Primary education

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School children in primary education, Chile Ninos estudiantes chilenos.jpg
School children in primary education, Chile
Total net enrollment rate in primary education, 2015 Total net enrollment rate in primary education, OWID.svg
Total net enrollment rate in primary education, 2015

Primary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool/kindergarten and before secondary school. Primary education takes place in primary school, the elementary school or first and middle school depending on the location.

Contents

The International Standard Classification of Education considers primary education as a single-phase where programmes are typically designed to provide fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for learning. This is ISCED Level 1: Primary education or first stage of basic education. [lower-alpha 1] [2]

Definition

The ISCED definition in 1997 posited that primary education normally started between the ages of 5 – 8, and was designed to give a sound basic education in reading, writing and mathematics along with an elementary understanding of other subjects. By 2011 the philosophy had changed, the elementary understanding of other subjects had been dropped in favour of "to establish a solid foundation for learning". [2]

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), believes that providing children with primary education has many positive effects. It

The ages cited cover a rapidly developing phase of child development. This is studied in the discipline of developmental psychology, which among other things attempts to describe how children learn.

In Great Britain, reception, the first year of primary school, is part of the Early Year Foundation Stage.

The Philosophy of education, of teaching and learning, has, over the millennia, occupied many great minds. It attempts to say what children should be taught.

History

In pre-agrarian cultures, children learnt by following their instinct to play. There was no need for enforced education. [4] In agrarian cultures, the skills of agriculture, husbandry, bartering, and building skills can be passed on from adults to children or master to apprentice. Societies agree on the need for their children to learn and absorb their cultural traditions and beliefs and they attempt to do this informally in the family, or by gathering the children together and employing one adult to handle the task, a tutor. This worked well for the landowners, but the children of the landless would be employed from the age of seven as servants. . In one source from the turn of the 15th century, a French count advised that nobles' huntsmen should "choose a boy servant as young as seven or eight" and that "...this boy should be beaten until he has a proper dread of failing to carry out his masters orders." The document listed chores that the boy would perform daily, and that the boy would sleep in a loft above the kennels in order to attend to the hounds' needs. [4] [5]

Religious communities become providers of education and defined the curriculum. Learning to recite passages from their holy text is a priority. For their society to advance, the oral tradition must be superseded by written texts; some students must go on and write down the passages. Monasteries students needed to read out what is written in the religious language and not just the vernacular. This led to formal education in madrassas and schools. Martin Luther declared that salvation depends on each person's own reading of the Scriptures. [4] Trading and management create a demand for accountancy. Basic skills thus included literacy and numeracy. This was the core of Elementary Education.

Formal primary education

In mid 17th century America, Massachusetts became the first colony to mandate schooling for this purpose. Beginning in 1690, children there and adjacent colonies learned to read from the New England Primer, known colloquially as "The Little Bible of New England" [4]

In England, 1870 was the beginning of compulsory state education. [6] Elementary schools in England and Wales were publicly funded schools which provided a basic standard of education for children aged from six to 14 between 1870 and 1944. These were set up to enable children to receive manual training and elementary instruction and provided a restricted curriculum with the emphasis on reading, writing and arithmetic (the three Rs). The schools operated on a monitorial system, whereby one teacher supervised a large class with the assistance of a team of monitors, who were quite often older pupils. Elementary school teachers were paid by results. Their pupils were expected to achieve precise standards in reading, writing and arithmetic such as reading a short paragraph in a newspaper, writing from dictation, and working out sums and fractions. [7] To achieve this a dual education system was initiated consisting of both voluntary denominational schools and non-denominational state schools (Board schools) to supplement rather than replace schools already run by the churches, guilds and private individuals or organisations. [6]

Before 1944 around 80 per cent of the school population attended elementary schools through to the age of 14. The remainder transferred either to secondary school or junior technical school at age 11. The school system was changed with the introduction of the Education Act 1944. Education was restructured into three progressive stages which were known as primary education, secondary education and further education. [8]

Timeline of the 20th century English Education

  • 1912 - Maria Montessori publishes The Montessori Method
  • 1915 - John and Evelyn Dewey publish School of Tomorrow.
  • 1918 - Fisher Education Act ends all fees for elementary education and raises school leaving age from 12 to 14.
  • 1919 - The Burnham Committee introduces national pay scales for elementary teachers.
  • 1923 - Piaget publishes The Language and Thought of the Child.
A S Neill’s opens Summerhill
  • 1944 - Elementary education split by age into Primary and Secondary. Tripartite system with an eleven plus.
  • 1955 - The last gas lamps are removed from London schools
  • 1957 - Britain’s first school TV are broadcast by Associated Rediffusion in May,
  • 1958 - BBC schools TV broadcasting
A S Neill’s Summerhill published.
  • 1963 - London and Manchester end 11-plus.
  • 1967 - The Plowden Report advocates expansion of nursery schooling.
  • 1968 - The Newsom Report on public schools calls for integration with state schools. [9]

Child development during the primary education phase

Jean Piaget was responsible for establishing the framework that describes the intellectual, moral and emotional development of children. [10] He received a doctorate in 1918 and did post-doctoral research in Zürich and Paris. [11] His thoughts developed in four phases:

  1. the sociological model of development- where children moved from a position of egocentrism to sociocentrism. he noticed there was a gradual progression from intuitive to scientific and then socially acceptable responses.
  2. the biological model of intellectual development -this could be regarded as an extension of the biological process of the adaptation of the species, showing two on-going processes: assimilation and accommodation.
  3. the elaboration of the logical model of intellectual development, where he argued that intelligence develops in a series of stages that are related to age and are progressive because one stage must be accomplished before the next can occur. For each stage of development, the child forms an age-related view of reality.
  4. the study of figurative thought- this included memory and perception. Piaget's theory is based upon biological maturation and stages; the notion of readiness is important. Information or concepts should be taught when the students have reached the appropriate stage of cognitive development and not before. [12]

Using this framework, the child's staged development can be examined. Lev Vygotsky's theory [13] is based on social learning, where a MKO (a more knowledgeable other) helps them progress within their ZPD (zone of proximal development). Within the ZPD there are skills that the child potentially could do but needs to be shown so they can move from yearning to independent proficiency. [13] The assistance or instruction becomes a form of Instructional scaffolding; this term and idea was developed by Jerome Bruner, David Wood, and Gail Ross. [14] These are in the realms of the: [15]

International interpretations

Millennium Development Goals

A poster at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City, New York, United States, showing the Millennium Development Goals Millennium Development Goals, UN Headquarters, New York City, New York - 20080501.jpg
A poster at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City, New York, United States, showing the Millennium Development Goals

The United Nations Millennium Development Goal 2 (2002) was to achieve universal primary education by the year 2015, by which time their aim was to ensure that all children everywhere, regardless of race or gender, will be able to complete primary schooling. [16]

Due to the fact that the United Nations specifically focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, as they are both home to the vast majority of children out of school, they hypothesized that they might not have been able to reach their goal by 2015. According to the September 2010 fact sheet, this was because there were still about 69 million school-age children who were not in school with almost half of the demographic in sub-Saharan Africa and more than a quarter in Southern Asia. [17]

In order to achieve the goal by 2015, the United Nations estimated that all children at the official entry age for primary school would have had to have been attending classes by 2009. This would depend upon the duration of the primary level, as well as how well the schools retain students until the end of the cycle.

Not only was it important for children to be enrolled in education, but countries would have to ensure that there were a sufficient number of teachers and classrooms to meet the demand. As of 2010, the number of new teachers needed in sub-Saharan Africa alone, equaled the extant teaching force in the region. [18]

The gender gap for children not in education narrowed. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of girls not in education worldwide had decreased from 57 percent to 53 percent, but in some regions, the percentage had increased. [18]

According to the United Nations, there are many things in the regions that have already been accomplished. Although enrollment in the sub-Saharan area of Africa continues to be the lowest region worldwide, by 2010 "it still increased by 18 percentage points—from 58 percent to 76 percent—between 1999 and 2008." There was also progress in both Southern Asia and North Africa, where both areas saw an increase in enrollment, For example, In Southern Asia, this had increased by 11 percent and in North Africa by 8 percent- over the last decade.[ citation needed ]

Major advances had been made even in the poorest of countries like the abolition of primary school fees in Burundi where there was an increase in primary-school enrollment which reached 99 percent as of 2008. Also, Tanzania experienced a similar outcome. The country doubled its enrollment ratio over the same period. Moreover, other regions in Latin America such as Guatemala and Nicaragua, and Zambia in Southern Africa "broke through the 90 percent towards greater access to primary education." [18]

Promoting the rule of law in primary education

Global citizenship education for the rule of law learning outcomes at the primary level Global citizenship education for the rule of law learning outcomes at the primary leve.svg
Global citizenship education for the rule of law learning outcomes at the primary level

Schools play an important role in children's socialization and in developing their appreciation of sharing, fairness, mutual respect and cooperation. Schools form the foundational values and competencies that are the building blocks towards the understanding of concepts such as justice, democracy and human rights. [19]

Education systems that promote education for justice, that is, respect for the rule of law (RoL) together with international human rights and fundamental freedoms strengthen the relationship between learners and public institutions with the objective of empowering young people to become champions of peace and justice. Teachers are often on the front line of this work and, along with families, play a formative role in shaping children's attitudes and behaviours. [19]

Global citizenship education provides the overall framework for the approach to the RoL. It aims to empower learners to engage and assume active roles, both locally and globally, as proactive contributors to a more just, peaceful, tolerant, inclusive, secure and sustainable world. [19]

See also

Sources

Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg  This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO. Text taken from Empowering students for just societies: a handbook for primary school teachers , UNESCO, UNESCO. UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

Notes

  1. Basic education:corresponds to the first 9 years of formal schooling and is made of two levels distinguished as Levels 1 and 2. Level 1 should correspond to primary education and Level 2 to lower secondary. ISCED. [2]

Related Research Articles

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The history of education in Africa can be roughly divided into pre- and post- colonial periods. Since the introduction of formal education to Africa by European colonists, African education, particularly in West and Central Africa, is characterised by both traditional African teachings and European-style schooling systems. The state of education reflects not only the effects of colonialism, but instability resulting from and exacerbated by armed conflicts in many regions of Africa as well as fallout from humanitarian crises such as famine, lack of drinking water, and outbreaks of diseases such as malaria and Ebola, among others. Although the quality of education and the quantity of well-equipped schools and teachers has steadily increased since the onset of the colonial period, there are still evident numerous inequalities in the existing educational systems based on region, economic status, and gender.

Education in Botswana

Education in Botswana is provided by public schools and private schools. Education in Botswana is governed by the Ministries of Basic Education. and Tertiary, Research Science and Technology

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Education in Rwanda

Education in Rwanda has undergone considerable changes throughout Rwanda's recent history, and has faced major disruptions due to periods of conflict. Despite improvements to education and literacy as part of the country's rebuilding after the 1994 genocide, the education system still faces challenges including low school enrolment rates and limited resources. The education system is overseen by the Ministry of Education.

With a growing population, Syria has a good basic education system. Since 2000 the Government of Syria has significantly increased the expenditure on education 1 to 6. In 2002, elementary and primary education were combined into one basic education stage and education was made compulsory and free from grades 1 to 9.

Education in Tanzania is provided by both the public and private sectors, starting with pre-primary education, followed by primary, secondary ordinary, secondary advanced, and ideally, university level education. Free and accessible education is a human right in Tanzania. The Tanzanian government began to emphasize the importance of education shortly after its independence in 1961. Curriculum is standardized by level, and it is the basis for the national examinations. Achievement levels are important, yet there are various causes of children not receiving the education that they need, including the need to help families with work, poor accessibility, and a variety of learning disabilities. While there is a lack of resources for special needs education, Tanzania has committed to inclusive education and attention on disadvantaged learners, as pointed out in the 2006 Education Sector Review AIDE-MEMORE. The government's National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty in 2005 heavily emphasized on education and literacy.

Education in Lebanon is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MEHE). In Lebanon, the main three languages, English and/or French with Arabic are taught from early years in schools. English or French are the mandatory media of instruction for mathematics and science for all schools. Education is compulsory from age 6 to 14.

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Education in the Gambia

The Constitution mandates free and compulsory primary education in the Gambia, but a lack of resources and education infrastructure has made implementation difficult. In 1995, the gross primary enrollment rate was 77.1 percent and the net primary enrollment rate was 64.7 percent. School fees long prevented many children from attending school, but in February 1998 the president of the Gambia ordered the termination of fees for the first six years of schooling. Girls make up about 40 percent of primary school students, though the figure is much lower in rural areas where cultural factors and poverty prevent parents from sending girls to school. Approximately 20 percent of school-age children attend Koranic schools, which usually have a restricted curriculum.

Education in Equatorial Guinea

There have been major strides with Education in Equatorial Guinea over the past ten years, although there is still room for improvement. Education in Equatorial Guinea is overseen by the Ministry of Education and Science (MEC). Split into four levels, preschool, primary, secondary, and higher education, the Equatorial Guinea's educational system only deems preschool and primary school mandatory. Education in Equatorial Guinea is free and compulsory until the age of 14. Although it has a high GNI per capita, which, as of 2018, was 18,170 international dollars, its educational outcomes fall behind those of the rest of West and Central Africa. In 1993, the gross primary enrollment rate was 149.7 percent, and the net primary enrollment rate was 83.4 percent. Late entry into the school system and high dropout rates are common, and girls are more likely than boys to drop out of school. As of 2015, the net enrollment rates for each education level are as follows: 42 percent for preschool, between 60 percent and 86 percent for primary school, and 43.6 percent for secondary school. UNESCO has cited several issues with the current educational system, including poor nutrition, low quality of teachers, and lack of adequate facilities.

According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), basic education comprises the two stages primary education and lower secondary education.

Ubongo is a social enterprise based in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania that creates edutainment and educational children’s television series in Africa. They produce two shows: Ubongo Kids, for 7-12 year olds, and Akili and Me, for 3-6 year olds. In the five years since the first episode of Ubongo Kids aired, Ubongo’s shows have become relatively popular in Africa, receiving 11 million viewers a week in 9 different African countries.

Sustainable Development Goal 4 The 4th of 17 Sustainable Development Goals to achieve qualilty education for all

Sustainable Development Goal 4 is about quality education and is among the 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in September 2015. The full title of SDG 4 is "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all".

References

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  5. Orme, N (2001). Medieval children. p. 315.
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  12. Jean Piaget at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  13. 1 2 Yasnitsky, A. (2018) Vygotsky: An Intellectual Biography. London and New York: Routledge BOOK PREVIEW
  14. Zone of Proximal Development and Cultural Tools Scaffolding, Guided Participation, 2006. In Key concepts in developmental psychology. Retrieved from Credo Reference Database
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  16. "United Nations Millennium Development Goals". UN. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  17. "GOAL 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education" (PDF). UN. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  18. 1 2 3 "GOAL 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education" (PDF). UN. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  19. 1 2 3 UNESCO (2019). Empowering students for just societies: a handbook for primary school teachers. UNESCO. ISBN   978-92-3-100335-6.

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