High school is the education students receive in the final stage of secondary education in the United States and Canada. In the United States this lasts from approximately 14 to 21 years old in most cases. Most comparable to secondary schools, high schools generally deliver phase three of the ISCED model of education. High schools have subject-based classes. The name high school is applied in other countries, but no universal generalization can be made as to the age range, financial status, or ability level of the pupils accepted. In North America, most high schools include grades nine through twelve. Students attend them following junior high school (middle school).
The first institution labeled as a "high school" was Edinburgh's Royal High School in Scotland, which was founded in 1505. The Royal High School was used as a model for the first public high school in the United States, Boston Latin School, founded in Boston, Massachusetts in 1635.Boston Latin School was initially a private school, so although it did become the first public high school, a school system in Dedham, Massachusetts was the first to be supported by public taxation. The schools prepared boys for the law or the church. The length of the school day varied with the seasons, but there was a shortage of Latin speakers available to become teachers because the job was unattractive due to low status and low pay. The colony ordered in the English Protestant Tutor, retitled as The New England Primer, to be used as a textbook, and the tuition was written by and had a Calvinist tone. This was the start of a secondary education system.
In 1642, the Massachusetts Bay Colony was able to pass a law to require parents to make sure that their children were able to read, which required some form of elementary education. In 1647, Massachusetts again passed a law that required communities to establish some type of public schooling system. Elementary schools were to be formed in every town with 50 or more families, and every town with at least 100 families would have to provide a Latin Grammar School.
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In 1785, before the U.S. Constitution was ratified, the Continental Congress passed a law calling for a survey of the Northwest Territory, which included what was to become the state of Ohio. The law created townships, reserving a portion of each township for a local school.Under the constitution, education was relegated to individual states.
The Pennsylvania state constitution, written in 1790, calls for free public education, but only for poor children, assuming that the rich will pay for their own children's schooling.In 1805, the New York Public School Society was formed by the wealthy to provide education to the poor. These schools were run on the Lancasterian system, in which one "master" taught hundreds of students in a single room. The masters would give rote lessons to the older students, who would then pass it down to the younger students. Society was moving from an agrarian model with small independent plots to an industrial one, where workers needed to be literate and numerate. Lancastrian schools emphasized discipline and obedience: qualities that factory owners needed in their workers.
An 1817 Boston Town Meeting petitioned for the establishment of a system of free public primary schools. The main support came from local merchants, businessmen, and wealthier artisans, while many wage earners opposed it because they knew they would be paying for it through income taxation. In spite of this, Boston Latin School became public in 1820. This was the first public high school in the United States. Seven years later, a state law in Massachusetts made all grades of public school open to all pupils, free of charge.
However, in the slave-owning states, things were different. Even after public schools were being opened up to all ages in Massachusetts, in the 1830s, it was illegal in southern states to teach black children to read. High schools were out of the question.After many years of advocacy, in 1957, federal court ordered the integration of Little Rock, Arkansas public schools. The governor sent in troops to physically prevent nine African American students from enrolling at all-white Central High School. Though, this decision was overturned by the president. The same delay in equality in public high schools can be accounted for the general regarding of other groups as minorities in the US.
While there is no set standard for American high schools, some generalizations can be made about the majority. Schools are managed by local, elected school districts. There is a range in quality from basic education to more intellectually-stimulating environments for students aged approximately 14 to 18 years of age.
Pupils (students) enter around the age of 14 and pass through four years:
School years are normally around nine months long (from August or September to May or June), and are broken up into quarters or semesters.College entry is controlled by many factors including Grade Point Average (GPA), and an elective SAT or ACT exam run by two non-profit organizations: the College Board and the ACT, respectively.
Smaller schools can educate fewer than 200 pupils in total, while some teach over 4,000 at any given time.
The typical high school day includes:
The high school's emphasis determined by the community and school district (is):
A high school curriculum is defined in terms of Carnegie Units, which approximate to 120 class contact hours within a year. This is one hour a day, five days a week for twenty-four weeks. Students who satisfactorily complete a unit are awarded a credit.No two schools will be the same, and no two students will have the same classes. There are some general principles, however. Students can also be on different programs within the same school with Advanced/Honors, CP (College Preparatory), AP (Advanced Placement), and IB (International Baccalaureate) classes.
Students typically do four years of study, with eight core subjects and electives, both of which vary by school. Passing a course earns credit and students must earn at least 30 credits to graduate, among other requirements. Study halls are sometimes offered, which don't contribute to GPA or number of credits earned.
Appraisals start with a teacher's evaluation of a student's assigned work product (e.g, a test or essay). The assignment evaluations can be expressed as a percentage score or a letter grade. For percentage scores, the typical practice is to start at 100% and deduct points for deficiences.
The relationship between percentage scores and letter grades depends on the method of grading. In the absence of national grading standards,some high schools use norm-referenced grading (commonly called "grading on a curve") which allocates grades across the distribution of scores based on a predetermined formula. Most high schools, though, use criterion-referenced grading which corresponds percentages to letter grades according to a fixed scale:
|Percentage||< 60%||60% - 69%||70% - 79%||80% - 89%||≥ 90%|
For each course, the student's assignment scores or grades across the term are averaged according to weights established by the teacher.This produces the course grade. A report card lists all of the student's course grades for the term, translates these to grade point equivalents, and calculates a Grade Point Average (GPA) weighted by the number of credits earned for each class. A transcript lists the course grades received during the student's entire tenure at the school and compiles them into a cumulative GPA.
2014 recommended federal standards for Physical Education are at least 225 minutes of P.E. week for middle school and high school. The standards involve:
Amenities, experiences, extracurriculars, and breadth of available courses is dependent on funding. This is made up of:
High schools are depicted in many teenage-orientated films and television soap operas. Almost universally, these films fall into the comedy or social issues/drama genre categories.
Due to Californian labor laws, the actors used are young adults. Since sex between even alleged teenagers runs the risk of being considered child pornography, teenage sex, pregnancy, and STDs are barely covered and then only indirectly. High school films from Hollywood rarely discuss the economic disparities between the social classes where the poor gravitate to the lower esteemed courses.
A primary school, junior school, elementary school or grade school is a school for children from about four to eleven years old, in which they receive primary or elementary education. It can refer to both the physical structure (buildings) and the organisation. Typically it comes after preschool, and before secondary school.
Grading in education is the process of applying standardized measurements of varying levels of achievement in a course. Grades can be assigned as letters, as a range, as a percentage, or as a number out of a possible total.
Secondary education in the United States is the last seven years of statutory formal education grade 6 through grade 12. It occurs in two phases. The first is the ISCED lower secondary phase, a junior high school or middle school for students grade 6 through grade 8. The second is the ISCED upper secondary phase, the high school for students grade 9 through grade 12. There is some debate over the optimum age of transfer, and variation in some states.
The British undergraduate degree classification system is a grading structure for undergraduate degrees or bachelor's degrees and integrated master's degrees in the United Kingdom. The system has been applied in other countries and regions.
State schools, called public schools in North America and many other countries, are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation.
Latin honors are Latin phrases used in some colleges and universities to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned. This system is primarily used in the United States and Canada. It is also used in some Southeastern Asian countries with European colonial history, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, although sometimes translations of these phrases are used instead of the Latin originals. The honors distinction should not be confused with the honors degrees offered in some countries, or with honorary degrees.
The Boston Latin School is a public exam school in Boston, Massachusetts. It was established on April 23, 1635, making it both the oldest public school in America and the oldest existing school in the United States. The Boston Latin School was a bastion for educating the sons of the Boston "Brahmin" elite, resulting in the school claiming many prominent New Englanders as alumni. Its curriculum follows that of the 18th century Latin school movement, which holds the classics to be the basis of an educated mind. Four years of Latin are mandatory for all pupils who enter the school in the 7th grade, three years for those who enter in the 9th grade.
Seventh grade, equivalent to Year 8 in England and Wales, and S1 in Scotland, is a year or level of education in many nations around the world. The seventh grade is the eighth school year and comes after 6th grade or elementary school. Students are around 12-13 years old in this stage.
Eighth grade is the eighth post-kindergarten year of formal education in the US, and is typically the last year of middle school. In England and Wales, the equivalent is Year 9, and in Scotland, the equivalent is S2.
Eleventh grade, junior year 5, or grade 11 is the eleventh, and for some countries final, grade of secondary schools. Students are typically 16–17 years of age, depending on the country and the students' birthdays.
University admission or college admission is the process through which students enter tertiary education at universities and colleges. Systems vary widely from country to country, and sometimes from institution to institution.
The John D. O'Bryant School of Mathematics and Science, formerly known as Boston Technical High School is a college preparatory public exam school along with Boston Latin School and Boston Latin Academy. O’Bryant specializes in science, technology, engineering and mathematics ("STEM") in the city of Boston, Massachusetts, and is named for one of Boston's prominent African-American educators John D. O'Bryant. The school is currently located on 55 Malcolm X Boulevard in the neighborhood of Roxbury, Massachusetts. With a student body of 1,500 7th–12th graders, this school is part of the Boston Public Schools. The school was named a 2010 Blue Ribbon School of Excellence, the US Department of Education's highest award. In 2014 the school was awarded Gold by the US News Best High School Ranking, indicating that it is one of the top public high schools in the country.
Valley View High School is a suburban public high school located in Archbald, Pennsylvania. It is the sole high school operated by the Valley View School District. In 2014, enrollment was reported as 800 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 27% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 11.7% of pupils received special education services, while 2.6% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 52 teachers. Per the PA Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. Valley View High School has been accredited by the Middle States Commission on Secondary Schools. Valley View HIgh School is not a federally designated Title I school.
Norwell High School is a public secondary school, accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC). It is located in Norwell, Massachusetts, United States. The school includes approximately 50 full-time teachers. Its students consistently score above state and national averages on the SAT and other standardized tests, and on average, 97% of students from each graduating class at Norwell High School continue on to post-secondary education.
Academic grading in the United States commonly takes on the form of five, six or seven letter grades. Traditionally, the grades are A+, A, A−; B+, B, B−; C+, C, C−; D+, D, D−; F; with A+ being the highest and F being lowest. Numeric to letter grade conversions generally vary from system to system and between disciplines and status. In some cases, grades can also be numerical.
Community Charter School of Cambridge Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Located in the Kendall Square area near MIT, the school serves 360 students in grades 6-12. CCSC opened in September 2005. Since 2009, when CCSC graduated its first class, 100% of seniors have been admitted to college, with over 90% to four-year schools including Boston College, Bucknell University, Cornell University, Columbia University, Dartmouth College, Northeastern University, UMass Boston, University of Chicago, Stanford University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 2013, 100% of CCSC 10th graders scored advanced or proficient on the ELA MCAS. In 2012, 100% of 10th graders at CCSC scored advanced or proficient on both the math and English MCAS tests, earning the school a #1 ranking statewide. In 2011, CCSC was 1 of 14 charter schools in the U.S. to be awarded an EPIC grant for attaining the highest gains in student achievement.
Blue Ridge High School is a small, rural public high school located in New Milford, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. It is the sole high school operated by Blue Ridge School District. In 2015, enrollment was reported as 315 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 45.4% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 11.75% of pupils received special education services, while 11.75% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 29 teachers. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.
This is a list of grading systems used by countries of the world, first organized by continent, with links to specifics in many entries.
Oswayo Valley High School is a tiny, rural public high school located at located at 318 Oswayo Street, Shinglehouse, Potter County, Pennsylvania. In 2014, its enrollment was reported as 165 pupils, in 9th through 12th grades, with 48% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 15% of pupils received special education services, while 1% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 14 teachers. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The school serves the boroughs of Oswayo and Shinglehouse, as well as Clara Township, Sharon Township, and Oswayo Township. McKean County's Ceres Township is also within district's service boundaries.
Wellsboro Area High School is a small, rural public high school located at 225 Nichols Street, Wellsboro, Pennsylvania, USA. In 2015, enrollment was reported as 469 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 35% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 17% of pupils received special education services, while 9% of pupils were identified as gifted. Wellsboro Area High School employed 38 teachers. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. Wellsboro Area High School is the sole high school operated by the Wellsboro Area School District.