Middle school

Last updated

A middle school (also known as intermediate school, junior high school, or lower secondary school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept, regulation and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, and sometimes within, countries.

Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes seven levels of education in its International Standard Classification of Education system. UNESCO's International Bureau of Education maintains a database of country-specific education systems and their stages.

Primary school School in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve

A primary school is a school for children from about four to eleven years old, in which they receive primary or elementary education. It can refer to both the physical structure (buildings) and the organisation. Typically it comes after preschool, and before secondary school.

Secondary school A building and/or organization where secondary education is provided

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system.

Contents

Afghanistan

In Afghanistan, middle school consists of the primary school grades 5,6, and 7 and the secondary school grade 8.

Afghanistan A landlocked south-central Asian country

Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China. Much of its 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range at the western end of the Himalayas, separating the Amu Darya and Indus valleys. Kabul is the capital and largest city.

Albania

In Albania, middle school is included in the primary education which lasts 9 years and attendance is mandatory.

Albania country in Southeast Europe

Albania, officially the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south and a maritime border with Greece and Italy to the west.

Algeria

In Algeria, a middle school includes 4 grades; 6, 7, 8 and 9 consisting of students from ages 11 to 14 or 12 to 15.

Algeria Country in North Africa

Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, and the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes (counties). It has the highest human development index of all the non-island African countries.

Argentina

The ciclo básico of secondary education (ages 12–16) is roughly equivalent to middle school.

Australia

Most regions of Australia do not have middle schools, as students go directly from primary school (for years K–6) to secondary school (years 7–12, usually referred to as high school). [1]

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

As an alternative to the middle school model, some secondary schools divided their grades into "junior high school" (years 7, 8, 9 and 10) and "senior high school" (years 11 and 12). Some have three levels, "junior" (years 7 and 8), "intermediate" (years 9 and 10), and "senior" (years 11 and 12).

In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of

The first middle school established in Australia was The Armidale School, [2] in Armidale (approximately 370 km (230 mi) north of Sydney, 360 km (220 mi) SSW of Brisbane and approximately 140 km (87 mi) due west of Coffs Harbour on the coast). Other schools have since followed this trend.

The Armidale School

The Armidale School is an independent Anglican co-educational early learning, primary and secondary day and boarding school, located in Armidale, on the New England Tablelands of northern New South Wales, Australia. Administration of the schools is formalised as a company limited by guarantee that operates under the Corporations Act.

Sydney Metropolis in Australia

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.

Brisbane capital city of Queensland, Australia

Brisbane is the capital of and the most populated city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of approximately 2.5 million, and the South East Queensland metropolitan region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3.6 million.

The Northern Territory has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 (approximate age 13–15) and high school year 10–12 (approximate age 16–18). [3]

Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools. The middle schools cover years 5 to 8.[ citation needed ]

Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, middle school is not separated like other countries. Generally schools are from class 1 to class 10. It means lower primary (1–5), upper primary (6–10). From class 6–8 is thought as middle school. Grades 1,2,3,4 and 5 are said to be primary school while all the classes from 6 to 9 are considered high school (as middle school and high school are not considered separate) while 10–12 is called college.

Bolivia

There aren't middle schools in Bolivia since 1994. [4] Students aged 11–15 attend the last years of elementary education or the first years of secondary education.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

In Bosnia and Herzegovina "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). "Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.

Brazil

In Brazil, middle school is a mandatory stage that precedes High School (Ensino Médio) called "Ensino Fundamental II" consisting of grades 6 to 9, ages 11 to 14.

Canada

In Canada, the terms "Middle School" and "Junior High School" are both used, depending on which grades the school caters to. [5] Junior high schools tend to include only grades 7, 8, and sometimes 9 (some older schools with the name 'carved in concrete' still use "Junior High" as part of their name, although grade nine is now missing), whereas middle schools are usually grades 6–8 or only grades 7–8 or 6–7 (i.e. around ages 11–14), varying from area to area and also according to population vs. building capacity.

Another common model is grades 5–8. Alberta, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island junior high schools (the term "Middle School" is not commonly used) include only grades 7–9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In some places students go from elementary school to secondary school, meaning the elementary school covers to the end of Grade 8.

In Ontario, the term "Middle School" and "Senior Public School" (sometimes just grades 7 and 8) are used, with the latter being used particularly in the Old Toronto and Scarborough sections of Toronto plus in Mississauga, Brampton and Kitchener-Waterloo. In many smaller Ontario cities and in some parts of larger cities, most elementary schools serve junior kindergarten to grade 8 meaning there are no separate Middle Schools buildings, while in some cities (such as Hamilton) specific schools do serve the intermediate grades (i.e. Grades 6–8 or Grades 7–8) but are still called "Elementary" or "Public" schools with no recognition of the grades they serve in their name.

Quebec uses a grade system that is different from those of the other provinces. In Quebec there is no Middle school section. The Secondary level has five grades starting after Elementary Grade 6. These are called Secondary I to Secondary V.

Chile

There aren't middle schools in Chile. Students aged 11 to 16 attend the last years of educación básica (basic education, until age 14) or the first years of educación media (middle education, equivalent to middle and high school).

China

In the People's Republic of China, secondary school (中学 zhōngxué, literally "middle school") has two stages, junior stage (初级中学 chū​jízhōngxué or 初中 chū​zhōng) (grades 7–9, some places are grades 6–9) and senior stage (高级中学 gāojízhōngxué or 高中 gāozhōng) (grades 10–12). The junior stage education, equivalent to a U.S. middle school, is the last 3 years of 9-year-compulsory education for all young citizens; while the senior stage education is optional but considered as a critical preparation for college education. Some middle schools have both stages while some have either of them.

The admissions for most students to enroll in upper secondary schools from junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in "Senior Middle School Entrance Exam", [note 1] which are held by local governments. Other students may bypass the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, or excellent daily performance in junior stage.

Colombia

Secondary education is divided into basic secondary (grades 6 to 9) and mid-secondary (grades 10 and 11). The students in basic secondary, roughly equivalent to middle school, are 11 or 12 to 15 or 16 years old.

Croatia

In Croatia "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–5 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 years). "Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.

Cuba

Secundaria básica (basic secondary, seventh through ninth grades) is the approximate equivalent of middle school in Cuba.

Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic after completing the nine-year elementary school (compulsory school attendance) a student may apply for high school or grammar school. [6]

Students have the opportunity to enroll in high school from Grade 5 or (less commonly[ citation needed ]) Grade 7 of elementary school, spending eight or six years respectively at high school that otherwise takes four years. Thus they can spend five years in elementary school, followed by eight in high school. The first four years of eight-year study program at high school are comparable with junior high school.[ citation needed ] Gymnasium focuses on a more advanced academic approach to education.[ citation needed ] All other types of high schools except gymnasiums and conservatories (e.g. lyceums) accept only students that finished Grade 9. [6]

Ecuador

The 4th and last level of educación general básica (ages 12–14) is roughly equivalent to middle school.

Egypt

In Egypt, middle school precedes high school. It is called the preparatory stage and consists of three phases: first preparatory in which students study more subjects than primary with different branches. For instance, algebra and geometry are taught instead of "mathematics." In the second preparatory phase, students study science, geography, the history of Egypt starting with pharaonic history, including Coptic history, Islamic history, and concluding with modern history. The students are taught two languages, Arabic and English. Middle school (preparatory stage) lasts for three years.

France

In France, the equivalent period to middle school is collège, which lasts four years from the Sixième ("sixth," the equivalent of the Canadian and American Grade 6) to the Troisième ("third," the equivalent of the Canadian and American Grade 9), accommodating pupils aged between 11 and 15. Upon completion of the latter, students are awarded a Brevet des collèges if they obtain a certain number of points on a series of tests in various subjects (French, history/ geography, mathematics, science/physics/chemistry), but also on a series of skills completed during the last year and on oral examinations (e.g. about cross-subjects themes they work on the latest years, the fourth year of collège). They can then enter high school (called lycée ), which lasts three years from the Seconde to the Terminale until the baccalauréat , and during which they can choose a general or a professional field of study. [7]

Georgia

In Georgia,the equivalent period to middle school covers ages 12 to 15, from the 7th grade to the 10th and guarantees basic educational degree certificate. [8]

Gibraltar

There are four middle schools in Gibraltar, following the English model of middle-deemed-primary schools accommodating pupils aged between 9 and 12 (National Curriculum Years 4 to 7). The schools were opened in 1972 when the government introduced comprehensive education in the country. [9]

Greece

In Greece, the equivalent period to middle school is called Gymnasium (Γυμνάσιο), which caters to children between the ages 13 and 15, i.e. 7th, 8th and 9th grade.

India

CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) classifies Middle School as Upper Primary (Class 5–8) [10]

There are other Central Boards/Councils such as CISCE (Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination).

Each state has its own State Board. Each has its own standards, which might be different from the Central Boards. [10]

In some institutions, providing education for 5th to 10th is known as secondary school. [10]

The levels of education in India are :

Pre-Primary – Nursery to KG

Primary (Lower Primary) – Classes I to IV

Middle School (Upper Primary) – Classes V to VIII

High school – Classes IX to X

Inter college – Classes XI to XII

Indonesia

In Indonesia, middle school (Indonesian : Sekolah Menengah Pertama, SMP) covers ages 12 to 14 or class 7 to class 9.

Although compulsory education ends at junior high, most pursue higher education. There are around 22,000 middle schools in Indonesia with a balanced ownership between public and private sector. [11]

Iran

Iran calls Middle School Secondary School, which caters to children between the ages 12 and 15, i.e. 7th, 8th and 9th grade. [12]

Israel

In most of the cities in Israel, middle school (Hebrew: חטיבת ביניים, Khativat Beynaiym) covers ages 12 to 15. From the 7th grade to the 9th. [13]

Italy

In Italy the equivalent is the scuola secondaria di primo grado formerly and commonly called middle lower school (Scuola Media Inferiore), often shortened to middle school (Scuola Media). When the Scuola secondaria di secondo grado , the equivalent of high school, was formerly called middle higher school (Scuola Media Superiore), commonly called Superiori. The Middle School lasts three years from the student age of 11 to age 14. Since 2009, after Gelmini reform, the middle school was renamed Scuola secondaria di primo grado (junior secondary school).

Jamaica

Middle school in Jamaica is called "Junior High School." It is from grade 7–9 but this idea is becoming rare now so these grades are considered lower secondary.

(They also have a primary school (grades 1–6)

Japan

Junior high schools (中学校 chūgakkō) are for children aged twelve through fifteen years old.

Kosovo

In Kosovo "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). "Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.

Kuwait

In Kuwait, middle school is from grade 6–9 and from age 11–14.

Lebanon

In Lebanon, middle school or intermediate school consists of grades 7, 8, and 9. At the end of 9th grade, the student is given the National diploma examination.

North Macedonia

In North Macedonia middle school refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). "Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of middle school.

Malaysia

In Malaysia, the middle school equivalent is called lower secondary school which consists of students from age 13 to 15 (Form 1-3). [note 2] Usually, these lower secondary schools are combined with upper secondary schools to form a single secondary school which is also known as high school. Students at the end of their lower secondary studies are required to sit for an examination called PT3 (Form 3.7 subjects for non-Muslim students and 8 subjects for Muslim students) in order to determine their field of studies for upper secondary (Form 4-5). [ citation needed ]

Mexico

In Mexico, the middle school system is called Secundaria and usually comprises three years, grades 7–9 (ages: 7 12–13, 8 13–14, 9: 14–15). It is completed after Primaria (Elementary School, up to grade 6: ages 6–12) and before Preparatoria/Bachillerato (High School, grades 10–12 ages 15–18).

Montenegro

In Montenegro middle school refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). "Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.

New Zealand

In New Zealand middle schools are known as "intermediate schools." They generally cover years 7 and 8 (formerly known as Forms 1 to 2). Students are generally aged between 10 and 13. There are full primary schools which also contain year 7 and 8 with students continuing to high school at year 9 (formerly known as Form 3). [14] Some high schools also include years 7 and 8. [15] [ citation needed ]

After 2000 there was an increased interest in middle schooling (for years 7–10) with at least seven schools offering education to this age group opening around the country in Auckland, Cambridge, Hamilton, Christchurch and Upper Hutt. [16] [17] [ citation needed ]

Pakistan

In Pakistan, middle school (Class 1 – 8) is a combination of primary (Class 1 – 5) and middle (Class 6 – 8).

Peru

There aren't middle schools in Peru. Students aged 12 to 15 attend the first years of educación secundaria (secondary school.)

Philippines

Since the implementation of the K–12 education system, middle school education in the Philippines is called "Junior High School." It lasts for 4 years from Grades 7 to 10 for students age 12 to 16. Some schools, such as Miriam College in Loyola Heights as well as Lourdes School of Quezon City in Sta. Mesa Heights, have their Middle Schools from Grades 6 to 8. It is preceded by a 6-year elementary school and followed by a 2-year "senior high school" program.

Before that, there were no official middle school programs implemented and the equivalent years was simply called "High School" which ranged from First Year to Fourth Year.

Poland

Middle school in Poland, called gimnazjum, was first introduced in 1932. The education was intended for pupils of at least 12 years of age and lasted four years. Middle schools were part of the educational system until the reform of 1947, except during World War II.

The middle schools were reinstated in Poland in 1999 now lasting three years after six years of primary school. Pupils entering gimnazjum are usually 13 years old. Middle school is compulsory for all students, and it is also the final stage of mandatory education. In the final year students take a standardized test to evaluate their academic skills. Higher scorers in the test are allowed first pick of school if they want to continue their education, which is encouraged.

Starting with the school year 2017/18, middle schools are scheduled to be disbanded and primary schools to be extended to lasting eight years, as it was before 1999.

Portugal

In Portugal, the middle school is known as 2nd and 3rd cycles of basic education (2º e 3º ciclos do ensino básico). It comprises the 5th till 9th year of compulsory education, for children between ten and fifteen years old. After the education reform of 1986, the former preparatory school (escola preparatória) and the first three years of the liceu, became part of basic education (educação básica).

Basic education now includes:

Romania

Middle school in Romania, or gymnasium (gimnaziu), includes grades 5 to 8 and the students usually share the building with the students of primary school but in different wings/floors. Primary school lessons are taught by a handful of teachers: most are covered by one of them, and more specific areas such as foreign languages, religion or gym may have dedicated teachers. The transition to middle school changes that to a one teacher per course model where the students usually remain in the same classroom while the teachers rotate between courses. At the end of the eighth grade (usually corresponding to age 14 or 15), students take a written exam that counts for 80% (before, it used to be 50%) of the average needed to enroll in high school. Students then go to high school or vocational school, depending on their final grade. [18] Schooling is compulsory until the tenth grade (which corresponds with the age of 16 or 17).The education process is done in numbered semesters, the first semester lasting 19 weeks between September and February and the second semester lasting 16 weeks between February and June.

Russia

Middle school in Russia covers grades 5 to 9, and is a natural continuation of primary school activities (almost always they are in the same building with both primary and high school, usually located in different wings/floors). Primary school lessons are taught by a handful of teachers: most are covered by one of them, and more specific areas such as English or gym may have dedicated teachers. The transition to middle school changes that to a one teacher per course model, where teachers stay in their classrooms and pupils change rooms during breaks. Examples of courses include mathematics (split from grade 7 into algebra, geometry and physics), visual arts, Russian language, foreign language, history, literature, geography, biology, computer science, chemistry (from grade 8), social theory (in grade 9). [19] The education process is done in numbered quarters, with the first quarter covering September and October, second quarter November and December, third quarter going from mid January to mid March, fourth quarter covering April and May. There are one week long holidays between quarters 1 and 2 as well as 3 and 4, somewhat longer holidays between quarters 2 and 3 to allow for New Year festivities, and a three-month break between the years. [20] At the end of middle school most people stay in school for two more years and get a certificate allowing them to pursue university, but some switch to vocational-technical schools.

Saudi Arabia

In Saudi Arabia, middle school includes grade 7 through 9, consisting of students from ages 12 to 15.

Serbia

In Serbia middle school refers to the second half of primary (elementary) education for ages between 11 and 15 and lasts 4 years (grades 5 through 8), following the first half of primary school (grades 1 through 5, ages 7 to 11). Middle schools are not considered separate from elementary school in Serbia but rather an extension of it and are usually held in the same school building but in opposite shifts. Middle school is the transitional period from primary education to secondary education (high school) where children are transitioned from having very generalized subjects and a main teacher for most of them with only a handful of other teachers for specialized subjects like English, music and gym to a more serious curriculum with a course load that better mirrors high school. Middle school is the first time children have separate teachers for each subject and are introduced to courses like chemistry, biology, a second foreign language and physics. Both elementary and middle school are compulsory in Serbia, after which almost all students take the state-issued universal entrance exam to qualify for high school, be it a Gymnasium, a specialized high school for subjects like Economics or Medicine, or a Vocational school (trade school).

Singapore

Students of Nan Hua High School, a secondary school in Singapore, in the school hall Students of Nan Hua High School, Singapore, in the school hall - 20060127.jpg
Students of Nan Hua High School, a secondary school in Singapore, in the school hall

In Singapore, middle school is usually referred to as secondary school. Students start secondary school after completing primary school at the age of 13, and to 16 (four years if they are taking the Special, Express or Normal Technical courses), or 17 (five years if they are taking the Normal Academic courses). Students from the Special and Express courses take the GCE 'O' Levels after four years at the end of secondary education, and students from the Normal (Academic and Technical) courses take the GCE 'N' Level examinations after four years, and the Normal Academic students has the option to continue for the O Levels. Selected excelling students also have the option to change classes which then affect the years they study. After completing secondary school, students move on to pre-tertiary education (i.e. in institutes such as junior colleges, polytechnics, ITE).

Slovenia

In Slovenia "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). "Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.

Somalia

In Somalia, middle school identified as intermediate school is the four years between secondary school and primary school. Pupils start middle school from form as referred to in Somalia or year 5 and finish it at year 8. Students start middle school from the age of 11 and finish it when they are 14–15. Subjects, which middle school pupils take are: Somali, Arabic, English, Religion, Science, Geography, History, Math, Textiles, Art and Design, Physical Education (PE) (Football) and sometimes Music. In some middle schools, it is obligatory to study Italian.

South Korea

In South Korea, a middle school is called a jung hakgyo (Hangul: 중학교; Hanja: ) which includes grades 7 through 9 (referred to as: middle school 1st–3rd grades; approx. age 13–15). [21]

Spain

In Spain, education is compulsory for children and teenagers between 6 and 16 years. Basic education is divided into Educación Primaria (first grade through sixth grade), which is the Spanish equivalent of elementary school; and Educación Secundaria Obligatoria or ESO (seventh through tenth grade), roughly the Spanish equivalent of middle school and (partially) high school. The usual ages in ESO are 12 to 15 years old, but they can range between 11 and 16 depending on the birth date (a student who was born late in the year may start ESO at 11 if he or she will turn 12 before January 1, and a student who was born early in the year may finish ESO after turning 16).

After ESO, students can continue their pre-university education attending to Bachillerato (eleventh and twelfth grade) or choose a Ciclo de Formación Profesional (an improved type of vocational school).

Taiwan

Junior high schools (three years from 7th to 9th grade) in Taiwan were originally called primary middle school. [note 3] However, in August 1968, they were renamed nationals' middle school [note 4] often translated junior high) when they became free of charge and compulsory. Private middle school nowadays are still called primary middle school. Taiwanese students older than twelve normally attend junior high school. Accompanied with the switch from junior high to middle school was the cancellation of entrance examination needed to enter middle school. [22]

Tunisia and Morocco

In Tunisia and Morocco, a middle school includes grades 7 through 9, consisting of students from ages 12 to 15.

United Kingdom

England and Wales

In England and Wales, local education authorities introduced middle schools in the 1960s and 1970s. The notion of Middle Schools was mooted by the Plowden Report of 1967 which proposed a change to a three-tier model including First schools for children aged between 4 and 7, Middle Schools for 7–11 year-olds, and then upper or high schools for 11–16 year-olds. [23] Some authorities introduced Middle Schools for ideological reasons, in line with the report, while others did so for more pragmatic reasons relating to the raising of the school leaving age in compulsory education to 16, or to introduce a comprehensive system. [24] [25]

Different authorities introduced different age-range schools, although in the main, three models were used:

In many areas "primary school" rather than first school was used to denote the first tier.

In addition, some schools were provided as combined schools catering for pupils in the 5–12 age range as a combined first and middle school. [24]

Around 2000 middle and combined schools were in place in the early 1980s. However, that number began to fall in the later 1980s with the introduction of the National Curriculum. The new curriculum's splits in Key Stages at age 11 encouraged the majority of local education authorities to return to a two-tier system of Primary (sometimes split into Infant schools and Junior schools) and Secondary schools. [26] There are now fewer than 150 middle schools still operational in the United Kingdom, meaning that approximately 90% of middle schools have closed or reverted to primary school status since 1980. The system of 8–12 middle schools has fallen into complete disuse. [27]

Under current legislation, all middle schools must be deemed either primary or secondary. Thus, schools which have more primary year groups than KS3 or KS4 are termed "deemed primaries" or "middles-deemed-primaries," while those with more secondary-aged pupils, or with pupils in Y11 are termed "deemed secondaries" or "middles-deemed-secondaries." For statistical purposes, such schools are often included under primary and secondary categories "as deemed". [28] Notably, most schools also follow teaching patterns in line with their deemed status, with most deemed-primary schools offering a primary-style curriculum taught by one class teacher, and most deemed-secondary schools adopting a more specialist-centred approach. Legally all-through schools are also considered middle schools (deemed secondary), although they are rarely referred to as such.

Some middle schools still exist in various areas of England. They are supported by the National Middle Schools' Forum. See List of middle schools in England.

Scotland

In Scotland, a similar system to the English one was trialled in Grangemouth middle schools, Falkirk between 1975 and 1987. [29] The label of "junior high school" is used for some through schools in Orkney and Shetland which cater for pupils from 5 up to the age of 14, at which point they transfer to a nearby secondary school.

Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland, in the Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon District Council area in County Armagh, the Dickson Plan operates, whereby pupils attend a primary school from ages 4–10, a junior high school from 11–14, and a senior high school or grammar school from 14–19. This is not dissimilar to the middle school system.[ citation needed ][ clarification needed ]

United States

Middle schools in the United States usually cover grades 5–6, 5–8, 6–8, 7–8 or 7–9. Historically, local public control (and private alternatives) have allowed for some variation in the organization of schools. Elementary school includes kindergarten through to sixth grade, or kindergarten through to fifth grade, i.e., up to age 12, but some elementary schools have four or eight grades, i.e., up to ages 10 or 14 [30] (also known as the intermediate grades). Basic subjects are taught and pupils often remain in one or two classrooms throughout the school day, except for physical education, library, music, art, and computer classes. In 2001, there were about 3.6 million children in each grade in the United States. [31] "Middle schools" and "junior high schools" are schools that span grades 5 or 6 to 8 and 7 to 8, respectively, [30] but junior high schools spanning grades 7 to 9 are also common.

The range defined by either is often based on demographic factors, such as an increase or decrease in the relative numbers of younger or older students, with the aim of maintaining stable school populations. [32] At this time, pupils are given more independence, moving to different classrooms for different subjects, which includes math, social studies, science, and language arts. Also, pupils are able to choose some of their class subjects (electives). Usually, starting in ninth or tenth grade, grades become part of a pupil's official transcript. In the U.S., children within this grade-range are sometimes referred to as "junior highers". [33]

The “junior high school” concept was introduced in 1909, in Columbus, Ohio. [34] Junior high schools were created for "bridging the gap between the elementary and the high school", an emphasis credited to Charles W. Eliot. [35] In the late 19th century and early 20th century, most American elementary schools had grades 1 through 8, and this organization still exists, where some concepts of middle school organization have been adapted to the intermediate grades. As time passed, the junior high school concept increased quickly as new school districts proliferated, or systems modernized buildings and curricula. This expansion continued through the 1960s. Jon Wiles, author of Developing Successful K–8 Schools: A Principal's Guide, said that "[a] major problem" for the original model was "the inclusion of the ninth grade", because of the lack of instructional flexibility, due to the requirement of having to earn high school credits in the ninth grade and that "the fully adolescent ninth grader in junior high school did not seem to belong with the students experiencing the onset of puberty". [36]

The new "middle school" model began to appear in the mid-1960s. Wiles said, "At first, it was difficult to determine the difference between a junior high school and a middle school, but as the middle school became established, the differences became more pronounced" [36]

The faculty is organised into academic departments that operate more or less independently of one another.[ citation needed ]

The middle school format has now replaced the junior high format by a ratio of about ten to one in the United States, but at least two school districts had incorporated both systems in 2010. [37] [38]

Uruguay

In Uruguay, the public middle school consists of two stages, one mandatory called "Basic Cycle" or "First Cycle". This consists of three years, ages 12–13, 13–14 and 14–15, and one optional called "Second Cycle", ages 15–16, 16–17 and 17–18. The Second Cycle is divided into 4 options in the 5th grade: "Human Sciences", "Biology", "Scientific" and "Arts", and 7 options in the 6th and last grade: "Law" or "Economy" (if Human Sciences course taken in 5th), "Medicine" or "Agronomy" (if Biological course taken in 5th), "Architecture" or "Engineering" (if Scientific course taken in 5th) and "Arts" (if Arts course taken in 5th). Both these stages are commonly known as "Liceo" (Spanish for "high school"). Middle school starts at grade 7 and ends at grade 9.

Venezuela

In Venezuela, middle schools (educación media general, ages 12–15) are from 7th grade to 9th grade.

In some institutions called "Technical Schools" there is an extra grade, for those who want to graduate as "Middle technician" in a certain area. This education would allow them to be hired at a higher level, or get introduced more easily into a college career.

Vietnam

Secondary school, or Junior High school, includes grade 6 to 9. After finishing grade 9, students have to take the graduating test nationally, which includes Mathematics, Literature and English. The maximum score for each test is 10, with the first two subjects (called the Core Subjects) multiplied by two for a total possible score of 50. Reward points from the vocational course; spanning from 1.0 to 2.0 according to the students' record could also be added to the final score.

Some public schools use the graduating exam's score and student's transcripts to make their decision. Many other public and private schools require students who apply for those schools to take their entrance exams. The administration team would review the student's transcripts and his or her exam to decide whether that student is qualified for their requirement or not.

See also

Notes

  1. Commonly referred as "Zhong Kao" (Simplified Chinese: 中考).
  2. Pelajar Menengah Rendah
  3. "chuzhong" (初級中學, 初中
  4. "guozhong" (國民中學, 國中

Related Research Articles

Secondary education education for most teenagers

Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education is considered the second and final phase of basic education, and level 3 (upper) secondary education is the stage before tertiary education. Every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. Like primary education, in most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19.

Student learner, or someone who attends an educational institution

A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution who attends classes in a course to attain the appropriate level of mastery of a subject under the guidance of an instructor and who devotes time outside class to do whatever activities the instructor assigns that are necessary either for class preparation or to submit evidence of progress towards that mastery. In the broader sense, a student is anyone who applies themselves to the intensive intellectual engagement with some matter necessary to master it as part of some practical affair in which such mastery is basic or decisive.

In the education systems of England, Northern Ireland, Wales, and some Commonwealth countries, sixth form represents the final 1-3 years of secondary education, where students prepare for their A-level examinations.

Gymnasium (school) type of school providing advanced secondary education in Europe

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north, eastern and southern Europe.

Education in Canada

Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs.

Secondary education in the United States

Secondary education in the United States is the last seven years of statutory formal education grade 6 through grade 12. It occurs in two phases. The first is the ISCED lower secondary phase; a junior high school or middle school for students grade 6 through grade 8. The second is the ISCED upper secondary phase; the High School from grade 9 until grade 12. There is some debate over the optimum age of transfer, and variation in some the states.

State schools, called public schools in North America and many other countries, are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation.

Sixth grade is a year of education for students ages 11–12. In many nations, it is the first year of middle school or the last year of elementary school.

Fourth grade educational year group

Fourth grade is a year of elementary education in some countries. In North America, the fourth grade is the fifth school year of elementary school. Students are usually 9 or 10 years old, depending on their birthday, unless they started school at an earlier or later date than the average student. It can be considered a part of elementary school, traditionally providing instruction for young pupils in grades K-6. This can vary in different school districts; in some, fourth grade is the first or second year of intermediate school. In others, it may be the last year of elementary.

'Seventh grade', equivalent to Year 8 in England and Wales, and S1 in Scotland, is a year or level of education in many nations around the world. The seventh grade is the seventh school year and comes after 6th grade or elementary school. Students are usually 12–13 years old.

Eighth grade is the eighth post-kindergarten year of formal education in the US, and is typically the last year of middle school. In England, the equivalent is Year 9. In Brazil, the equivalent is nono ano, and in Scotland the equivalent is S2. Usually, students are 13–14 years old in this stage of education.

First grade is the first grade in elementary school. It is the first school year after kindergarten in Canada and the USA. Children are usually 6–7 years old in this grade.

Ninth grade, freshman year, or grade 9 is the ninth post-kindergarten year of school education in some school systems. Ninth grade is often the first school year of high school in the United States, or the last year of middle/junior high school. In some countries Grade 9 is the second year of high school. Students are usually 14–15 years old. In the United States, it is often called Freshman year. In England and Wales, the equivalent educational year is Year Ten. In Scotland the equivalent educational year is Third Year or S3, as this is the third year of compulsory secondary schooling.

Tenth grade, sophomore year, or grade 10 is the tenth year of school post-kindergarten or the tenth year after the first introductory year upon entering compulsory schooling. In many parts of the world, the students are 15–16 years of age, depending on when their birthday occurs. The variants of 10th grade in various nations are described below.

Eleventh grade, junior year, or grade 11 is the eleventh, and for some countries final, grade of secondary schools. Students are typically 16–17 years of age, depending on the country and the students' birthdays.

Primary education First stage of formal education

Primary education, also called elementary education, is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education.. Primary education usually takes place in a primary school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by middle school, an educational stage which precedes high school. Primary education in Australia consists of grades Foundation to 6. In the United States, primary education covers Grades 1–3 and elementary education usually consists of Grades 1–6.

Elementary school (United States) A school that provides primary education in the United States

An elementary school is the main point of delivery of primary education in the United States, for children between the ages of 4–11 and coming between pre-kindergarten and secondary education.

References

Specific citations
  1. "Shake-up puts Year 7s in high school". WA Today.
  2. "A SHORT HISTORY of THE ARMIDALE SCHOOL" (PDF). The Armidale School. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2014-01-16.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. "About Middle Years". Middle Years – Northern Territory of Australia. Northern Territory Government. 200. Archived from the original on 2008-02-23. Retrieved 2008-02-01.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. "Ley de Reforma Educativa. Ley Nº 1565/1994 - OEI" (PDF). OEI.
  5. "Definition of junior high school". Retrieved June 12, 2007. 2009-10-31.
  6. 1 2 Czech Act No. 561/2004 Collection of Law, on Pre-school, Basic, Secondary, Tertiary Professional and Other Education Archived 2014-06-27 at the Wayback Machine (the Education Act)
  7. "Les niveaux et les établissements d'enseignement – Ministère de l'éducation nationale" (in French). Education.gouv.fr. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
  8. "Georgian educational system" . Retrieved 2018-09-14.
  9. "Schools Gibraltar | Colleges Gibraltar" . Retrieved 2009-01-09.
  10. 1 2 3 Amaidi. "Indian Education System" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  11. Middle school statistics between 2004–2005 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2009-08-06.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. Mehrabi, Masoud. "Iran Chamber Society: Education in Iran: The Iranian Educational System" . Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  13. "Israel Education System".
  14. "Schools / Homepage - Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI)".
  15. "Schools / Homepage - Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI)".
  16. "Schools / Homepage - Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI)".
  17. "Schools / Homepage - Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI)".
  18. Romania, Ministry of National Education and Research (2014). "Changes in Education (Romanian version)". Education (No english version).
  19. "Список предметов, изучаемых в начальной, средней и старшей школе".
  20. "Учебные четверти и каникулы".
  21. Ministry of Education Science & Technology. "Education System". Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  22. Government Information Office. "Taiwan's Educational Development and Present Situation". Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  23. Central Advisory Council for Education (England) (1967). "Volume 1 Chapter 10 The Ages and Stages of Primary Education". Children and their Primary Schools. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Archived from the original on 2010-04-04. Retrieved 2008-02-01.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  24. 1 2 "Middle schools decline due to haphazard development". Times Educational Supplement. 1981-11-13. p. 9.
  25. Andrew, Herbert; Department of Education and Science (1965-07-12). "Main forms of comprehensive organisation". Circular 10/65: The Organisation of Secondary Education. HMSO. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2009-04-18.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  26. "Education: End of the Middle Way?". BBC News. 1998-06-28. Retrieved 2008-02-01.
  27. "UK Middle Schools". Sites.google.com. Retrieved 2016-01-11.
  28. "The Education (Middle School) (England) Regulations 2002". Statutory Instrument 2002 No. 1983. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 2002. Retrieved 2008-02-01.
  29. Meldrum, James (1976). Three-tier Education in Grangemouth.
  30. 1 2 , p. 7, fig. 1
  31. "Digest of Education Statistics, 2001" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  32. junior high school. encarta.msn.com. Archived from the original on August 30, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2007. The major difference between a middle school and a junior high lies in the philosophy. The middle school philosophy focuses on the student where the junior high focus is more on the content.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) 2009-10-31.
  33. Gillham, Isabel. "Self-concept and Reading". The Reading Teacher 21.3 (1967): 270–273.
  34. "First Junior High School in the United States". OhioHistoryCentral.org. Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
  35. "Junior high plan outlined", The Dallas Morning News , September 22, 1929, section 1, page 9.
  36. 1 2 Wiles, John, ed. (June 10, 2009). Developing Successful K–8 Schools: A Principal's Guide. Corwin Press. p. 3. ISBN   1412966175.
  37. USD, Concordia, Kansas retrieved 2010-10-28
  38. http://www.agawampublicschools.org/ retrieved 2011-06-17

Further reading