Upper division college

Last updated
One of the first upper division colleges FAU Sign NW 20th St.jpg
One of the first upper division colleges

An upper division college is a type of educational institution that traces its roots to educational ideas put forward in the late 19th and early 20th century. They were developed primarily in the United States during the 1960s in response to the growing number of community college students seeking to continue their education. They differ from a regular college or university in that they do not provide the first two years of undergraduate instruction and require applicants to already have completed two years of study at another institution. [1]

Contents

History

In the late 19th and early 20th century, educational leaders such as William R. Harper and David Starr Jordan sought to separate the preparatory portion of college studies from "real" university work undertaken in the third and fourth years of study. Jordan, then president of Stanford University, proposed splitting the institution into two parts in 1907 to reach this goal, however changes the California secondary school system halted this proposal. [2] In 1914 Frank Johnson Goodnow became president of Johns Hopkins University and proposed eliminating the bachelor's degree by cutting the first two years of undergraduate work. Called the Goodnow Plan or New Plan, students would have entered Hopkins after two years of study in other universities and would have worked toward an advanced degree, bypassing the bachelor's degree.

David Starr Jordan, one of the early pioneers of upper division colleges Dsjordan.jpg
David Starr Jordan, one of the early pioneers of upper division colleges

Upper division colleges were first established as mainstream institutions in the 1950s in the United States as a means to respond to the need for educated professionals to assist in the space race. [3] While earlier efforts had been undertaken at the University of Georgia in 1858, they failed due to the onset of the Civil War. [2]

The first upper division college was the College of the Pacific in Stockton, California, which operated as an upper-division college between 1935 and 1951, before becoming the University of the Pacific in 1961. [2] This was done as part of a plan to reduce costs and increase enrollment by subletting college facilities to a high school which assumed public junior college status and funding. [2] However, disagreements between the College of the Pacific and the affiliated junior college, as well as accreditation issues resulting from the arrangement, led to the abandonment of the experiment in 1951.

The first college founded as an upper division college was University of Michigan–Flint, which was founded in 1956 as Flint College, however it converted to four year status in 1965 as a result of changes in the development of the region. [2]

Another notable early upper division college was Florida Atlantic University, which opened in 1964 and served third and fourth year undergraduate students, as well as graduate students. Later, in 1984, Florida Atlantic expanded to include first and second year undergraduates and ceased to be an upper division college. [4]

At the time they were created, upper division colleges were seen as a way to better manage community resources and provide opportunities for students. [5] It was thought that separating the upper division from the lower division of coursework would improve the relationship between undergraduate and graduate programs. [6] Additionally, some believed that by creating 2+2 programs between community colleges and upper division colleges, students could continue their education without the state needing to expand existing community colleges into full four year colleges. [7] Some commentators at the time saw the widespread development of upper division schools, in the same way community colleges had expanded in the prior decades. [8]

Decline

By the 1980s and 1990s, many states began to move away from the upper-division model. Despite concerns of crowding out of community colleges, it was felt that offering only the upper-level courses resulted in a poor public image and prevented the establishment of a full university setting. [9] Many of the students seeking to transfer from a community college desired a full college experience, including electives and extra-curricular activities. The inability to reach a large critical mass prevented the upper division colleges from competing effectively with four year colleges. [6] Some upper-division colleges such as the City University of New York's Richmond College merged with community colleges, while others such as Florida Atlantic and SUNY Institute of Technology opened their doors to freshman and sophomore undergraduates. [10] [11] As of 2009 very few upper-division colleges remain in the United States, with almost all merging with community colleges or converting to four year status.

Colleges

NameStarted upper divisionEnded upper divisionResult
Athens State University 1975Current public upper division college
College of the Pacific 19351951Expanded to four years
Concordia Senior College 19571977Closed
Florida International University 19721981Expanded to four years
Garfield Senior College 19711985Merged with Lake Erie College
Governors State University 19712014GSU enrolled its first freshman class in August 2014
John F. Kennedy University 19652020Closed
Metropolitan State University 19731994Expanded to four years
Penn State Harrisburg 19662004Expanded to four years
Resurrection University 2003Current private upper division college
Richmond College 19651976Merged with community college
SUNY Institute of Technology 19662003Expanded to four years
Texas A&M International University 19691995Expanded to four years
Texas A&M University–Central Texas 2009Current public upper division college
Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi 19731994Expanded to four years
Texas A&M University–San Antonio 20092016Expanded to four years
Texas A&M University–Texarkana 19712008Expanded to four years
University of Baltimore 19752005Expanded to four years
University of Hawaii–West Oahu 19762007Expanded to four years
University of Houston–Clear Lake 19712011Ended upper-division in 2011 by statute; Admitted first freshman class in August 2014
University of Houston–Victoria 19732009Expanded to four years
University of Illinois at Springfield 19692001Expanded to four years
University of Michigan–Dearborn 19591971Expanded to four years
University of Michigan–Flint 19561965Expanded to four years
University of North Florida 19721984Expanded to four years
University of Texas at Brownsville 19731998Expanded to four years
University of Texas at Dallas 19691990Expanded to four years
University of Texas at Tyler 19711998Expanded to four years
University of Texas of the Permian Basin 19731991Expanded to four years
University of West Florida 19671983Expanded to four years
Walsh College 1968Current private NFP upper division

Related Research Articles

City University of New York Public university system in New York City

The City University of New York is the public university system of New York City. It is the largest urban university system in the United States, comprising 25 campuses: eleven senior colleges, seven community colleges, one undergraduate honors college, and seven postgraduate institutions. While its constituent colleges date back as far as 1847, CUNY was established in 1961. The university enrolls more than 275,000 students, and counts thirteen Nobel Prize winners and twenty-four MacArthur Fellows among its alumni.

Liberal arts education Traditional academic program in Western higher education

Liberal arts education is the traditional academic program in Western higher education. Liberal arts takes the term art in the sense of a learned skill rather than specifically the fine arts. Liberal arts education can refer to studies in a liberal arts degree program or to a university education more generally. Such a course of study contrasts with those that are principally vocational, professional, or technical.

State University of New York Public university system in New York state

The State University of New York is a system of public colleges and universities in New York State. It is the largest comprehensive system of universities, colleges, and community colleges in the United States, with a total enrollment of 424,051 students, plus 2,195,082 adult education students, spanning 64 campuses across the state. Led by Chancellor Jim Malatras, the SUNY system has 91,182 employees, including 32,496 faculty members, and some 7,660 degree and certificate programs overall and a $13.08 billion budget.

Student Learner, or someone who attends an educational institution

A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving employment at desired field. In the broader sense, a student is anyone who applies themselves to the intensive intellectual engagement with some matter necessary to master it as part of some practical affair in which such mastery is basic or decisive.

College of Staten Island

The College of Staten Island (CSI) is a public college in Staten Island, New York. It is one of the 11 four-year senior colleges within the City University of New York system. Programs in the liberal arts and sciences and professional studies lead to bachelor's and associate degrees. The master's degree is awarded in 13 professional and liberal arts and sciences fields of study. A clinical doctorate is awarded by the department of physical therapy. The college participates in doctoral programs of the CUNY Graduate Center in biochemistry, biology, chemistry, computer science, nursing, physics, and psychology.

Undergraduate education Academic programs up to the level of a bachelors degree

Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-level university student is known as an undergraduate, while students of higher degrees are known as graduate students. In some other educational systems, undergraduate education is postsecondary education up to the level of a master's degree; this is the case for some science courses in Britain and some medicine courses in Europe.

Portland State University Public university in Portland, Oregon

Portland State University (PSU) is a public research university in Portland, Oregon. It was founded in 1946 as a post-secondary educational institution for World War II veterans. It evolved into a four-year college over the following two decades and was granted university status in 1969. It is the only public university in the state of Oregon that is located in a large city. It is governed by a board of trustees. PSU is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity".

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community. Most of these institutions were founded in the years after the American Civil War and are concentrated in the Southern United States. During the period of segregation in the United States prior to the Civil Rights Act, the overwhelming majority of higher education institutions were predominantly white and completely disqualified or limited African-American enrollment. For a century after the end of slavery in the United States in 1865, most colleges and universities in the Southern United States prohibited all African Americans from attending, while institutions in other parts of the country regularly employed quotas to limit admissions of Black people. HBCUs were established to give opportunities to African Americans especially in the South.

University at Buffalo Public university in Buffalo, New York

The State University of New York at Buffalo, commonly referred to as the University at Buffalo (UB) or SUNY Buffalo, is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, United States. The university was founded in 1846 as a private medical college and merged with the State University of New York system in 1962. As of Fall 2020, the university enrolls 32,347 students in 13 colleges, making it the largest public university in the state of New York.

Buffalo State College

The State University of New York College at Buffalo is a public college in Buffalo, New York. It is part of the State University of New York (SUNY) system. Buffalo State College was founded in 1871 as the Buffalo Normal School to train teachers. It offers 79 undergraduate majors with 11 honors options, 11 post baccalaureate teacher certification programs, and 64 graduate programs.

State University of New York at Oneonta public college in Oneonta, New York, U.S.

The State University of New York College at Oneonta is a public college in Oneonta, New York. It is part of the State University of New York (SUNY) system.

State University of New York at Delhi

The State University of New York at Delhi is a public college in Delhi, New York. It is part of the State University of New York (SUNY) system. Over 3,000 students attend the institution. 

University of West Florida

The University of West Florida is public university in Pensacola, Florida. Established in 1963 as part of the State University System of Florida, the university sits on the third largest campus in the State University System, at 1,600 acres. The university's mascot is Argie the Argonaut and its logo is the chambered nautilus.

University of North Florida

The University of North Florida (UNF) is a public university in Jacksonville, Florida. It is part of the State University System of Florida and is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, masters, and doctorate degrees. Its campus comprises 1,300 acres amid a natural preserve on Jacksonville's Southside. The president is David Szymanski.

Florida Atlantic University Public university in Boca Raton, Florida

Florida Atlantic University is a public research university with its main campus in Boca Raton, Florida and satellite campuses in Dania Beach, Davie, Fort Lauderdale, Jupiter, and Fort Pierce. FAU belongs to the 12-campus State University System of Florida and serves South Florida, which has more than five million people and spans more than 100 miles (160 km) of coastline. Florida Atlantic University is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity". The university offers more than 170 undergraduate and graduate degree programs within its 10 colleges.

Nova Southeastern University Private university in south Florida

Nova Southeastern University is a private research university with its main campus in Fort Lauderdale-Davie, Florida. The university consists of 18 total colleges, centers, and schools offering over 150 programs of study. The university offers professional degrees in the social sciences, law, business, osteopathic medicine, allopathic medicine, allied health, pharmacy, dentistry, optometry, physical therapy, education, occupational therapy, and nursing. As of 2019, 20,576 students were enrolled at Nova Southeastern University, with more than 170,000 alumni. With a main campus located on 314 acres in Davie, Florida, NSU operates additional campuses in Dania Beach, North Miami Beach, Tampa, Florida, and centers throughout the state of Florida.

Georgia Southern University–Armstrong Campus, formerly Armstrong State University, is a satellite campus of Georgia Southern University, a public university. Occupying a 268-acre (1.08 km2) area on the residential southside of Savannah, Georgia, United States, the school became one of three campuses of Georgia Southern University in 2018. The university's flagship campus is in Statesboro, 50 miles (80 km) west of Savannah. The Armstrong campus is located approximately fifteen minutes by car from downtown Savannah and 25 miles (40 km) from Tybee Island. Armstrong offers undergraduate and graduate degrees; it has a total student enrollment of approximately 5,000 students.

Higher education in the United States Education beyond high school

Higher education in the United States is an optional stage of formal learning following secondary education. Higher education is also referred as post-secondary education, third-stage, third-level, or tertiary education. It covers stages 5 to 8 on the International ISCED 2011 scale. It is delivered at 4,360 Title IV degree-granting institutions, known as colleges or universities. These may be public or private universities, liberal arts colleges, community colleges, or for-profit colleges. US higher education is loosely regulated by several third-party organizations.

The University of the State of New York (USNY), its policy-setting Board of Regents, and its administrative arm, the New York State Education Department, oversee all public primary, middle-level, and secondary education in the state. The New York City Department of Education, which manages the public school system in New York City, is the largest school district in the United States, with more students than the combined population of eight U.S. states. Over 1 million students are taught in more than 1,200 separate schools.

References

  1. "Types of Colleges". College Board. 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Altman, Robert A. (1969-06-24). "A Study of the Establishment of Upper Division Colleges in the United States" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Retrieved 2009-07-17.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. Weaver Jr., Warren (1957-03-13). "Vast Expansion Set By State University". New York Times. p. 1.
  4. "History of Florida Atlantic University". Florida Atlantic University. 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  5. Erickson, Clifford G. (May 1970). "The Two-Year College". The Journal of Higher Education. Ohio State University Press. 41 (5): 409–412. doi:10.2307/1977394. JSTOR   1977394.
  6. 1 2 Altman, Robert A. (March 1970). "The Upper Division College: Blueprint or Blind Alley?". The Journal of Higher Education. Ohio State University Press. 41 (3): 204–212. doi:10.2307/1977310. JSTOR   1977310.
  7. Higbee, Marvin (March 1973). "Upper Division Colleges: An End To Transfer Hurdles". Community and Junior College Journal. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  8. Dunham, E. Alden (June 1968). "What is the Junior College All About?". PMLA. Modern Language Association. 83 (3): 530–533. doi:10.2307/1261324. JSTOR   1261324.
  9. "Report to regents says two-plus-two adds up". Boca Raton News. 1979-09-25. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  10. "College of Staten Island". College of Staten Island . Retrieved 2009-04-06.
  11. "SUNY IT History". SUNY IT. 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-06-24. Retrieved 2009-07-17.