Enfield, Connecticut

Last updated
Enfield, Connecticut
Thompsonville Village.jpg
Thompsonville Village of Enfield, Connecticut
Enfield CT lg.PNG
Coordinates: 41°59′N72°33′W / 41.98°N 72.55°W / 41.98; -72.55 Coordinates: 41°59′N72°33′W / 41.98°N 72.55°W / 41.98; -72.55
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
U.S. state Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut
County Hartford
NECTA Springfield
Region Capitol Region
Incorporated (Massachusetts)May 16, 1683
Annexed by Connecticut1749
  Type Council-manager
  Town ManagerChristopher W. Bromson (Acting)
  Town CouncilMayor
Mike Ludwick (R)
Deputy Mayor
Donna Szewczak (R)
District Councilors
Joseph C. Bosco (R), Dist 1
Robert Cressotti (D), Dist 2
Edward N. Deni (D), Dist 4
Council At-Large
William Kiner (D)
Gina L. Cekala (D)
Elizabeth Davis (D)
Carl Sferrazza (R)
Joe Mueller (R)
Lori Unghire (R)
  Total34.2 sq mi (88.6 km2)
  Land33.3 sq mi (86.2 km2)
  Water0.9 sq mi (2.4 km2)
56 ft (17 m)
  Density1,300/sq mi (500/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP code
Area code(s) 860
FIPS code 09-25990
GNIS feature ID0212332
Major highways I-91.svg
U.S. Routes Connecticut Highway 190.svg Connecticut Highway 220.svg
Website www.enfield-ct.gov

Enfield is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States, founded by Reverend Zachary of Deer Run. The population was 44,654 at the 2010 census. [1] It is bordered by Longmeadow, Massachusetts and East Longmeadow, Massachusetts, to the north, Somers to the east, East Windsor and Ellington to the south, and the Connecticut River (towns of Suffield and Windsor Locks) to the west.



Enfield was originally inhabited by the Pocomtuc tribe, and contained their two villages of Scitico and Nameroke. Though land grants were first granted in 1674, no one attempted to settle what is known as Enfield until 1679 when the Pease Brothers of Robert and John II, settlers from Salem, Massachusetts came in to settle the fertile lands. They dug a shelter into a bill and camped there for the winter until their families came to help them build houses. In 1675, a sawmill owned by William Pynchon II was burned in the wake of King Phillip's War. The first town meeting was held on August 14, 1679 and a committee of five were appointed by men from Springfield as it was the parent town at the time. Enfield was incorporated in Massachusetts on May 16, 1683 as the Freshwater Plantation. The same day as the town of Stow, Massachusetts, making them the 52nd/53rd towns in the Colony. The namesake is the Freshwater Brook (Also known as the Asnuntuck Brook) that traverses the town. Five years later, on March 16, 1688, the townspeople purchased Enfield from a Podunk named Notatuck for 25 pounds Sterling. It is unclear what claim Notatuck actually had to the land, or whether he was selling the land or the rights to use it. Shortly around 1700, the town changed its name to Enfield after Enfield Town in Middlesex, and to go with the other fields in the area such as Springfield, Westfield, and Suffield.

In 1734, the eastern part of town separated into the town of Somers. [2] In 1749, following the settlement of a lawsuit in which it was determined that a surveyor's error placed a section of present-day Hartford County (including Enfield) within the boundaries of Massachusetts, the town seceded and became part of Connecticut. [3]

Jonathan Edwards preached his famous sermon, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God", in Enfield. It was part of the Great Awakening revival that struck New England in the mid-18th century and spread throughout Western North American civilization.

The modern town of Enfield was formed through the merging of Enfield, Thompsonville, and Hazardville, named for Colonel Augustus George Hazard (1802–1868), whose company manufactured gunpowder in the Powder Hollow area of the town from the 1830s to the 1910s. In the 1989 film Glory , boxes of gunpowder can be seen with the words Enfield, CT printed on the sides. In an episode in the 1970s police drama Hawaii Five-O , Jack Lord's character Steve McGarrett traces explosives back to "The Hazard Gunpowder Company- Enfield, CT". The capacity of the mill at the time of the Civil War was 1,200 pounds (540 kg) per day. [4] Over 60 people died in explosions in Powder Hollow during the years when gunpowder was manufactured there. The mill blew up several times, but was set up so that if one building blew up, the rest would not follow in a chain reaction. The ruins of these buildings and the dams are open to the public. Powder Hollow is now home to baseball fields and hiking trails.

King's Island in the Connecticut River, previously known as Terry Island (or Terry's Island, or Great Island), [5] was the location of pivotal meetings of Adventist Christians in 1872 and 1873. [6] [6]

In 1972, Asnuntuck Community College was established in Enfield as the twelfth institution in the Connecticut State Colleges and Universities system (CSCU). Classes began in 1972 with an initial enrollment of 251, and 12 Associate in Science degrees and 20 Associate of Art degrees were awarded to the first graduating class in 1974.

There are five sections of the town of Enfield. Enfield Village, Thompsonville, Hazardville, Scitico, and Sherwood Village.

Enfield Shaker village

Enfield Shaker village c. 1910 Enfield CT Shakers.jpg
Enfield Shaker village c. 1910

In 1793, a historic Shaker village, Enfield Shaker village, one of nineteen scattered from Maine to Kentucky, was established in the town. The Utopian religious sect practiced celibate, communal living, and is today renowned for its simple architecture and furniture. Membership eventually dwindled, however, and the village disbanded. The property has since been redeveloped by the Enfield Correctional Institution, still located on Shaker Road.

Enfield Shaker village Enfield, CT Shakers.jpg
Enfield Shaker village


Historical population
1820 2,065
1850 4,460
1860 4,99712.0%
1870 6,32226.5%
1880 6,7556.8%
1890 7,1996.6%
1900 6,699−6.9%
1910 9,71945.1%
1920 11,71920.6%
1930 13,40414.4%
1940 13,5611.2%
1950 15,46414.0%
1960 31,464103.5%
1970 46,18946.8%
1980 42,695−7.6%
1990 45,5326.6%
2000 45,212−0.7%
2010 44,654−1.2%
Est. 201444,626 [7] −0.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [8]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 34.2 square miles (88.6 km2), of which 33.3 square miles (86.2 km2) is land and 0.93 square miles (2.4 km2), or 2.76%, is water. [1]

As of the census [9] of 2000, there were 45,212 people, 16,418 households, and 11,394 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,354.3 people per square mile (523.0/km²). There were 17,043 housing units at an average density of 510.5 per square mile (197.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 89.74% White, 5.61% African American, 0.20% Native American, 1.34% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.57% from other races, and 1.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.74% of the population.

There were 16,418 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.6% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the town, the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 34.2% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.7 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $67,402, and the median income for a family was $77,554. Males had a median income of $42,335 versus $31,082 for females. The per capita income for the town was $29,340. About 2.8% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.4% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over.

Government & Politics

Enfield town vote
by party in presidential elections [10]
Year Democratic Republican Third Parties
2016 45.60% 8,64648.70%9,2335.70% 1,080
2012 55.92%10,15242.46% 7,7091.62% 295
2008 59.23%11,58439.15% 7,6561.62% 317
2004 54.69%10,82643.79% 8,6691.53% 302
2000 56.99%10,40337.91% 6,9205.11% 932
1996 54.37%9,89330.88% 5,62014.75% 2,684
1992 41.97%9,24831.96% 7,04326.07% 5,745
1988 50.34%9,35648.65% 9,0411.01% 188
1984 41.37% 7,34358.25%10,3390.37% 66
1980 44.53%8,02340.11% 7,22715.37% 2,769
1976 59.29%10,84540.15% 7,3440.56% 102
1972 49.25% 9,17649.74%9,2671.01% 189
1968 61.40%9,62532.56% 5,1046.04% 947
1964 77.79%11,42522.21% 3,2620.00% 0
1960 67.73%9,03332.27% 4,3040.00% 0
1956 50.70%4,87649.30% 4,7420.00% 0
Voter Registration and Party Affiliation as of November 1, 2017
PartyInactive votersTotal votersPercentage
Democratic 8,4495358,44934.16%
Republican 5,6383075,63822.8%
Minor Parties582445822.35%


Enfield is home to the U.S. headquarters of Danish plastic building toy manufacturer Lego, which was also the town's largest employer. Hallmark Cards was the town's second-largest employer. It is now closed, having sent all distribution to Kansas City in 2016.

Enfield was once the home to the headquarters of the Casual Corner clothing company.

Formerly and most notably, Enfield had booming carpet and gunpowder industries. Orrin Thompson set up shop for the Bigelow-Sanford Carpet Co. in the Thompsonville section of town, employing many Scottish immigrants and building housing for them, which still stand today.

The gunpowder industry was founded by Colonel Augustus Hazard. Hazard was instrumental in implementing water power and other technologies to allow his business to prosper. Hazard's company was among the biggest gunpowder suppliers for the American Civil War.

Enfield was the headquarters of Pilch Meat Breeders, which was once the second-largest broiler breeder in the world. The company was founded by Chester Pilch in 1936, and sold in 1969 to DeKalb Agricultural Research Corp. At its peak, Pilch owned 230 acres in Enfield, had farms in four countries, and produced about 24 million chickens a year. DeKalb moved the operation to North Carolina, taking 365 jobs from Enfield. [11]

Enfield is currently the headquarters of Precision Camera and Video Repair as well as Control Module Industries.

The town contains several shopping centers, including the Enfield Square Mall.

Top employers

According to Enfield's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [12] the top employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
1 Mass Mutual 1,900
2 Advance Auto Parts DC#41 400
3 Lego 500
4 3M 400
5 Brooks Brothers Group400
6 Connecticut Department of Correction 311
7 Martin-Brower 250
8 Eppendorf 175
9 Specialized Technology Resources 125


The neighborhoods of Enfield are:

"Crescent Lake"-Borders scenic farmland. It is in close proximity to both the minimum and maximum correctional facilities. This small friendly neighborhood holds an annual July 4 parade.

Enfield Historical District- Listed in the National Register of Historical Places, the Enfield Historic District runs along Enfield Street/King Street (U.S. Route 5). Many old homes dating back to the mid-18th century were built from 1106-1492 Enfield Street. Varying styles of architecture are noted including Late Victorian, Georgian and 19th Century Revival. The Enfield Town Hall museum as well as a fine Greek Revival Congregational Church can be found here.

Hazardville – Named after Colonel Augustus Hazard, this neighborhood encompasses a few smaller burbs, including Powder Hollow, and more recently, the center of Enfield began to encroach on this historical area. The center of Hazardville is located between the streets of Park Street and North Street on Hazard Avenue. Notable small shops include The Connecticut Valley Tobacconist, Gayle's Thyme Herbal Apothecary, The Cranberry Scoop Gift Shop, Smoke n' Leather, and numerous pizzerias. The Powder Hollow Park is located in the Hazardville neighborhood district.

North Thompsonville – Contains mostly residential and partially commercial areas of Enfield with many parks and schools.

Presidential Section – This entirely residential area contain streets that are all named after former presidents of the United States. Houses are mid-sized to large in this area.

Presidential Section Clinton rd.jpg
Presidential Section

Scitico – located in the eastern end of town. Green Manor is considered part of Scitico. This is a suburb in the purest sense, with winding roads, sidewalks, a park, and cul-de-sacs. Green Manor is approximately 4.5 miles (7.2 km) from the main highway Interstate 91 and borders the town of Somers. Across from Nathan Hale Elementary School is a residential park with tennis court, skate boarding ramps, and a playground for younger kids. Green Manor Park contained a pool at one time but was removed due to the lack of maintenance by the town.

Shaker Pines – This neighborhood consists mostly of quaint lakeside houses with tall pine trees towering overhead. Shaker Pines was originally part of the Shaker settlement in Enfield. The lake was built by the Shakers to power a mill. The mill stood vacant by the dam at the end of the lake, until it was dismantled in the 1980s. This mill provided shelter for Frederick Merrill in 1987 after he escaped from the local high security prison. He was dubbed "The Peanut Butter Bandit" after his mother sneaked him supplies for his first prison escape in 1968 in a jar of peanut butter.

Sherwood Manor

Thompsonville Village Thompsonville.jpg
Thompsonville Village

Southwood Acres – A residential neighborhood in the south part of town.

Thompsonville – Named after Orrin Thompson, Thompsonville is the town center of Enfield with a more urban environment. In the past few years, there has been an attempt to revitalize the downtown area. [13] On the southbound portion of Pearl Street there are many old Victorian houses. There are also many boat launches onto the bordering Connecticut River. Commuter rail service is expected to begin in 2013, and planning has started for renovating an old building into a train station and transportation hub on the proposed Hartford Line. Enfield and Thompsonville are currently served by the Connecticut Transit commuter bus services for easy access to and from Hartford.

Parks and recreation

Enfield is home to the New England Lightning girls AAU basketball program.

Government and infrastructure

Connecticut Department of Correction prisons are located in Enfield. [14] Enfield Correctional Institution, [15] Robinson Correctional Institution, [16] and Willard-Cybulski Correctional Institution are in Enfield. [17]

In January 2013, the town began running the Magic Carpet public bus service. The in-town bus provides service to Thompsonville, Hazard Avenue, and Elm Street.

Police Brutality Lawsuit Settlements

In 2017, the Associated Press reported that nearly $800,000 was paid to settle lawsuits filed against the Enfield Police Department and former officer Matthew Worden, who was accused in several brutality cases; 10 lawsuits were settled for a total of $792,500. [18]


Enfield High School Enfield High School Rendering.png
Enfield High School

Asnuntuck Community College is a two-year college in Enfield. [19]

Enfield Public Schools operates the town's public schools.

Enfield High School is the town's sole high school. John F. Kennedy Middle School is the town's middle school. The Enfield primary schools educate students in kindergarten through grade 2, the intermediate schools educate students from grade 3 through grade 5, the middle school grades 6 through grade 8, and the high school runs from grade 9 through grade 12.

Thomas G. Alcorn School was originally a high school until it was converted to an elementary school when the current high school (Enfield High School) was built in the 1960s. Alcorn School was closed in 2011 and its empty shell of a building is now used as office space. Enfield High School was later extensively renovated in 1993. Enrico Fermi High School was one of two high schools in town, which opened in 1972, but closed in 2016 as a result of the town's high school consolidation into Enfield High School. The Fermi high school mascot was a falcon. The Fermi high school logo included an image of an atom and a distillation flask.

As of 2016, Enfield Public Schools educates approximately 5,000 students.

Capitol Region Education Council has its own magnet school in Enfield. The Public Safety Academy ranges from grade 6 through 12

Two Catholic parochial schools (Kindergarten through grade 8) serve the Enfield community, St. Bernard School and St. Martha's School. Typically, these schools operate on the same academic calendar as the public schools.

Notable people

Notable historical sites

Sister cities

Enfield has two official sister cities as designated by Sister Cities International: [22]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hazardville, Connecticut Census-designated place in Connecticut, United States

Hazardville is a section of the town of Enfield, Connecticut, in Hartford County. It is a census-designated place (CDP) that had a total population of 4,599 as of the 2010 census.

Sherwood Manor, Connecticut Census-designated place in Connecticut, United States

Sherwood Manor is a census-designated place (CDP) within the town of Enfield in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 5,410 at the 2010 census.

Thompsonville, Connecticut Census-designated place in Connecticut, United States

Thompsonville is a census-designated place (CDP) in the town of Enfield in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. The population of the CDP was 8,577 at the 2010 census.

Somers, Connecticut Town in Connecticut, United States

Somers is a town in Tolland County, Connecticut. The population was 11,444 at the 2010 census. The town center is listed by the U.S. Census Bureau as a census-designated place (CDP). In 2007, Money Magazine named Somers, Connecticut 53rd on its list of 100 Best Places to Live, based on "economic opportunity, good schools, safe streets, things to do and a real sense of community."

Windsor Locks, Connecticut Town in Connecticut, United States

Windsor Locks is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 12,498. It is the site of Bradley International Airport, which serves the Greater Hartford-Springfield region and occupies approximately 1/3 of the town. Windsor Locks is also the site of the New England Air Museum.

Asnuntuck Community College (ACC) is a community college in Enfield, Connecticut. It offers associate degree and certificate programs as well as healthcare certificate programs and business and industry programming.

Scantic River river in the United States of America

The Scantic River is a river that flows through the states of Massachusetts and Connecticut and is tributary to the Connecticut River.

Enfield station (Connecticut) proposed station in Thompsonville, Connecticut, USA

Enfield is a proposed station in Thompsonville, Connecticut, on the CTrail Hartford Line. It is proposed by the Connecticut Department of Transportation as one of five new stations that would be built for the line. The three stations are not currently funded. The service began operation on June 16, 2018. Enfield and the other infill stations are planned to be complete by 2022.

Connecticut Route 190 highway in Connecticut

Route 190 is a state route in the northern part of the U.S. state of Connecticut. It starts at Route 75 in the town of Suffield and proceeds eastward across the Connecticut River through the towns of Enfield, Somers, and Stafford. It ends at Route 171, in the town of Union. Route 190 was established in 1932 as a route between the state line at Southwick and the town of Enfield. The route was later extended eastward to Union but was truncated in the west to Suffield center.

Route 192 (Connecticut–Massachusetts) highway in Connecticut and Massachusetts

Route 192 is a 5.71-mile-long (9.19 km) state route in the U.S. states of Connecticut and Massachusetts, serving the southeastern suburbs of Springfield. It connects the Hazardville section of the town of Enfield, Connecticut to the town center of Longmeadow, Massachusetts. The Massachusetts portion of the route is maintained by the town, as opposed to MassDOT.

Route 220 (Connecticut–Massachusetts) highway in Connecticut and Massachusetts

Route 220 is a 7.95-mile-long (12.79 km) state route in northern Connecticut and western Massachusetts, serving the southeastern suburbs of Springfield. The route runs in an "L" pattern and connects the town of Enfield, Connecticut to the town of East Longmeadow. The route serves the Thompsonville and North Thompsonville sections of Enfield, connecting them to East Longmeadow center. In Connecticut, Route 220 is signed east-west. In Massachusetts, Route 220 is a town-maintained road and it is signed north-south.

Hazardville Historic District United States historic place

The Hazardville Historic District is a historic district in the Hazardville section of Enfield, Connecticut, United States, that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Enfield Public Schools provides education for Enfield, Hartford County, Connecticut, United States.

Enrico Fermi High School Former high school in Connecticut

Enrico Fermi High School (defunct) was a high school located in Enfield, Connecticut, and closed when it consolidated with Enfield High School in 2016.

Scantic River State Park

Scantic River State Park is a public recreation area consisting of several separated parcels totaling 784 acres (317 ha) along the Scantic River in the towns of Enfield, East Windsor, and Somers, Connecticut. The state park is suitable for hiking, fishing, and hunting and is managed by the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection.

Augustus George Hazard, known as Colonel Augustus Hazard, was an American manufacturer of gunpowder and the namesake of Hazardville, Connecticut.

Hazard Powder Company

The Hazard Powder Company is a former American manufacturer of gunpowder and explosives.

Bigelow-Hartford Carpet Mills Historic District United States historic place

The Bigelow-Hartford Carpet Mills Historic District encompasses a company-built factory and residential area in the Thompsonville area of Enfield, Connecticut. In addition to the former factory buildings of the Bigelow-Hartford Carpet Mills, it includes more than 150 housing units built by the company between about 1830 and 1920. It is roughly bounded on the north by Lafayette Street and Alden Avenue, the east by Hartford Avenue and Lincoln Street, the south by High Street, and the west by River Street. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994.

Bigelow-Hartford Carpet Mills United States historic place

The Bigelow-Hartford Carpet Mills were once one of the largest manufacturers of carpeting in the United States. The company's early 20th-century factories, located in Thompsonville, Connecticut, were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. Used by a succession of carpet makers until the 1960s, the company complex has for the most part been converted to residential use.


  1. 1 2 "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Enfield town, Hartford County, Connecticut". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
  2. John Chauncey Pease (1900). The History of Enfield, Connecticut. Wickersham Printing Company. p. 18. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  3. Bob Clark (18 December 2006). Enfield Connecticut: Stories Carved in Stone. Dog Pond Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN   978-0-9755362-5-4 . Retrieved 22 September 2010.
  4. Bob Clark (18 December 2006). Enfield Connecticut: Stories Carved in Stone. Dog Pond Press. p. 26. ISBN   978-0-9755362-5-4 . Retrieved 22 September 2010.
  5. "Public Act No. 09-203", State of Connecticut, July 7, 2009, As Retrieved 2010-03-12
  6. 1 2 "The Adventists at Terry Island", The New York Times, November 28, 1873, As Retrieved 2010-03-12
  7. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  8. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  9. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  10. https://authoring.ct.gov//SOTS/Election-Services/Statement-Of-Vote-PDFs/General-Elections-Statement-of-Vote-1922
  11. Navarro Alejandra (December 13, 1997). "Chester Pilch Dies". Hartford Courant. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  12. "Town of Enfield CAFR" (PDF).[ permanent dead link ]
  13. Lightman, David and Larry Smith (2007-04-14). "Constituents Make A Pitch". The Hartford Courant. Retrieved 2007-04-21.[ permanent dead link ]
  14. "Zoning Map Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine ." Enfield, Connecticut. Retrieved on August 16, 2010.
  15. "Enfield Correctional Institution." Connecticut Department of Correction. Retrieved on August 16, 2010.
  16. "Robinson Correctional Institution." Connecticut Department of Correction. Retrieved on August 16, 2010.
  17. "Willard-Cybulski Correctional Institution." Connecticut Department of Correction. Retrieved on August 16, 2010.
  18. "Nearly $800,000 Paid to Settle Police Brutality Lawsuits". Archived from the original on 2018-08-20.
  19. "Welcome." Asnuntuck Community College. Retrieved on August 16, 2010.
  20. "Austin Streets: Street Name Origins." Retrieved on May 10, 2011.
  21. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-09-13. Retrieved 2006-09-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-10-02. Retrieved 2007-03-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)