticut River are Hartford and Springfield, which lie 45 and 69 miles (70 and 110 km) upriver respectively.

The Nature Conservancy named the Connecticut River's tidelands one of the Western Hemisphere's "40 Last Great Places", while the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands listed its estuary and tidal wetlands as one of 1,759 wetlands of international importance. [61] In 1997, the Connecticut River was designated one of only 14 American Heritage Rivers, which recognized its "distinctive natural, economic, agricultural, scenic, historic, cultural, and recreational qualities." In May 2012, the Connecticut River was designated America's first National Blueway in recognition of the restoration and preservation efforts on the river. [7]


The Connecticut River's flow is slowed by main stem dams, which create a series of slow-flowing basins from Lake Francis Dam in Pittsburg, New Hampshire, to the Holyoke Dam at South Hadley Falls in Massachusetts. [5] Among the most extensively dammed rivers in the United States, the Connecticut may soon flow at a more natural pace, according to scientists at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, who have devised a computer that – "in an effort to balance human and natural needs" – coordinates the holding and releasing of water between the river's 54 largest dams. [62] [ needs update ] The Cabot and Turners Falls hydroelectric stations generate up to 68 MW. [63] The Holyoke Canal System and Hadley Falls Station at Holyoke Dam are rated a combined 48 MW. [64]


The Connecticut River watershed encompasses 11,260 square miles (29,200 km2), connecting 148 tributaries, including 38 major rivers and numerous lakes and ponds. [7] Major tributaries include (from north to south) the Passumpsic, Ammonoosuc, White, Black, West, Ashuelot, Millers, Deerfield, Chicopee, Westfield, and Farmington rivers. The Swift River, a tributary of the Chicopee, has been dammed and largely replaced by the Quabbin Reservoir which provides water to the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority district in eastern Massachusetts, including Boston and its metropolitan area.


Harbor seal in the Connecticut River, below the Holyoke Dam, following the shad run Harbor seal in Holyoke, MA. Connecticut River. 01.jpg
Harbor seal in the Connecticut River, below the Holyoke Dam, following the shad run

Along its southern reaches, the Connecticut River has carved a wide, fertile floodplain valley (known in Massachusetts as the Pioneer Valley), depositing rich silt and loam soils known internationally for their agricultural merit. Abundant riparian hardwood species include sycamores, cottonwood, basswood, willows, sassafras, box elder, black elder, osier dogwood and more. The river itself and its many tributaries are home to many typical New England freshwater species. These include dace, crawfish, hellgramites, freshwater mussels, typical frog species, snapping turtles, brook trout, freshwater sturgeon, catfish, walleye, chain pickerel and carp. Introduced species include stocked rainbow trout. The river is an important conduit of many anadromous fish, such as American shad, lamprey, and Atlantic salmon. American eels are also present, as are predators of these migratory fish including striped bass. Shad run as far north as Holyoke, Massachusetts where they are lifted over the Holyoke Dam by a fish elevator. This station publishes annual statistics of the run, and has recorded an occasional salmon. They pass an additional elevator in Turners Falls, Massachusetts and make it at least as far as Bellows Falls, Vermont. Harbor seals have been recorded traveling upriver as far north as Holyoke in pursuit of migratory fish; it is possible that they ranged farther upstream before the dam was built. [65]

There are 12 species of freshwater mussels. [66] Eleven of them occur in the mainstem of the Connecticut; the brook floater is found only in small streams and rivers. Species diversity is higher in the southern part of the watershed (Connecticut and Massachusetts) than in the northern part (Vermont and New Hampshire), largely due to differences in stream gradient and substrate. Eight of the 12 species in the watershed are listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern in one or more of the states in the watershed. [66]

A number of colonial animal species make their home in the waters of the Connecticut. Deeper areas are habitat for a diversity of colonial organisms including bryozoa. Freshwater sponges the size of dinner plates have been found by scuba divers at depths of more than 130 feet (40 m), thought to be the deepest location of the river, around the French King Bridge in Orange, Massachusetts. Mussels, eels, and northern pike were also observed there. [67] [68] [69]


Drift boat fishing guide working the river near Colebrook, New Hampshire BillDoingGuideWork.jpg
Drift boat fishing guide working the river near Colebrook, New Hampshire

There are several species of anadromous and catadromous fish, including brook trout, winter flounder, blueback herring, alewife, rainbow trout, large brown trout, American shad (Alosa sapidissima), hickory shad, smallmouth bass, Atlantic sturgeon, striped bass (Morone saxatilis), American eel, sea lamprey, and endangered shortnose sturgeon and dwarf wedgemussels. [70] Additionally, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service has repopulated the river with another species of migratory fish, the Atlantic salmon, which for more than 200 years had been extinct from the river due to damming. [70] Several fish ladders and fish elevators have been built to allow fish to resume their natural migration upriver each spring.

Fresh and brackish water residents of the main branch and tributaries include common carp, white catfish, brown bullhead, fallfish, yellow perch, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, northern pike, chain pickerel, bluegill, pumpkinseed sunfish, golden shiner, and rock bass. [71]

Much of the beginning of the river's course in the town of Pittsburg is occupied by the Connecticut Lakes, which contain lake trout and landlocked salmon. Landlocked salmon make their way into the river during spring spawning runs of bait fish and during their fall spawn. The river has fly-fishing-only regulations on 5 miles (8 km) of river. Most of the river from Lake Francis south is open to lure and bait as well. Two tail-water dams provide cold river water for miles downstream, making for bountiful summer fishing on the Connecticut.

After the first major dam was built near Turners Falls, Massachusetts, thirteen additional dams have ended the Connecticut River's great anadromous fish runs. Salmon restoration efforts began in 1967, [72] and fish ladders at a fish elevator at Hadley Falls have since enabled migrating fish to return to some of their former spawning grounds. In addition to dams, warm water discharges between 1978 and 1992 from Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in Vernon, Vermont released water up to 105 °F (41 °C) degrees, with the thermal plume reaching 55 miles (89 km) downstream as far as Holyoke. This thermal pollution appears to be associated with an 80% decline in American shad fish numbers from 1992 to 2005 at Holyoke Dam. This decline may have been exacerbated by over-fishing in the mid-Atlantic and predation from resurging striped bass populations. The nuclear plant was closed at the end of 2014, after which the shad population has increased. [73]



The mouth of the river up to Essex is thought to be one of the busiest stretches of waterway in Connecticut. Some local police departments and the state Environmental Conservation Police patrol the area a few times a week. Some towns keep boats available if needed. [74] In Massachusetts, the most active stretch of the Connecticut River is centered on the Oxbow, 14 miles (23 km) north of Springfield in the college town of Northampton. [75]

Camping is available along much of the river, for non-motorized boats, via the Connecticut River Paddlers' Trail. The Paddlers' Trail currently includes campsites on over 300 miles (480 km) of the river. [76]

Pollution and cleanup

Riverbank restoration project in Fairlee, Vermont Connecticut River restoration Farilee VT1.jpg
Riverbank restoration project in Fairlee, Vermont

The Water Quality Act of 1965 had a major impact on controlling water pollution in the Connecticut River and its tributaries.

Since then, the river has been restored from Class D to Class B (fishable and swimmable). [77] [78] Many towns along the Lower Connecticut River have enacted a cap on further development along the banks, so that no buildings may be constructed except on existing foundations. Currently, a website provides water quality reports twice a week, indicating whether various portions of the river are safe for swimming, boating and fishing. [79] [80]


Populated places


Listed from south to north by location of mouth:


The Connecticut River is a barrier to travel between western and eastern New England. Several major transportation corridors cross the river including Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, Interstate 95 (Connecticut Turnpike), Interstate 90 (Massachusetts Turnpike), Interstate 89, Interstate 93, and Interstate 84. In addition, Interstate 91, whose route largely follows the river, crosses it twice – once in Connecticut and once in Massachusetts.

In literature

Lydia Sigourney's poem "Connecticut River" was published in her 1834 poetry collection.

Wallace Stevens, one of America's most important 20th century poets, lived in Hartford, Connecticut, where he was vice-president of the Hartford Insurance Co. He composed many of his poems, including "The River of Rivers in Connecticut" on his 2.4 mile daily walk to and from his office. [81]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hampden County, Massachusetts</span> County in Massachusetts, United States

Hampden County is a non-governmental county located in the Pioneer Valley of the state of Massachusetts, in the United States. As of the 2020 census, Hampden County's population was 465,825. Its traditional county seat is Springfield, the Connecticut River Valley's largest city, and economic and cultural capital; with an estimated population of 154,758, approximately 1 in 3 residents of Hampden County live in Springfield. Hampden County was split from Hampshire County in 1812, because Northampton, Massachusetts, was made Hampshire County's "shire town" in 1794; however, Springfield—theretofore Hampshire County's traditional shire town, dating back to its founding in 1636—grew at a pace far quicker than Northampton and was granted shire town-status over its own, southerly jurisdiction. It was named for parliamentarian John Hampden. To the north of Hampden County is modern-day Hampshire County; to the west is Berkshire County; to the east is Worcester County; to the south are Litchfield County, Hartford County, and Tolland County in Connecticut. Hampden County is part of the Springfield, MA Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is the most urban county in Western Massachusetts. The Knowledge Corridor surrounding Springfield-Hartford is New England's second most populous urban area with 1.9 million people.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Interstate 91</span> Interstate Highway in the U.S. states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont

Interstate 91 (I-91) is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of the region. The Interstate generally follows the course of the Connecticut River. Its southern terminus is in New Haven, Connecticut, at Interstate 95. The northern terminus is in the village of Derby Line, Vermont, at the Canadian border. Past the Derby Line–Rock Island Border Crossing, the road continues as Quebec Autoroute 55. I-91 is the longest of three Interstate highways whose entire route is located within the New England states and is also the only primary (two-digit) Interstate Highway in New England to intersect all five of the other highways that run through the region. The largest cities along its route are New Haven, Connecticut; Hartford, Connecticut; Springfield, Massachusetts; Northampton, Massachusetts; Greenfield, Massachusetts; Brattleboro, Vermont; White River Junction, Vermont; and St. Johnsbury, Vermont in order from south to north.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Holyoke, Massachusetts</span> City in Massachusetts, United States

Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States, that lies between the western bank of the Connecticut River and the Mount Tom Range. As of the 2020 census, the city had a population of 38,238. Located 8 miles (13 km) north of Springfield, Holyoke is part of the Springfield Metropolitan Area, one of the two distinct metropolitan areas in Massachusetts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pioneer Valley</span> Massachusetts portion of the Connecticut River Valley, US

The Pioneer Valley is the colloquial and promotional name for the portion of the Connecticut River Valley that is in Massachusetts in the United States. It is generally taken to comprise the three counties of Hampden, Hampshire, and Franklin. The lower Pioneer Valley corresponds to the Springfield, Massachusetts metropolitan area, the region's urban center, and the seat of Hampden County. The upper Pioneer Valley region includes the smaller cities of Northampton and Greenfield, the county seats of Hampshire and Franklin counties, respectively.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">U.S. Route 5</span> Highway in the United States

U.S. Route 5 is a north–south United States highway running through the New England states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont. Significant cities along the route include New Haven, Connecticut; Hartford, Connecticut; and Springfield, Massachusetts. From Hartford northward to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, the road closely follows the route of the Connecticut River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Western Massachusetts</span> Region of Massachusetts, United States

Western Massachusetts, known colloquially as “Western Mass,” is a region in Massachusetts, one of the six U.S. states that make up the New England region of the United States. Western Massachusetts has diverse topography; 22 colleges and universities, with approximately 100,000 students; and such institutions as Tanglewood, the Springfield Armory, and Jacob's Pillow.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Farmington River</span> River in the United States of America

The Farmington River is a river, 46.7 miles (75.2 km) in length along its main stem, located in northwest Connecticut with major tributaries extending into southwest Massachusetts. The longest route of the river, from the origin of its West Branch, is 80.4 miles (129.4 km) long, making it the Connecticut River's longest tributary by 2.3 miles (3.7 km) over the major river directly to its north, the Westfield River. The Farmington River's watershed covers 609 square miles (1,580 km2). Historically, the river played an important role in small-scale manufacturing in towns along its course, but it is now mainly used for recreation and drinking water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black River (Connecticut River tributary)</span>

The Black River is a 40.8-mile-long (65.7 km) river in the U.S. state of Vermont, and a tributary of the Connecticut River. The watershed, or drainage basin, consists of some 202 square miles (520 km2) in southeastern Vermont, almost all of which lies in Windsor County.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Hadley Canal</span> United States historic place

The South Hadley Canal was a canal along the Connecticut River in South Hadley, Massachusetts. It was the earliest navigable canal in the United States, with operation commencing in 1795. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the South Hadley Canal Historic District.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">New England</span> Region in the Northeastern United States

New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick to the northeast and Quebec to the north. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the southwest. Boston is New England's largest city, as well as the capital of Massachusetts. Greater Boston is the largest metropolitan area, with nearly a third of New England's population; this area includes Worcester, Massachusetts, Manchester, New Hampshire, and Providence, Rhode Island.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge</span> Natural conservation area in the northeastern United States

Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge was established in 1997 to conserve, protect and enhance the abundance and diversity of native plant, fish and wildlife species and the ecosystems on which they depend throughout the 7,200,000-acre (29,000 km2) Connecticut River watershed. The watershed covers large areas of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Connecticut. It contains a great diversity of habitats, notably: northern forest valuable as nesting habitat for migrant thrushes, warblers and other birds; rivers and streams used by shad, salmon, herring, the endangered shortnose sturgeon and other migratory fishes; and an internationally significant complex of high-quality tidal fresh, brackish and salt marshes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Equivalent Lands</span> Several large tracts of land exchanged between the Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut colonies

The Equivalent Lands were several large tracts of land that the Province of Massachusetts Bay made available to settlers from the Connecticut Colony after April 1716. This was done as compensation for an equivalent area of territory that was under Connecticut's jurisdiction but had been inadvertently settled by citizens of Massachusetts. The problem had arisen due to errors and imprecise surveys made earlier in the seventeenth century. The Equivalent Lands were never mapped.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Union Station (Northampton, Massachusetts)</span>

Union Station is a historic building in Northampton, Massachusetts, that served as a train station from 1897 until 1987. Built at the close of the nineteenth century, the structure incorporates many features of the Richardsonian Romanesque architectural style. The buff brick masses of the station are trimmed with red Longmeadow brownstone and hooded by red tile roofs. Steep dormers protrude from the roofline. The interior once featured Italian marble floors, oak woodwork, and a large fireplace.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eric Aho</span> American painter

Eric Aho is an American painter living in Vermont. DC Moore Gallery in New York City represents his work.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Holyoke station</span> Train station in Massachusetts, U.S.

Holyoke station is an Amtrak intercity train station near the corner of Main and Dwight streets in Holyoke, Massachusetts, United States. The station opened on August 27, 2015, eight months after Amtrak's Vermonter service was re-routed to the Connecticut River Line through the Pioneer Valley.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Moore Dam</span> Dam on the border of New Hampshire and Vermont

Moore Dam is a major hydroelectric dam on the Upper Connecticut River between Grafton County, New Hampshire and Caledonia County, Vermont in the northeastern United States. The dam is located near Littleton, New Hampshire, and forms the 3,490-acre (1,410 ha) Moore Reservoir. The Moore Station is the largest conventional hydroelectric plant in New England, in terms of installed capacity and average power generation. The dam and reservoir also provide flood control, recreational boating and fishing.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George C. Ewing</span> American politician

George Clinton Ewing was a salesman, wainwright, land agent, superintendent, assessor, selectman, state representative, and most notably one of the chief founders of Holyoke, Massachusetts; he is credited as having first brought the idea of building a dam and industrial city at Hadley Falls to investors in Boston, New York, Hartford, and St. Johnsbury, Vermont in 1846.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ingleside, Holyoke, Massachusetts</span> Neighborhood of Holyoke in Massachusetts, United States

Ingleside is a neighborhood in Holyoke, Massachusetts located to the south of the city center, approximately 2 miles from downtown. The neighborhood features access to the Connecticut River through the Sue Ellen Panitch River Center and the Land of Providence reservation. Ingleside is also home to the Holyoke Mall, the Nuestras Raices farm, the Sisters of Providence of Holyoke, the Providence Behavioral Health Hospital, and several recreational and historical venues.

<i>Valley Flyer</i> (Amtrak train)

The Valley Flyer is a train service run by Amtrak between New Haven, Connecticut and Greenfield, Massachusetts along Amtrak's New Haven–Springfield Line and the Massachusetts Department of Transportation's Connecticut River Line.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Log Pond Cove</span> Body of water

Log Pond Cove, previously known as Money Hole, is a former log pond and scenic wayside on the Connecticut River, about half a mile upstream from the Holyoke Dam at South Hadley Falls.


  1. Michael J. Caduto (November 30, 2015). "With Cooler Water, Better Prospects for Shad Migration?". Northern Woodlands Magazine. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  2. "Connecticut River". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior.
  3. "Connecticut River Estuary and Tidal River Wetlands Complex". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  4. Linda Brughelli (October 28, 2014). "Essex - Connecticut". BBC Local: Essex. Archived from the original on October 20, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 "Watershed Facts". Connecticut River Watershed Council. Archived from the original on August 5, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  6. "USGS Water-Year Summary for Site 01184000". Archived from the original on 2021-02-27. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  7. 1 2 3 "About the River". Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  8. "Connecticut State Name Origin". Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  9. Alberta Eiseman (August 30, 1998). "THEATER; The Industrialization of the Great River, New England's Longest". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  10. "Carte particulière de partie de Long Eyland". Gallica. December 16, 2020. Archived from the original on July 23, 2020. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  11. "[carte anglaise de l'est de Long Island]". Archived from the original on 2020-07-24. Retrieved 2020-05-23.
  12. "Kells Pasture Site, Greenfield MA". July 22, 2019. Archived from the original on July 22, 2019. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
  13. "Pequot History". July 15, 1997. Archived from the original on July 28, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  14. "1637 – The Pequot War". The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Archived from the original on July 28, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  15. "Mattabesic History". November 15, 1997. Archived from the original on April 29, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  16. 1 2 "Mohegan History". July 14, 1997. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  17. Meaning "landing place" or "place for unloading canoes."
  18. "Full text of "Indian place names of New England"". 1962. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  19. 1 2 "We Have A New Lodge!!!!!". Pocumtuc Lodge – Western Massachusetts Council, Boy Scouts of America. October 9, 2008. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  20. 1 2 "Pocumtuc History". Archived from the original on August 27, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  21. "Pennacook History". Archived from the original on August 27, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  22. "State Recognized Tribes | Vermont Commission on Native American Affairs". Archived from the original on 2021-06-02. Retrieved 2021-05-30.
  23. Tribe, Nulhegan Abenaki. "Welcome from the Nulhegan Abenaki Tribe at Nulhegan~Memphremagog". Nulhegan Abenaki Tribe. Archived from the original on 2021-06-03. Retrieved 2021-05-30.
  24. "Elnu Abenaki Tribe - Home". Archived from the original on 2021-05-02. Retrieved 2021-05-30.
  25. "Our History". Ko'asek (Co'wasuck) Traditional Band of the Sovereign Abenaki Nation. July 13, 2021. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved May 30, 2021.
  26. "Home". Conseil des Abénakis d'Odanak. Archived from the original on 2021-06-02. Retrieved 2021-05-30.
  27. Al Braden (March 1, 2010). The Connecticut River: A Photographic Journey Into the Heart of New England. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN   9780819570529. Archived from the original on December 21, 2019. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  28. 1 2 "House of Hope". A Tour of New England: Connecticut. New Netherland Institute. Archived from the original on April 10, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  29. "The Warwick Patent". Colonial Records & Topics. CT State Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  30. 1 2 3 4 Barrows, Charles Henry (1911). The history of Springfield in Massachusetts for the young: being also in some part the history of other towns and cities in the county of Hampden. The Connecticut Valley Historical Society. pp. 46–48. US 13459.5.7.
  31. 1 2 "Why did settlers come to New Hampshire and Vermont, and where did they come from?". Teaching Early Settlement. (Southeast Vermont Community Learning Collaborative). Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  32. Wardner, p. 13.
  33. Wardner, p. 41
  34. Wardner, p. 443
  35. Van de Water, Frederic. The Reluctant Republic, New York: John Day, 1941. p. 337
  36. 1 2 3 4 "Fast Facts". Connecticut River Joint Commissions. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  37. Archived December 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  38. Archived September 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  39. "Environment & Geography: Written in the Rocks and Sand". Connecticut River Byway Council. Archived from the original on August 28, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  40. 1 2 3 4 Pike, Helen (April 2013). "Spring Log Drives Through Fifteen-Mile Falls". Vermont's Northland Journal. 12 (1): 20–21.
  41. Holbrook p.68
  42. Holbrook p.70
  43. Holbrook, Stewart H. (1961). Yankee Loggers. International Paper Company. pp. 63–70.
  44. Wheeler, Scott (September 2002). The History of Logging in Vermont's Northeast Kingdom. The Kingdom Historical.
  45. Klekowski, Ed; ilda, Elizabeth; Klekowski, Libby (2003). The Great Flood of 1936: The Connecticut River Story (DVD). Springfield, Massachusetts: WGBY. Event occurs at 02:10. OCLC   58055715. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  46. 1634–1699: McCusker, J. J. (1997). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States: Addenda et Corrigenda (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1700–1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–" . Retrieved April 16, 2022.
  47. Klelowski, Ed. The Great Flood of 1936: The Connecticut River Valley Story WGBY (2003)
  48. "Connecticut River Flood Control Compact" (PDF). US Government Printing Office. June 6, 1953. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 19, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  49. U.S. Supreme Court, Connecticut v. Massachusetts, 282 U.S. 660 (1931)
  50. "CRWC History". Connecticut River Watershed Council. Archived from the original on August 5, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  51. "MWRA Water System Demand, 1985–2009". Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. Archived from the original on September 25, 2018. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  52. 1 2 "Designated Rivers: The Connecticut River". New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  53. "State officials to perambulate the border between N.H. and Vermont (symbolically, that is)". The Telegraph . May 10, 2012. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  54. "Upper Valley Bi-State Regional Chamber of Commerce". Upper Valley Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on July 3, 2014. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
  55. 1 2 "Connecticut Lakes Headwaters". The Trust for Public Land. Archived from the original on 2018-06-18. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
  56. 1 2 3 "171,000-Acre CT Headwaters Now Protected (NH)". The Trust for Public Land. Archived from the original on 2018-08-02. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
  57. Richard D. Little. "Geological History of the Connecticut River Valley". Earth View LLC. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  58. Klekowski, Ed (June 2–4, 2000). "Stop 1-7B: Abyssal Depths in Turner's Falls Area, French King Bridge" (PDF). North Eastern Friends of the Pleistocene Field Conference. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 11, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  59. Susan McGowan. "The Landscape in the Colonial Period". Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  60. "Type 6 Conservation Site – Connecticut River Estuary" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  61. "Connecticut River Tidelands". Yankee Magazine. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  62. Sam Wotipka (October 10, 2013). "Connecticut River May Soon Flow Freely Again". Scope. MIT Graduate Program in Science Writing. Archived from the original on 2016-02-20. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  63. "21 New England municipal electric utilities make historic hydropower purchase commitment". Renewable Energy World. 13 November 2020. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  64. "About Holyoke Gas & Electric" . Retrieved 2022-04-12.
  65. "Where did the Holyoke seal come from? (Video)". 23 May 2019. Archived from the original on 2019-07-02. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
  66. 1 2 Nedeau, Ethan Jay (2008). "Freshwater Mussels and the Connecticut River Watershed" (PDF). Connecticut River Watershed Council, Greenfield, MA. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  67. "New Life". Archived from the original on 2019-06-19. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
  68. "Bryozoans". October 15, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-10-15.
  69. "A freshwater bryozoan (Lophopodella carteri) - Species Profile". Archived from the original on 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
  70. 1 2 Northeast Region Web Development Group. "Fisheries Program - Northeast Region – U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service". Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  71. "Species Conservation". US Fish and Wildlife Service. US Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  72. Recovery: Benefits of Salmon Failure
  73. Weiss-Tisman, Howard (4 September 2015). "Fish Stocks Rebound After Vermont Yankee Shutdown". Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  74. Kaplan, Thomas (August 30, 2007). "River Watchers, Tackling Speeders and Thin Budgets". The New York Times . Archived from the original on April 21, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  75. "Welcome". Oxbow Marina. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  76. "Connecticut River Paddlers' Trail". Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  77. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  78. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  79. "News and Information from Northampton, MA by the Daily Hampshire Gazette –". Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  80. "Water Quality Monitoring". Tri-State Connecticut River Targeted Watershed Initiative. Center for Educational Software Development – University of Massachusetts Amherst. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  81. The Palm at the End of the Mind, Selected Poems and a Play; Wallace Stevens; Ed. by Holly Stevens

Further reading