The Department of Bantu Education was an organ created by the National Party government of South Africa in 1953. The Bantu Education Act, 1953 provided the legislative framework for this department.
Before the passage of the Bantu Education Act, apartheid in education tended to be implemented in a haphazard and uneven manner. The purpose of the act was to consolidate Bantu education, i.e. education of black people, so that discriminatory educational practices could be uniformly implemented across South Africa. Previously, black education was administered by provincial governments. With the creation of the department, the central national government assumed control of all black education in South Africa.Racial segregation in education became mandatory under the Act.
Initially, a poll tax levied solely on black South Africans was collected to pay for Bantu education.In 1972 the government started using general taxes collected from whites to fund a portion of black education. One of the hallmarks of Bantu education was a disparity between the quality of education available to different ethnic groups. Black education received one tenth of the resources allocated to white education; throughout apartheid, black children were educated in classes with teacher:pupil ratios of 1:56. Dilapidated school buildings, a lack of textbooks and poor teacher training were problems which the department was never able (or willing) to address.
The department sought to equip black students with the abilities needed to function as low-skilled workers. Abstract thinking and subjects deemed to be of no use to manual laborers (such a mathematics and science) were neglected.Teaching an apartheid-friendly version of Christian values to students was also prioritized. In educational materials, black culture was portrayed as primitive, rural and unchanging.
Many missionary societies provided education to black schoolchildren. These schools were partially funded by the national government but operated with some autonomy. Racial segregation was not a defining feature of missionary education. The Bantu Education Act consolidated educational apartheid and forced mission schools to implement strict racial segregation in order to qualify for financial assistance. Many mission schools refused to co-operate with the National Party government, and ceased operating after the passage of the act.
In 1994, after South Africa's first multiracial elections, the department ceased to operate. All of its functions were absorbed by several government departments. Though the post-apartheid government has committed itself to providing quality schooling to students of all races,education in South Africa continues to be hampered by the legacy of the department and other institutions.
The University of Fort Hare is a public university in Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa.
A Bantustan was a territory that the white National Party administration of South Africa set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South West Africa, as part of its policy of apartheid. The Government established ten Bantustans in South Africa, and ten in neighbouring South West Africa, for the purpose of concentrating the members of designated ethnic groups, thus making each of those territories ethnically homogeneous as the basis for creating autonomous nation states for South Africa's different black ethnic groups. Under the Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970, the Government stripped black South Africans of their citizenship, which deprived them of their few remaining political and civil rights in South Africa, and declared them to be citizens of these homelands.
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law, according to which racial segregation did not necessarily violate the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all people. Under the doctrine, as long as the facilities provided to each race were equal, state and local governments could require that services, facilities, public accommodations, housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation be segregated by "race", which was already the case throughout the states of the former Confederacy. The phrase was derived from a Louisiana law of 1890, although the law actually used the phrase "equal but separate".
Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd, also commonly referred to as Dr. Verwoerd, was a South African politician, a scholar of applied psychology and sociology, and a journalist. Verwoerd played an instrumental role in socially engineering apartheid, the country's system of institutionalized racial segregation and white supremacy, and implementing its policies as Minister of Native Affairs (1950–1958) and then prime minister (1958–1966). Furthermore, he played a vital role in helping the far-right National Party come to power in 1948, serving as their political strategist and propagandist, becoming party leader upon his premiership. He was the Union of South Africa's last prime minister, from 1958 to 1961, when he proclaimed the founding of the Republic of South Africa, remaining its prime minister until his assassination in 1966.
The Bantu Education Act, 1953 was a South African segregation law which legalised several aspects of the apartheid system. Its major provision was enforcing racially separated educational facilities. Even universities were made "tribal", and all but three missionary schools chose to close down when the government would no longer help support their schools. Very few authorities continued using their own finances to support education for native Africans. In 1959, this type of education was extended to "non-white" universities and colleges with the Extension of University Education Act, and the University College of Fort Hare was taken over by the government and degraded to being part of the Bantu education system. It is often argued that the policy of Bantu (African) education was aimed to direct black or non-white youth to the unskilled labour market, although Hendrik Verwoerd, at the time Minister of Native Affairs, claimed that the aim was to solve South Africa's "ethnic problems" by creating complementary economic and political units for different ethnic groups.
Apartheid was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap, which ensured that South Africa was dominated politically, socially, and economically by the nation's minority white population. According to this system of social stratification, white citizens had the highest status, followed by Asians and Coloureds, then black Africans. The economic legacy and social effects of apartheid continue to the present day.
Education in South Africa is governed by two national departments, namely the department of Basic Education (DBE), which is responsible for primary and secondary schools, and the department of Higher Education and Training (DHET), which is responsible for tertiary education and vocational training. Prior to 2009, these two departments were represented in a single Department of Education.
Racial segregation in the United States is the segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation in the United States along racial lines. The term mainly refers to the legally or socially enforced separation of African Americans from whites, but it is also used with regard to the separation of other ethnic minorities from majority mainstream communities. While mainly referring to the physical separation and provision of separate facilities, it can also refer to other manifestations such as the separation of roles within an institution. Notably, in the United States Armed Forces up until 1948, black units were typically separated from white units but were nevertheless still led by white officers.
The system of racial segregation in South Africa known as apartheid was implemented and enforced by many acts and other laws. This legislation served to institutionalise racial discrimination and the dominance by white people over people of other races. While the bulk of this legislation was enacted after the election of the National Party government in 1948, it was preceded by discriminatory legislation enacted under earlier British and Afrikaner governments. Apartheid is distinguished from segregation in other countries by the systematic way in which it was formalised in law.
South African nationality has been influenced primarily by the racial dynamics that have structured South African society throughout its development. The country's colonial history led to the immigration of different racial and ethnic groups into one shared area. Power dispersion and inter-group relations led to European dominance of the state, allowing it to directly shape nationality although not without internal division or influence from the less empowered races.
"The Poor White Problem in South Africa: Report of the Carnegie Commission" (1932) was a study of poverty among white South Africans that made recommendations about segregation that some have argued would later serve as a blueprint for Apartheid. The report was funded and published by the Carnegie Corporation.
The South African Liberal Students' Association (SALSA) exists to unify liberal student organisations across South African campuses. SALSA is the ideological descendant of the South African Liberal Association (SALA) (1936–1968), the first non-racial political organisation in South Africa, gathering many of its liberal principles and goals in its founding constitution. SALSA is a student organisation which is not aligned with any political party; and which believes in, practices and promotes the principles of liberal democracy on campuses.
Nelson Mandela's electoral victory in 1994 signified the end of apartheid in South Africa, a system of widespread racially-based segregation to enforce almost complete separation of different races in South Africa. Under the apartheid system, South Africans were classified into four different races: White, Black, Coloured, and Indian/Asian, with about 80% of the South African population classified as Black, 9% as White, 9% as Coloured, and 2% as Indian/Asian. Under apartheid, Whites held almost all political power in South Africa, with other races almost completely marginalised from the political process.
Internal resistance to apartheid in South Africa originated from several independent sectors of South African society and took forms ranging from social movements and passive resistance to guerrilla warfare. Mass action against the ruling National Party government, coupled with South Africa's growing international isolation and economic sanctions, were instrumental in leading to negotiations to end apartheid, which began formally in 1990 and ended with South Africa's first multiracial elections under a universal franchise in 1994.
Black suffrage refers to black people's right to vote. Black suffrage has long been an issue in countries established under conditions of black minorities. Black men in the United States did not gain the right to vote until after the Civil War. In 1870, the 15th Amendment was ratified to prohibit states from denying a male citizen the right to vote based on “race, color or previous condition of servitude." "Black suffrage" in the United States in the aftermath of the American Civil War explicitly referred to the voting rights of black men only. Black women still had many hurdles to face before obtaining this right.
Werner Willi Max Eiselen (1899–1977) was a South African anthropologist and linguist. He was an ally and associate of Hendrik Verwoerd, the Minister of Native Affairs from 1950–1958 and the Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958–1966. He led the Eiselen Commission, an advisory board that investigated native education and formed the basis of the Bantu Education Act of 1953 which moved control of education of South Africa's blacks from missionary schools to local government control. It also made starting a "Bantu" school without permission and registration from the government illegal.
School segregation in the United States has a long history. In 1782, African Americans in Boston, including Prince Hall, campaigned against inequality and discrimination in the city's public schools. They petitioned the state legislature, protesting that their taxes supported the schooling of white students while there was no public school open to their children. In 1835, an anti-abolitionist mob attacked and destroyed Noyes Academy, an integrated school in Canaan, New Hampshire founded by abolitionists in New England. In 1849, the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools were allowed under the Constitution of Massachusetts.
The Tomlinson Report was a 1954 report released by the Commission for the Socioeconomic Development of the Bantu Areas, known as the Tomlinson Commission, that was commissioned by the South African government to study the economic viability of the native reserves. These reserves were intended to serve as the homelands for the black population. The report is named for Frederick R. Tomlinson, professor of agricultural economics at the University of Pretoria. Tomlinson chaired the ten-person commission, which was established in 1950. The Tomlinson Report found that the reserves were incapable of containing South Africa's black population without significant state investment. However, Hendrik Verwoerd, Minister of Native Affairs, rejected several recommendations in the report. While both Verwoerd and the Tomlinson Commission believed in "separate development" for the reserves, Verwoerd did not want to end economic interdependence between the reserves and industries in white-controlled areas. The government would go on to pass legislation to restrict the movement of blacks who lived in the reserves to white-controlled areas.
Decolonization is the dismantling of colonial systems that were established during the period of time when a nation maintains dominion over dependent territories. The Cambridge Dictionary lists decolonization as "the process in which a country that was previously a colony becomes politically independent." However, this definition does not capture the agency of the "masses", as Frantz Fanon referred to them, and their role in this process. Fanon's ideas regarding the agency involved in shaping one's own path reflects the notion that "decolonization can only happen when the native takes up his or her responsible subjecthood and refuses to occupy the position of violence-absorbing passive victim." Specifically in the context of higher education in South Africa, decolonization represents a further dismantling of western centered institutions, systems, symbolism, and standards within the higher education system. It goes beyond just filling the void left by colonialism and Apartheid with the presence of marginalized bodies, and promotes the decolonization of the purpose and functions of higher education itself.
"Meadowlands" was an anti-apartheid song composed in 1956 by Strike Vilakazi. It was written in reaction to the forced relocation of black South Africans from Sophiatown, to the new township of Meadowlands. The song was popularised by a number of musicians, including Dorothy Masuka and Miriam Makeba, and became an anthem of the movement against apartheid.