Secondary education

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High school in Bratislava, Slovakia (Gamca) Gymnazium Grosslingova.jpg
High school in Bratislava, Slovakia (Gamča)

Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education (less common junior secondary education) is considered the second and final phase of basic education, and level 3 (upper) secondary education is the stage before tertiary education. Every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. [1] Like primary education, in most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19.

The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education maintained by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). It is a member of the international family of economic and social classifications of the United Nations.

According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), basic education comprises the two stages primary education and lower secondary education.

Tertiary education advanced level of education, usually for adults

Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education. The World Bank, for example, defines tertiary education as including universities as well as trade schools and colleges. Higher education is taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, while vocational education beyond secondary education is known as further education in the United Kingdom, or continuing education in the United States.

Contents

Since 1989, education has been seen as a basic human right for a child; Article 28, of the Convention on the Rights of the Child states that primary education should be free and compulsory while different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, should be available and accessible to every child. The terminology has proved difficult, and there was no universal definition before ISCED divided the period between primary education and university into junior secondary education and upper secondary education.

Convention on the Rights of the Child treaty about the rights of children

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children. The Convention defines a child as any human being under the age of eighteen, unless the age of majority is attained earlier under national legislation.

In classical and medieval times secondary education was provided by the church for the sons of nobility and to boys preparing for universities and the priesthood. As trade required navigational and scientific skills the church reluctantly expanded the curriculum and widened the intake. With the Reformation the state wrestled the control of learning from the church, and with Comenius and John Locke education changed from being repetition of Latin text to building up knowledge in the child. Education was for the few. Up to the middle of the 19th century, secondary schools were organised to satisfy the needs of different social classes with the labouring classes getting 4 years, the merchant class 5 years and the elite getting 7 years. The rights to a secondary education were codified after 1945, and countries are still working to achieve the goal of mandatory and free secondary education for all youth under 19.

Reformation Schism within the Christian Church in the 16th century

The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in the sixteenth-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic Church and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholic Church and the nascent Luther until the 1521 Edict of Worms. The edict condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today.

John Locke English philosopher and physician

John Locke was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.

Definition

Secondary education is in most countries the phase in the education continuum responsible for the development of the young during their adolescence, the most rapid phase of their physical, mental and emotional growth. It is at this very education level, particularly in its first cycle, where values and attitudes formed at primary school are more firmly ingrained alongside the acquisition of knowledge and skills.

From UNESCO, Secondary Education Reform: Towards a Convergence of Knowledge Acquisition and Skills Development, 2005 [2]

The 1997 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) describes seven levels that can be used to compare education internationally. Within a country these can be implemented in different ways, with different age levels and local denominations. The seven levels are: [1]

Primary education First stage of formal education

Primary education, the English equivalent of elementary education, is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary school. (The first year of primary school, reception, is part of the. Primary education takes place in primary school or first and middle school depending on the location. There are currently only two counties actively keeping their first and middle schools.

Within this system, Levels 1 and 2 – that is, primary education and lower secondary – together form basic education . Beyond that, national governments may attach the label of secondary education to Levels 2 through 4 together, Levels 2 and 3 together, or Level 2 alone. These level definitions were put together for statistical purposes, and to allow the gathering of comparative data nationally and internationally. They were approved by the UNESCO General Conference at its 29th session in November 1997. Though they may be dated, they do provide a universal set of definitions [1] and remain unchanged in the 2011 update. [3]

The start of lower secondary education is characterised by the transition from the single-class-teacher, who delivers all content to a cohort of pupils, to one where content is delivered by a series of subject specialists. Its educational aim is to complete provision of basic education (thereby completing the delivery of basic skills) and to lay the foundations for lifelong learning. [1]

Lower secondary education is likely to show these criteria:

The end of lower secondary education often coincides with the end of compulsory education in countries where that exists. [1]

(Upper) secondary education starts on the completion of basic education, which also is defined as completion of lower secondary education. The educational focus is varied according to the student's interests and future direction. Education at this level is usually voluntary.

(Upper) secondary education is likely to show these criteria:

More subjects may be dropped, and increased specialism occurs. Completion of (upper) secondary education provides the entry requirements to Level 5 tertiary education, the entry requirements to technical or vocational education (Level 4, non tertiary course), or direct entry into the workplace.

In 2012 the ISCED published a further work on education levels where it codified particular paths and redefined the tertiary levels. Lower secondary education and (upper) secondary education could last between 2 and 5 years, and the transition between two often would be when students were allowed some subject choice. [3]

Terminology for secondary schools varies by country, and the exact meaning of any of these varies.[ citation needed ] Secondary schools may also be called academies , colleges , gymnasiums , high schools , lyceums , middle schools , preparatory schools , sixth-form colleges , upper schools , or vocational schools , among other names. For further information about nomenclature, see the section below by country.

History

A form of education for adolescents became necessary in all societies that had an alphabet and engaged in commerce. In Western Europe, formal secondary education can be traced back to the Athenian educational reforms of 320BC. Though their civilisation was eclipsed and they were enslaved, Hellenistic Athenian teachers were valued in the Roman system. The Roman and Hellenistic schools of rhetoric taught the seven liberal arts and sciences – grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy – which were regarded as a preparation for the study at a tertiary level of theology, law and medicine. Boys would have been prepared to enter these schools by private tutors at home. Girls would have only received tuition at home. [4] When the Romans retreated, all traces of civilisation were erased.

England provides a good case study. When Augustine of Canterbury brought Christianity there in 597, no schools existed. He needed trained priests to conduct church services and boys to sing in the choir. He had to create both the grammar schools that taught Latin, to enable the English to study for the priesthood, and song schools (choir schools) that trained the 'sons of gentlefolk' to sing in cathedral choirs. [5] [4] In the case of Canterbury (597) and Rochester (604), both still exist. Bede in his Ecclesiastical history (732) tells that the Canterbury school taught more than the 'intended reading and understanding of Latin', but 'the rules of metric, astronomy and the computus as well as the works of the saints' Even at this stage,there was tension, as the church was worried that knowledge of Latin would give the student access to non-Christian texts that it would not wish them to read. [4]

Over the centuries leading to the renaissance and reformation the church was the main provider of secondary education. Various invasions and schisms within the controlling church challenged the focus of the schools, and the curriculum and language of instruction waxed and waned. From 1100, With the growth of the towns, grammar schools 'free' of the church were founded, and some church grammar schools were handed over to the laïty. Universities were founded that didn't just train students for the priesthood. [4]

Renaissance and reformation

Whereas in mainland Europe the renaissance preceded the reformation, local conditions in England caused the reformation to come first. The reformation was about allowing the laïty to interpret the Bible in their own way without the intervention of priests, and preferably in the vernacular. This stimulated the foundation of free Grammar schools- who searched for a less constrained curriculum. Colonialisation required navigation, mensuration, languages and administrative skills. The laïty wanted these taught to their sons. After Gutenberg1455 [6] had mastered moveable metal type printing and Tyndale had translated the Bible into English (1525), [7] Latin became a skill reserved for the catholic church and sons conservative nobility. Schools started to be set up for the sons of merchants in Europe and the colonies too- for example Boston Latin Grammar School (1635).

Comenius (1592–1670), [8] a Moravian protestant proposed a new model of education- where ideas were developed from the familiar to the theoretical rather than through repetition, where languages were taught in the vernacular and supported universal education. In his Didactica Magna (Great Didactic), [9] he outlined a system of schools that is the exact counterpart of many western school systems: kindergarten, elementary school, secondary school, six-form college, university. [10] Locke's Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693) stressed the importance of a broader intellectual training, moral development and physical hardening. .

The grammar schools of the period can be categorised in three groups: the nine leading schools, seven of them boarding institutions which maintained the traditional curriculum of the classics, and mostly served 'the aristocracy and the squirearchy' ; most of the old endowed grammar schools serving a broad social base in their immediate localities which also stuck to the old curriculum; the grammar schools situated in the larger cities, serving the families of merchants and tradesmen who embraced change. [4]

Industrialisation

During the 18th century their social base widened and their curriculum developed, particularly in mathematics and the natural sciences. But this was not universal education and was self-selecting by wealth [4] The industrial revolution changed that. Industry required an educated workforce where all workers needed to have completed a basic education. In France, Louis XIV, wrestled the control of education from the Jesuits, Condorcet set up Collèges for universal lower secondary education throughout the country, then Napoleon set up a regulated system of Lycee. [11] In England, Robert Peel's Factory Act of 1802 required an employer to provide instruction in reading, writing and arithmetic during at least the first four years of the seven years of apprenticeship. The state had accepted responsibility for the basic education of the poor. The provision of school places remained inadequate, so an Order in Council dated 10 April 1839 created the Committee of the Privy Council on Education. [12]

Universal Education

There was considerable opposition to the idea that children of all classes should receive basic education, all the initiatives such as industrial schools and Sunday schools were initially a private or church initiative. With the Great Exhibition of 1851, it became clear just how far behind the English education system had fallen. [12]

Three reports were commissioned to examine the education of upper, middle and labouring class children. The Clarendon Commission sought to improve the nine Great Public Schools. The Taunton Commission looked at the 782 endowed grammar schools (private and public). They found varying quality and a patchy geographical coverage, with two thirds of all towns not having any secondary school. There was no clear conception of the purpose of secondary education. There were only thirteen girls' schools and their tuition was superficial, unorganised and unscientific. They recommended a system of first-grade schools targeted at a leaving age of 18 as preparation for upper and upper-middle class boys entering university, second-grade targeted at a leaving age of 16 for boys preparing for the army or the newer professions, and third-grade targeted at a leaving age of 14 for boys of small tenant farmers, small tradesmen, and superior artisans. This resulted in the 1869 Endowed Schools Act which advocated that girls should enjoy the same education as boys. [13]

The Newcastle Commission inquired "into the state of public education in England and to consider and report what measures, if any, are required for the extension of sound and cheap elementary instruction to all classes of the people". It produced 1861 Newcastle Report and this led to the 1870 Elementary Education Act (Forster Act). [13]

The school boards set up by the 1870 Elementary Education Act (Forster Act) and were stopped from providing secondary education by the Cockerton Judgement of 1899. The school leaving age at this time was 10. The Judgement prompted the 1902 Education Act (Balfour Act). Compulsory education was extended to 12. The new Local Education Authorities (LEA)s that were formed from the school boards; started to open Higher Grade Elementary Schools (ISCED Level2) or county schools to supplement the endowed grammar schools. These LEAs were allowed to build second-grade secondary schools that in the main became the future secondary modern schools. [14]

In the "1904 Regulations for Secondary Schools", the Board of Education determined that secondary schools should offer a:

a four year subject-based course leading to a certificate in English language and literature, geography, history, a foreign language, mathematics, science, drawing, manual work, physical training, and, for girls, housewifery. [14]

The Education Act 1918 (Fisher Act) extended compulsory full-time education to 14, and recommended compulsory part-time education from 14–18. The Hadlow report, "Education the Adolescent" (1926) proposed that there should be a break point at eleven, establishing primary schools and secondary schools. [14]

The United Nations, founded in 1947, was committed to education for all but the definition was difficult to formulate. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) declared that elementary and fundamental education, which it didn't define, was a right to be enjoyed by all. The Education Act 1944 (Butler Act) made sweeping changes to the funding of state education using the tripartite system, but wasn't allowed to tackle private schools. It introduced the GCE 'O'level at 16, and the 'A' at 18, but only raised the school leaving age until 15, making the exam inaccessible to the majority. But one year of ISCED Level 3 (Upper) secondary education was mandatory and free. [15]

In 1972 the school leaving was raised to 16. The Education and Skills Act 2008, when it came into force in the 2013 academic year, initially required participation in some form of education or training until the school year in which the child turned 17, followed by the age being raised to the young person's 18th birthday in 2015. [16] This was referred to as raising the "participation age" [17] to distinguish it from the school leaving age which remains at 16. [18] Thus the UK is following the ISCED Level 3 (Upper) secondary education guideline.

Right to a secondary education

Schoolgirls in their school uniform in Delhi, 2016. Indian schoolgirls.jpg
Schoolgirls in their school uniform in Delhi, 2016.

The United Nations was strong in its commitment to education for all but fell into linguistic difficulty defining that right.

“Article I: Purposes and functions 1. The purpose of the Organization is to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations.”

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) declared that elementary and fundamental education was a right to be enjoyed by all, but again could not define either elementary and fundamental education.

Article 26 :(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

It was assumed that elementary education was basic education, the entitlement for children- and fundamental education was a right for the working man, but for a lawyer the definition is neither qualitative (stating what education means) or quantitative saying when it starts and when it is completed. The term secondary is not defined or mentioned. Together this has enabled countries to terminate free, compulsory, basic education at 11 or only continue education past eleven to boys. [19]

Article 28, of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) stated that primary education should be free and compulsory while different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, should be available and accessible to every child. Free education should be provided and financial assistance offered in case of need. [20] In 1990, at Jomtien again tried to define the content basic education and how it should be delivered. ‘Basic education’ is defined as ‘action designed to meet ‘basic learning needs’. ‘primary schooling’ is considered as ‘the main delivery system of basic education’. [21] Which is explained in Principals for Action that:

addressing the basic learning needs of all means: early childhood care and development opportunities; relevant, quality primary schooling or equivalent out-of-school education for children; and literacy, basic knowledge and life skills training for youth and adults.’ [21]

The assumption being made that basic knowledge and life skills training for youth was the function of secondary education. This was codified by the ISCED documents. [22] The Dakar Framework for Action 2010 goal 2 states: Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory (primary in the sense basic) education of good quality. The Dakar Framework for Action 2010 goal 5 states: Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality. [23]

Malala Yousafzai, Nobel Peace Prize winner in a said in a 2017 interview that:

“My goal is to make sure every child, girl and boy, they get the opportunity to go to school." “It is their basic human right, so I will be working on that and I will never stop until I see the last child going to school.” [24]

Future directions for secondary education

UNESCO believes that in order to prepare young people for life and work in a rapidly changing world, secondary-level education systems need to be re-oriented to impart a broad repertoire of life-skills. These skills should include the key generic competencies, non occupation-specific practical capabilities, ICT, the ability to learn independently, to work in teams, entrepreneurship and civic responsibility. [25]

They may be best instilled through a shared foundational learning period and by deferring the directing of students into academic and vocational streams for as long as possible, and then there should be flexibility to ensure the free movement of students between the streams depending on their aptitudes and inclinations. Accreditation in one stream should have equal recognition in the other as well as for access to higher education. This will equip young people with multiple skills so that they are prepared to enter and re-enter the workforce several times in their working lives, as wage employees or self-employed entrepreneurs, and to re-train themselves when their skills become obsolete. [25]

It recognizes that there is no single model that will suit all countries, or even all communities in a given country. Secondary-level education policy should be under continuous review to keep in step with scientific and technological, economic and societal change. [25]

By country

Each country has developed the form of education most appropriate for them. There is an attempt to compare the effectiveness by using the results from the PISA that, each third year, assesses the scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading of a representative sample of 5000 fifteen year olds from each country. [26]

Names for secondary schools by country

See also

Related Research Articles

Primary school School in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve

A primary school, junior school or elementary school is a school for children from about four to eleven years old, in which they receive primary or elementary education. It can refer to both the physical structure (buildings) and the organisation. Typically it comes after preschool, and before secondary school.

Vocational education studies that prepares a person for a specific occupation

Vocational education is education that prepares people to work as a technician or in various jobs such as a trade or a craft. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as career and technical education. A vocational school is a type of educational institution specifically designed to provide vocational education.

Education in the Netherlands education system of the Netherlands

Education in the Netherlands is characterized by division: education is oriented toward the needs and background of the pupil. Education is divided over schools for different age groups, some of which are divided in streams for different educational levels. Schools are furthermore divided in public, special (religious), and general-special (neutral) schools, although there are also a few private schools. The Dutch grading scale runs from 1 to 10 (outstanding). People from other countries tend to misinterpret these grades, thinking that a score of 10 is equivalent to an A, a 9 to a B, and so on. However, this is not the case. The grade 10 is only given when the test, assignment, etc. is perfect or without mistakes. You can compare it to a 100%. A 9 is given when you have 90% and so on.

Gymnasium (school) type of school providing advanced secondary education in Europe

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north, eastern and southern Europe.

A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept, regulation and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, and sometimes within, countries.

Secondary school A building and/or organization where secondary education is provided

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system.

Sixth grade is a year of education for students ages 11–12. In many nations, it is the first year of middle school or the last year of elementary school.

Eighth grade is the eighth post-kindergarten year of formal education in the US, and is typically the last year of middle school. In England, the equivalent is Year 9. In Brazil, the equivalent is nono ano, and in Scotland the equivalent is S2. Usually, students are 13–14 years old in this stage of education.

Ninth grade, freshman year, or grade 9 is the ninth post-kindergarten year of school education in some school systems. Ninth grade is often the first school year of high school in the United States, or the last year of middle/junior high school. In some countries Grade 9 is the second year of high school. Students are usually 14–15 years old. In the United States, it is often called Freshman year. In England and Wales, the equivalent educational year is Year Ten. In Scotland the equivalent educational year is Third Year or S3, as this is the third year of compulsory secondary schooling.

Twelfth grade, senior year, or grade 12 is the final year of secondary school in most of North America. In other regions it is also equivalently referred to as class 12 or Year 13. In most countries students then graduate at either ages 18 or 19. Some countries have a thirteenth grade, while other countries do not have a 12th grade/year at all. Twelfth grade is typically the last year of high school; graduation year.

Education in Poland

Compulsory education in Poland starts at the age of six from the mandatory "0" reception class. At the age of seven kids start the 1st grade of primary school lasting for 8 years and finished with an exam. Afterwards, until 2017, pupils have joined the mandatory junior high school for three years and at the end, take another compulsory exam.

Education in Hungary educational system

Education in Hungary is predominantly public, run by the Ministry of Human Resources. Preschool kindergarten education is compulsory and provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is also compulsory until age of sixteen. Primary education usually lasts for eight years. Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the Gymnasium enrols the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the secondary vocational schools for intermediate students lasts four years and the technical school prepares pupils for vocational education and the world of work. The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) rated 13–14-year-old pupils in Hungary among the bests in the world for maths and science.

Education in Norway is mandatory for all children aged 6–16.

Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes seven levels of education in its International Standard Classification of Education system. UNESCO's International Bureau of Education maintains a database of country-specific education systems and their stages.

Education in Colombia includes nursery school, elementary school, high school, technical instruction and university education.

The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 13–14th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded. The first primer in the Estonian language was published in 1575. The oldest university is the University of Tartu which was established by the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf in 1632. In 1919, university courses were first taught in the Estonian language.

The Spanish Baccalaureate is the post-16 stage of education in Spain, comparable to the A Levels/Higher (Scottish) in the UK, the French Baccalaureate in France or the International Baccalaureate. It follows the ESO. After taking the Bachillerato, a student may enter vocational training or take the "Selectividad" tests for admission to university.

References

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  2. Iwamoto 2005.
  3. 1 2 ISCED 2012.
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  6. Man, John (2002). Gutenberg: How One Man Remade the World with Words . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. ISBN   0-471-21823-5.
  7. Partridge, AC (1973), English Biblical Translation, London: Andrè Deutsch, pp. 38–39, 52–52.
  8. Daniel Murphy, Comenius: A Critical Reassessment of his Life and Works (1995), p. 8 and p. 43.
  9. Comenius. "Didactica Magna". Archived from the original on 10 October 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  10. Wikisource-logo.svg  Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Comenius, Johann Amos"  . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  11. Markham, David J. "The Revolution, Napoleon, and Education". www.napoleon-series.org. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  12. 1 2 Gillard 2017, Section 2.
  13. 1 2 Gillard 2017, Section 3.
  14. 1 2 3 Gillard 2017, Section 4.
  15. Gillard 2017, Section 5.
  16. Raising the Participation Age – Timeline HMSO, 24 August 2012
  17. Raising the Participation Age (RPA) – Myth Buster for Young People HMSO, 29 July 2013
  18. School leaving age HMSO, 19 November 2014
  19. Basic Education 2007.
  20. Basic Education 2007, p. 25.
  21. 1 2 Basic Education 2007, p. 6.
  22. Basic Education 2007, p. 8.
  23. Basic Education 2007, p. 14.
  24. Association, Press (11 March 2017). "Malala Yousafzai receives offer to study at UK university". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  25. 1 2 3 ED-2005/WS/37 2005.
  26. Berger, Kathleen. Invitation to The Life Span (second ed.). worth. ISBN   978-1-4641-7205-2.

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