Compensatory education

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Compensatory education offers supplementary programs or services designed to help children at risk of cognitive impairment and low educational achievement succeed. [1] [2]

Contents

Children at risk of disadvantages

Poor children do worse in school than their well-off peers. They are more likely to experience learning disabilities and developmental delays. [3] Poor children score between 6 and 13 points lower on various standardized tests of IQ, verbal ability, and achievement. [4] Poverty also has a negative impact on high-school graduation [5] and college attendance. [6] Children raised by a single parent, children who have more than two siblings, children by teenaged parents and children raised in poverty-stricken neighbourhoods are also at risk of low academic achievement. [7]

How to help these children

Numerous programs have been created in order to help children at risk reach their full potential. Among the American programs of compensary education are Head Start, the Chicago Child-Parent Center Program, High/Scope, Abecedarian Early Intervention Project, SMART (Start Making a Reader Today), the Milwaukee Project and the 21st Century Community Learning Center. In Germany and Great Britain Early Excellence Centres are widely discussed programs of compensatory education. Not all of that programs have been proven to be effective. However scientists were able to identify social programmes that work. [8] Among these are the High/Scope Perry Preschool Project, [9] [10] [11] the Abecedarian Project, [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] and SMART. [17] [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

Head Start (program) U.S. federal aid program for low-income childcare

Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and families. The program's services and resources are designed to foster stable family relationships, enhance children's physical and emotional well-being, and establish an environment to develop strong cognitive skills. The transition from preschool to elementary school imposes diverse developmental challenges that include requiring the children to engage successfully with their peers outside the family network, adjust to the space of a classroom, and meet the expectations the school setting provides.

Preschool Educational establishment offering early childhood education to children

A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school. It may be publicly or privately operated, and may be subsidised from public funds.

Early childhood education

Early childhood education is a branch of education theory that relates to the teaching of children from birth up to the age of eight. Traditionally, this is up to the equivalent of third grade. ECE emerged as a field of study during the Enlightenment, particularly in European countries with high literacy rates. It continued to grow through the nineteenth century as universal primary education became a norm in the Western world. In recent years, early childhood education has become a prevalent public policy issue, as municipal, state, and federal lawmakers consider funding for preschool and pre-K. The global priority placed on early childhood education is underscored with targets of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 4. It is described as an important period in a child's development. It refers to the development of a child's personality. ECE is also a professional designation earned through a post-secondary education program. For example, in Ontario, Canada, the designations ECE and RECE may only be used by registered members of the College of Early Childhood Educators, which is made up of accredited child care professionals who are held accountable to the College's standards of practice.

Project STAR was three-year, federally funded research project which consisted of an intervention with preschoolers enrolled in the Head Start program in Lane County, Oregon, United States. The project was conducted from 1999 to 2003 by the Early Childhood Research Unit of the University of Oregon College of Education. The principal investigators were Dr. Ruth Kaminski, one of the co-authors of the DIBELS early literacy assessment, and Beth Stormshak. The goal of the program was to increase literacy skills of at-risk children by improving their learning environments by increasing the number of planned and focused activities. The curriculum had two components: a classroom ecology component and family-focused intervention activities. The intervention was focused on strengthening children's skills in social ability. In order to help children they increased parenting and family participation in school by working directly with the parents of the students.

The HighScope Educational Research Foundation studies methods of early childhood education based on the methods of the 1962 Perry Preschool study. It was founded in 1970 by psychologist David Weikart.

David P. Weikart was an American psychologist and founder of the HighScope Curriculum, an early childhood education program.

Universal preschool is an international movement to use public funding to ensure high quality preschool (pre-k) is available to all families. Schools rate their education systems on academic performance of their students and compare them to schools nationwide as well as globally. There is a constant competitive drive for schools to be among the top in performance and achievement. Introducing a universal preschool program would allow for young children of different socioeconomic backgrounds to build and improve their academic and social skills to better prepare them for kindergarten and the rest of their academic career. Additionally, The introduction of universal preschool would allow for many financially struggling families to send their children to preschool which would allow for many women to enter or re-enter the workforce.

Early childhood intervention (ECI) is a support and educational system for very young children who have been victims of, or who are at high risk for child abuse and/or neglect as well as children who have developmental delays or disabilities. Some states and regions have chosen to focus these services on children with developmental disabilities or delays, but Early Childhood Intervention is not limited to children with these disabilities.

The Carolina Abecedarian Project was a controlled experiment that was conducted in 1972 in North Carolina, United States, by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute to study the potential benefits of early childhood education for poor children to enhance school readiness. It has been found that in their earliest school years, poor children lag behind others, suggesting they were ill-prepared for schooling. The Abecedarian project was inspired by the fact that few other early childhood programs could provide a sufficiently well-controlled environment to determine the effectiveness of early childhood training.

Erikson Institute is a graduate school in child development in downtown Chicago, Illinois. It is named for the noted psychoanalyst and developmental psychologist, Erik Erikson.

Susan Neuman is an educator, researcher, and education policy-maker in early childhood and literacy development. In 2013, she became Professor of Early Childhood and Literacy Education, and Chair of the Department of Teaching and Learning at NYU's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.

Social deprivation is the reduction or prevention of culturally normal interaction between an individual and the rest of society. This social deprivation is included in a broad network of correlated factors that contribute to social exclusion; these factors include mental illness, poverty, poor education, and low socioeconomic status.

Samuel J. Meisels is an American academic who is an authority on early childhood assessment, child development and educational practices that support the developmental needs of young children.

Curricula in early childhood care and education (ECCE) address the role and importance of curricula in the education of young children, and is the driving force behind any ECCE programme. It is ‘an integral part of the engine that, together with the energy and motivation of staff, provides the momentum that makes programmes live’. It follows therefore that the quality of a programme is greatly influenced by the quality of its curriculum. In early childhood, these may be programmes for children or parents, including health and nutrition interventions and prenatal programmes, as well as centre-based programmes for children.

W. Steven Barnett is a U.S. American education economist who currently serves as a Board of Governors Professor at Rutgers University, where - being one of its founders - he also directs the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER). He is one of the world's leading scholars on early child development and the economics of pre-schools.

Martin Deutsch (1926–2002) was an American developmental psychologist known for his research on the education of disadvantaged children. His efforts to develop a compensatory education program in New York City served as a predecessor to the national Head Start program. He developed early intervention programs with what he called a "therapeutic curriculum", which aimed to specifically address the deficient experiences of children living in deprived environments. He believed that such environments put children at a disadvantage with respect to beginning school and acquiring basic literacy skills.

Laura M. Justice is a language scientist and expert on interventions to promote children's literacy. She is the EHE Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology at Ohio State University, where she also serves as the Executive Director of the A. Sophie Rogers School for Early Learning.

Adam Winsler is a developmental psychologist known for his research on early child development, private speech, and benefits of arts education. Winsler is Professor of Applied Developmental Psychology at George Mason University.

Margaret R. Burchinal is a quantitative psychologist and statistician known for her research on child care. She is Senior Research Scientist and Director of the Data Management and Analysis Center of the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Early childhood education in the United States relates to the teaching of children from birth up to the age of eight. The education services are delivered via preschools and kindergartens.

References

  1. Katy Independent School district: Compensatory Education Archived 2008-05-17 at the Wayback Machine
  2. Garber, Howard L. (1988): Milwaukee Project: Preventing Mental Retardation in Children at Risk
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  4. The Future of Children, Children and Poverty Vol. 7, No. 2 – Summer/Fall 1997 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2008-05-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. Duncan, G.J., Yeung, W., Brooks-Gunn, J., and Smith, J.R. How much does childhood poverty affect the life chances of children? American Sociological Review, in press.
  6. FPG Snapshot; No. 42, April 2007 - Poverty and Early Childhood Intervention. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2008-05-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. Hans Weiß: Frühförderung mit Kindern und Familien in Armutslagen. München/Basel: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag. ISBN   3-497-01539-3
  8. Social Programs that work
  9. Lawrence J. Schweinhart, Helen V. Barnes, and David P. Weikart. Significant Benefits: The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 27 (High/Scope Press, 1993)
  10. Lawrence J. Schweinhart, PhD. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 40: Summary, Conclusions, and Frequently Asked Questions (High/Scope Press 2004)
  11. Perry Preschool Project (High-quality preschool for children from disadvantaged backgrounds) Archived 2008-06-17 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Campbell, Frances A., Craig T. Ramey, Elizabeth Pungello, Joseph Sparling, and Shari Miller-Johnson. “Early Childhood Education: Young Adult Outcomes From the Abecedarian Project,” Applied Developmental Science, 2002, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 42-57
  13. Leonard N. Masse and W. Steven Barnett, A Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Abecedarian Early Childhood Intervention, New Brunswick, N.J.: National Institute for Early Education Research, 2002 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2003-03-15. Retrieved 2010-06-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. Campbell, Frances A., Elizabeth Pungello, Shari Miller-Johnson, Margaret Burchinal, and Craig T. Ramey. “The Development of Cognitive and Academic Abilities: Growth Curves From an Early Childhood Educational Experiment,” Developmental Psychology, 2001, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 231-242
  15. Abecedarian Project (High-quality child care/preschool for children from disadvantaged backgrounds) Archived March 12, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  16. FPG Snapshot; No. 42, April 2007 - Poverty and Early Childhood Intervention. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2008-05-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. Baker, Scott, Russell Gersten and Thomas Keating. When less may be more: A 2-year longitudinal evaluation of a volunteer tutoring program requiring minimal training. Reading Research Quarterly, Volume 35, Number 4; Oct-Dec. 2000.
  18. "Social programs that work: SMART - Start Making a Reader Today (Volunteer tutoring program for at-risk readers in early elementary school)". Archived from the original on 2010-11-29. Retrieved 2010-09-25.