High school (North America)

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High school, in the United States and Canada, is the education students receive from approximately 14 to 18 years old. Most comparable to secondary schools, high schools generally deliver phase three of the ISCED model of education. High schools have subject-based classes. The name high school is applied in other countries, but no universal generalization can be made as to the age range, financial status, or ability level of the pupils accepted. In North America, most high schools include grades nine through twelve and students attend them following junior high school (middle school). [1]

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

Canada Country in North America

Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Secondary school A building and/or organization where secondary education is provided

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system.

Contents

History

The first taxpayer-funded public school in the United States was in Dedham. First school.jpg
The first taxpayer-funded public school in the United States was in Dedham.

The first institution labeled as a "high school" was Edinburgh's Royal High School in Scotland, which was founded in 1505. The Royal High School was used as a model for the first public high school in the United States, Boston Latin School, founded in Boston, Massachusetts in 1635. [2] [3] [4] Boston Latin School was initially a private school, so although it did become the first public high school, a school system in Dedham, Massachusetts was the first to be supported by public taxation. [5] The schools prepared boys for the law or the church. The length of the school day varied with the seasons, but there was a shortage of Latin speakers available to become teachers because the job was unattractive due to low status and low pay. The colony ordered in the English Protestant Tutor, retitled as The New England Primer, to be used as a textbook, and the tuition was written by and had a Calvinist tone. [6] This was the start of a secondary education system.

Royal High School, Edinburgh

The Royal High School (RHS) of Edinburgh is a co-educational school administered by the City of Edinburgh Council. The school was founded in 1128 and is one of the oldest schools in Scotland. It serves 1,200 pupils drawn from four feeder primaries in the north-west of the city: Blackhall primary school, Clermiston primary school, Cramond and Davidson's Mains.

Scotland Country in Northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain, with a border with England to the southeast, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

Education in the United States is provided in public, private, and home schools.

In 1642, the Massachusetts Bay Colony was able to pass a law to require parents to make sure that their children were able to read, which required some form of elementary education. In 1647, Massachusetts again passed a law that required communities to establish some type of public schooling system. Elementary schools were to be formed in every town with 50 or more families, and every town with at least 100 families would have to provide a Latin Grammar School. [7] [8]

Over a century later in 1779, Thomas Jefferson proposed the opening of new secondary schools to provide segregated secondary schools with different tracks in his words for "the laboring(sic) and the learned." The new academies would be practical in nature but allow a few of the working class to advance by "raking a few geniuses from the rubbish." At this time, the colonies were planning to break away from Lord North government in Britain, and working up a constitution which would define the white colonists' freedoms and rights. In November 1783, the American colonies stood on their own.

Thomas Jefferson Third President of the United States

Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights, motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level.

Frederick North, Lord North Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782

Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford,, better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782. He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence. He also held a number of other cabinet posts, including Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer.

In 1785, before the U.S. Constitution was ratified, the Continental Congress passed a law calling for a survey of the "Northwest Territory" which included what was to become the state of Ohio. The law created "townships", reserving a portion of each township for a local school. [8] Under the constitution, education was devolved to individual states.

Continental Congress convention of delegates that became the governing body of the United States

The Continental Congress was initially a convention of delegates from several British American colonies at the height of the American Revolution, who spoke and acted collectively for the people of the Thirteen Colonies that ultimately became the United States of America. After declaring the colonies independent from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1776, it acted as the provisional governing structure for the collective United States, while most government functions remained in the individual states. The term most specifically refers to the First Continental Congress of 1774 and the Second Continental Congress of 1775–1781. More broadly, it also refers to the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–1789, thus covering the three congressional bodies of the Thirteen Colonies and the United States that met between 1774 and the inauguration of a new government in 1789 under the United States Constitution.

The Pennsylvania state constitution, written in 1790, calls for free public education, but only for poor children, assuming that the rich will pay for their own children's schooling. [8] In 1805, the New York Public School Society was formed by the wealthy to provide education to the poor. These schools were run on the Lancasterian system, in which one "master" taught hundreds of students in a single room. The masters would give wrote lessons to the older students, who would then pass it down to the younger students. Society was moving from an agrarian model with small independent plots to an industrial one, where workers needed to be literate and numerate. Lancastrian schools emphasized discipline and obedience: qualities that factory owners needed in their workers. [8]

Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society and the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values. It stresses the superiority of a simpler rural life as opposed to the complexity of city life.

An 1817 Boston Town Meeting petitioned for the establishment of a system of free public primary schools. The main support came from local merchants, businessmen, and wealthier artisans, while many wage earners opposed it because they knew they would be paying for it through income taxation. In spite of this, Boston Latin School became public in 1820. This was the first public high school in the United States. Seven years later, a state law in Massachusetts made all grades of public school open to all pupils, free of charge. [8]

However, in the slave-owning states, things were different. Even after public schools were being opened up to all ages in Massachusetts, in the 1830s, it was illegal in southern states to teach black children to read. High schools were out of the question. [8] After many years of advocacy, in 1957, federal court ordered the integration of Little Rock, Arkansas public schools. The governor sent in troops to physically prevent nine African American students from enrolling at all-white Central High School. Though, this decision was overturned by the president. The same delay in equality in public high schools can be accounted for the general regarding of other groups as minorities in the US. [8]

A 'Typical' American high school

While there is no set standard for American high schools, some generalizations can be made about the majority. Schools are managed by local, elected school districts. There is a range in quality from basic education to more intellectually-stimulating environments for students aged approximately 14 to 18 years of age.

Pupils (students) enter at the age of 13 or 14 and pass through four years:

School years are normally around nine months long (from August or September to May or June), and are broken up into quarters or semesters. [9] College entry is controlled by many factors including Grade Point Average (GPA), and an elective SAT or ACT exam run by two non-profit organizations: the College Board and the ACT, respectively.

Smaller schools can educate less than 200 pupils total, while some teach over 4000 at any given time. [10]

A typical day

The typical high school day includes:

Focus

The high school's emphasis determined by the community and school district (is):

Curriculum

A high school curriculum is defined in terms of Carnegie Units, which approximate to 120 class contact hours within a year. This is one hour a day, five days a week for twenty-four weeks. Students who satisfactorily complete a unit are awarded a credit. [11] No two schools will be the same, and no two students will have the same classes, there are some general principles, however. Students can also be on different programs within the same school with Advanced/Honors, CP (College Preparatory), AP (Advanced Placement), and IB (International Baccalaureate) classes.

Students typically do four years of study, with eight core subjects and electives, both of which vary by school. Passing a course earns credit and students must earn at least 30 credits to graduate, among other requirements. Study halls are sometimes offered, which don't contribute to GPA or number of credits earned. [12]

Physical Education Requirements

2014 recommended federal standards for Physical Education are at least 225 minutes of P.E. week for middle school and high school. The standards involve:

Governance

Amenities, experiences, extracurriculars, and breadth of available courses is dependent on funding. This is made up of:

Media

High schools are depicted in many teenage-orientated films and television soap operas. Almost universally, these films fall into the comedy or social issues/drama genre categories.

Due to Californian labor laws, the actors used are young adults, who rarely look young and can no longer act like adolescents. Hollywood fails to demonstrate the insularity of High School life where the pupil assumes everything revolves around them. Since sex between even alleged teenagers runs the risk of being considered child pornography, teenage sex, pregnancy, and STDs are barely covered and then only indirectly. High school films from Hollywood rarely discuss the economic disparities between the social classes where the poor gravitate to the lower esteemed courses. [14]

Related Research Articles

Gymnasium (school) type of school providing advanced secondary education in Europe

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north, eastern and southern Europe.

Secondary education in the United States

Secondary education in the United States is the last seven years of statutory formal education grade 6 through grade 12. It occurs in two phases. The first is the ISCED lower secondary phase; a junior high school or middle school for students grade 6 through grade 8. The second is the ISCED upper secondary phase; the High School from grade 9 until grade 12. There is some debate over the optimum age of transfer, and variation in some the states.

State schools, called public schools in North America and many other countries, are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation.

Student council Student organization acting like a governing body in some respects

A student council is a curricular or extracurricular activity for students within elementary and secondary schools around the world. These councils are present in most public and private K-12 school systems across the United States, Canada, Greece, Australia and Asia. Student councils often serve to engage students in learning about democracy and leadership, as originally espoused by John Dewey in Democracy and Education (1917).

'Seventh grade', equivalent to Year 8 in England and Wales, and S1 in Scotland, is a year or level of education in many nations around the world. The seventh grade is the seventh school year and comes after 6th grade or elementary school. Students are usually 12–13 years old.

Richland Senior High School

Richland High School is a small, rural public high school located at One Academic Avenue, Johnstown, Pennsylvania. In 2014, Richland High School enrollment was reported as 788 pupils in 7th through 12th grades, with 22.6% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 8.6% of pupils received special education services, while 2% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 43 teachers. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2% of the teachers were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The school is not a Title I school. Richland High School is the sole high school operated by Richland School District.

John D. OBryant School of Mathematics & Science

The John D. O'Bryant School of Mathematics and Science, formerly known as Boston Technical High School is a college preparatory public exam school along with Boston Latin School that specializes in science, technology, engineering and mathematics ("STEM") in the city of Boston, Massachusetts, and is named for one of Boston's prominent African-American educators John D. O'Bryant. The school is currently located on 55 Malcolm X Boulevard in the neighborhood of Roxbury, Massachusetts. With a student body of 1,500 7th–12th graders, this school is part of the Boston Public Schools. The school was named a 2010 Blue Ribbon School of Excellence, the US Department of Education's highest award. In 2014 the school was awarded Gold by the US News Best High School Ranking, indicating that it is one of the top public high schools in the country.

Lower Dauphin High School

Lower Dauphin High School is a midsized, suburban, public high school located in Hummelstown, Pennsylvania. It is part of the Lower Dauphin School District, serving Hummelstown, East Hanover, South Hanover, Londonderry Township, and Conewago Township. In 2013, enrollment was reported as 1,176 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 13% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 15% of pupils received special education services, while 5.9% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 69 teachers. Per the PA Department of Education 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The school is not a federally designated Title I school.

Boiling Springs High School (Pennsylvania)

Boiling Springs High School (BSHS) is a small, rural, public high school in the historic town of Boiling Springs, Pennsylvania. It is part of the South Middleton School District. Boiling Springs High School is the sole high school operated by the District. In 2013, enrollment was reported as 671 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 12% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 14.6% of pupils received special education services, while 6% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 58 teachers. Per the PA Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

Newport High School (Pennsylvania)

Newport High School is a diminutive, rural, public high school located in Newport, Pennsylvania. It is part of the Newport School District. Newport High School serves: the borough of Newport; Buffalo Township, Howe Township, Juniata Township, Miller Township, and Oliver Township. In 2016, enrollment continued to decline with just 311 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 47% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 22% of pupils received special education services, while 2.89% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed teachers. Per the PA Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The district provides Newport Cyber Academy Program (NCAP) to its high school pupils. Student who choose this option continue to have access to all school activities including extracurriculars.

Dallas High School (Dallas, Pennsylvania)

Dallas High School is a public high school located in Dallas, Pennsylvania, United States. In 2016, enrollment was reported as 888 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 19% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 14.6% of pupils received special education services, while less than 1% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 58 teachers. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2% of the teachers were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. Dallas High School is the sole high school operated by the Dallas School District. The school is not a federally designated Title I school.

Gettysburg Area High School

Gettysburg Area High School is a public high school located in the borough of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, United States. It serves students from central and southern Adams County, and is the sole high school operated by the Gettysburg Area School District. Gettysburg Area High School is located at 1130 Old Harrisburg Road. In 2016, enrollment was reported as 1067 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 36.5% of pupils eligible for free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 11.7% of pupils received special education services, while 4% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 76 teachers. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The school's mascot is a Warrior.

Southern Columbia Area High School

Southern Columbia Area High School is a small, rural public high school located in Catawissa, Pennsylvania. It is the sole high school operated by Southern Columbia Area School District. In 2013, Southern Columbia Area High School reported an enrollment of 437 pupils in grades 9th through 12th, with 23.5% of its pupils eligible for a federal free or reduced price lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally 13.7% of pupils received special education services, while 6.6% of pupils were identified as being gifted. The school employed 33 teachers. According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2% of its teachers were rated "Non-Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB).

Mifflinburg Area High School

Mifflinburg Area High School is a small, rural, public high school located at 75 Market Street, Mifflinburg, in Union County, Pennsylvania. It is the sole high school operated by the Mifflinburg Area School District. In 2016, enrollment declined further to 553 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 30% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 12.8% of pupils received special education services, while % of pupils were identified as gifted. Per the PA Department of Education 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

Susquenita High School

Susquenita High School is a small, rural, public high school located in Duncannon, Perry County, Pennsylvania. It is the sole high school operated by the Susquenita School District. Susquenita High School serves the boroughs of Marysville, New Buffalo, and Duncannon. It also serves: Watts Township, Wheatfield Township, Penn Township, and Rye Township, as well as Reed Township in Dauphin County. In 2016, enrollment declined further to 528 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 28% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 16.6% of pupils received special education services, while 4% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed teachers. Per the PA Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

Montgomery Area High School

Montgomery Area High School is a diminutive public high school in Montgomery, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. It is the sole high school operated by the Montgomery Area School District. Montgomery Area High School serves: the borough of Montgomery as well as Clinton Township, Brady Township, and Washington Township in Lycoming County. The Montgomery Area School Board converted the high school to a joint junior and senior high school for 2014-15, due to low enrollment.

Montoursville Area High School

Montoursville Area High School is a small suburban/rural public high school located at 100 North Arch Street, Montoursville, Pennsylvania. It is the sole high school operated by the Montoursville Area School District. The School serves the borough of Montoursville, plus the townships of Fairfield, Upper Fairfield, Eldred, Gamble, Cascade, and Plunketts Creek. In 2013, Montoursville Area School District enrollment was reported as 598 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 22% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 13% of pupils received special education services, while 2.8% of pupils were identified as gifted. The School employed 44 teachers in the 2012-2013 school year. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

Waynesboro Area Senior High School

The Waynesboro Area Senior HIgh School is a midsized, suburban public high school located in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. It is the sole high school operated by the Waynesboro Area School District. It serves the boroughs of Waynesboro and Mont Alto, as well as all of Washington Township and Quincy Township, and a portion of Guilford Township. In 2013, enrollment was reported as 1,272 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 24% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 9% of pupils received special education services, while 1% of pupils were identified as gifted. Waynesboro Area Senior High School employed 87 teachers. Per the PA Department of Education 1% of the teachers were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

Susquehannock High School

Susquehannock High School is a mid-sized suburban public high school in Glen Rock, Pennsylvania. It is the sole high school operated by the Southern York County School District. In 2014, enrollment was reported as declining to 946 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 19% of pupils eligible for a free lunch or reduced-price lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 12.6% of pupils received special education services, while 5% of pupils were identified as gifted. Susquehannock High School employed 70 teachers. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

Schuylkill Haven High School

Schuylkill Haven High School is a small rural public high school located at 120 Haven Street in Schuylkill Haven, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. In 2015, enrollment was reported as 511 pupils in 8th through 12th grades, with 42% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. Additionally, 20.9% of pupils received special education services, while 3.9% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 34 teachers. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. This is the sole high school operated by Schuylkill Haven Area School District.

References

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  5. Maria Sacchetti (2005-11-27). "Schools vie for honour of being the oldest". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2006-11-26.
  6. Singer, Alan (7 September 2015). "Welcome Back! A Brief History of Education in the United States (Part 1)". Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
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  13. Iowa Chiro Clinic, 2014
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