Ancient higher-learning institutions

Last updated

Mosaic from Pompeii (1st c. BC) depicting Plato's Academy. MANNapoli 124545 plato's academy mosaic enh crop.jpg
Mosaic from Pompeii (1st c. BC) depicting Plato's Academy.

A variety of ancient higher-learning institutions were developed in many cultures to provide institutional frameworks for scholarly activities. These ancient centres were sponsored and overseen by courts; by religious institutions, which sponsored cathedral schools, monastic schools, and madrasas; by scientific institutions, such as museums, hospitals, and observatories; and by respective scholars. They are to be distinguished from the Western-style university, an autonomous organization of scholars that originated in medieval Europe [1] and has been adopted in other regions in modern times (see list of oldest universities in continuous operation). [2]



Classical Greece

Aristotle's School, a painting from the 1880s by Gustav Adolph Spangenberg Spangenberg - Schule des Aristoteles.jpg
Aristotle's School, a painting from the 1880s by Gustav Adolph Spangenberg

The Platonic Academy (sometimes referred to as the University of Athens), [3] [4] founded ca. 387 BCE in Athens, Greece, by the philosopher Plato, lasted until 86 BCE, when it was destroyed during Sulla's siege and sacking of Athens. [5] Some 400 years later, during the fourth century CE, the Platonist philosopher Plutarch of Athens started a school which identified itself with Plato's Academy. That school lasted until 529, when it was closed following an edict from the Emperor Justinian prohibiting pagans from teaching. [6] The Academy was also emulated during the Renaissance by the Florentine Platonic Academy, whose members saw themselves as following Plato's tradition.

Around 335 BCE, Plato's successor Aristotle founded the Peripatetic school, the students of which met at the Lyceum gymnasium in Athens. The school also ceased in 86 BC during the famine, siege and sacking of Athens by Sulla. [7]

The reputation of the Greek institutions in Alexandria, Egypt was such that at least four central modern educational terms derive from them: the academy, the lyceum, the gymnasium and the museum.

Christian Europe

The University of Constantinople, founded as an institution of higher learning in 425, educated graduates to take on posts of authority in the imperial service or within the Church. [8] It was reorganized as a corporation of students in 849 by the regent Bardas of emperor Michael III, is considered by some to be the earliest institution of higher learning with some of the characteristics we associate today with a university (research and teaching, auto-administration, academic independence, et cetera). If a university is defined as "an institution of higher learning" then it is preceded by several others, including the Academy that it was founded to compete with and eventually replaced. If the original meaning of the word is considered "a corporation of students" then this could be the first example of such an institution. The Preslav Literary School and Ohrid Literary School were the two major literary schools of the First Bulgarian Empire.

In Western Europe during the Early Middle Ages, bishops sponsored cathedral schools and monasteries sponsored monastic schools, chiefly dedicated to the education of clergy. The earliest evidence of a European episcopal school is that established in Visigothic Spain at the Second Council of Toledo in 527. [9] These early episcopal schools, with a focus on an apprenticeship in religious learning under a scholarly bishop, have been identified in Spain and in about twenty towns in Gaul during the 6th and 7th centuries. [10]

In addition to these episcopal schools, there were monastic schools which educated monks and nuns, as well as future bishops, at a more advanced level. [11] Around the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, some of them developed into autonomous universities. A notable example is when the University of Paris grew out of the schools associated with the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Monastery of Ste. Geneviève, and the Abbey of St. Victor. [12] [13]


Ancient India

Major Buddhist monasteries ( mahaviharas ), notably those at Pushpagiri, Nalanda, Valabhi, and Taxila, included schools that were some of the primary institutions of higher learning in ancient India.


Udayagiri, Odisha Part of Pushpagiri Udayagiri WIKI.JPG
Udayagiri, Odisha Part of Pushpagiri

The school in Pushpagiri was established in the 3rd century AD as present Odisha, India. As of 2007, the ruins of this Mahavihara had not yet been fully excavated. Consequently, much of the Mahavihara's history remains unknown. Of the three Mahavihara campuses, Lalitgiri in the district of Cuttack is the oldest. Iconographic analysis indicates that Lalitgiri had already been established during the Shunga period of the 2nd century BC, making it one of the oldest Buddhist establishments in the world. The Chinese traveller Xuanzang (Hiuen Tsang), who visited it in AD 639, as Puphagiri Mahavihara, [14] [15] as well as in medieval Tibetan texts. However, unlike Takshila and Nalanda, the ruins of Pushpagiri were not discovered until 1995, when a lecturer from a local college first stumbled upon the site. [16] [17] The task of excavating Pushpagiri's ruins, stretching over 58 hectares (143 acres) of land, was undertaken by the Odisha Institute of Maritime and South East Asian Studies between 1996 and 2006. It is now being carried out by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). [18] The Nagarjunakonda inscriptions also mention about this learning center. [19] [20]


Nalanda, ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India from 427 to 1197 Nalanda University India ruins.jpg
Nalanda, ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India from 427 to 1197

Nalanda was established in the fifth century AD in Bihar, India [21] and survived until circa 1200 AD. It was devoted to Buddhist studies, but it also trained students in fine arts, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, politics and the art of war. [23]

The center had eight separate compounds, ten temples, meditation halls, classrooms, lakes and parks. It had a nine-story library with 9 million books where monks meticulously copied books and documents so that individual scholars could have their own collections. It had dormitories for students, housing 10,000 students in the school's heyday and providing accommodation for 2,000 professors. [24] Nalanda attracted pupils and scholars from Sri Lanka, Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey, who left accounts of the center. [25]

Evidence in literature suggests that in 1193, the Nalanda University was sacked by [26] Bakhtiyar Khilji. [27] The Persian historian Minhaj-i-Siraj, in his chronicle the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, reported that thousands of monks were burned alive and thousands beheaded as Khilji tried his best to uproot Buddhism. The burning of the library continued for several months and "smoke from the burning manuscripts hung for days like a dark pall over the low hills." [28]

In 2014 a modern Nalanda University was launched in nearby Rajgir.


Ancient Taxila or Takshashila, in ancient Gandhara, was an early Hindu and Buddhist centre of learning. According to scattered references that were only fixed a millennium later, it may have dated back to at least the fifth century BC. [29] Some scholars date Takshashila's existence back to the sixth century BC. [30] The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was most likely still provided on an individualistic basis. [29]

Takshashila is described in some detail in later Jātaka tales, written in Sri Lanka around the fifth century AD. [31]

It became a noted centre of learning at least several centuries BC, and continued to attract students until the destruction of the city in the fifth century AD. Takshashila is perhaps best known because of its association with Chanakya. The famous treatise Arthashastra (Sanskrit for The knowledge of Economics) by Chanakya, is said to have been composed in Takshashila itself. Chanakya (or Kautilya), [32] the Maurya Emperor Chandragupta [33] and the Ayurvedic healer Charaka studied at Taxila. [34]

Generally, a student entered Takshashila at the age of sixteen. The Vedas and the Eighteen Arts, which included skills such as archery, hunting, and elephant lore, were taught, in addition to its law school, medical school, and school of military science. [34]


Vikramashila was one of the two most important centres of learning in India during the Pala Empire, along with Nalanda. Vikramashila was established by King Dharmapala (783 to 820) in response to a supposed decline in the quality of scholarship at Nalanda. Atisha, the renowned pandita, is sometimes listed as a notable abbot. It was destroyed by the forces of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji around 1200. [35]

Vikramashila is known to us mainly through Tibetan sources, especially the writings of Tāranātha, the Tibetan monk historian of the 16th–17th centuries. [36]

Vikramashila was one of the largest Buddhist universities, with more than one hundred teachers and about one thousand students. It produced eminent scholars who were often invited by foreign countries to spread Buddhist learning, culture and religion. The most distinguished and eminent among all was Atisha Dipankara, a founder of the Sarma traditions of Tibetan Buddhism. Subjects like philosophy, grammar, metaphysics, Indian logic etc. were taught here, but the most important branch of learning was tantrism.

Mithila University

University of Mithila was famous for Nyaya Sutra and logical Sciences. It was gradually started from the philosophical conferences held by Janaka, the king of Mithila at his court. These philosophical conferences led to the formation of a seat of learning and this seat of learning converted into the university of Mithila.


Further centres include Telhara in Bihar [37] (probably older than Nalanda [38] ), Odantapuri, in Bihar (circa 550 - 1040), Somapura Mahavihara, in Bangladesh (from the Gupta period to the Turkic Muslim conquest), Sharada Peeth, Pakistan, Jagaddala Mahavihara, in Bengal (from the Pala period to the Turkic Muslim conquest), Nagarjunakonda, in Andhra Pradesh, Vikramashila, in Bihar (circa 800-1040), Valabhi, in Gujarat (from the Maitrak period to the Arab raids), Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh (eighth century to modern times), Kanchipuram, in Tamil Nadu, Manyakheta, in Karnataka, Mahavihara, Abhayagiri Vihāra, and Jetavanaramaya, in Sri Lanka.

East Asia


In China, the ancient imperial academy known as Taixue was established by the Han Dynasty. It was intermittently inherited by succeeding Chinese dynasties up until the Qing dynasty, in some of which the name was changed to Guozixue or Guozijian. Peking University (Imperial University of Peking) and Nanjing University are regarded as the replacement of Taixue. By 725 AD, Shuyuan or Academies of Classical Learning were private learning institutions established during the medieval Chinese Tang dynasty. The Yuelu Academy (later become Hunan University) founded in 976 AD, which is one of the four ancient famous Shuyuan (Academies) during the Song dynasty. [39]


In Japan, Daigakuryo was founded in 671 and Ashikaga Gakko was founded in the 9th century and restored in 1432.


In Korea, Taehak was founded in 372 and Gukhak was established in 682. Seowons were private institutions established during the Joseon dynasty which combined functions of a Confucian shrine and a preparatory school. The Seonggyungwan was founded by in 1398 to offer prayers and memorials to Confucius and his disciples, and to promote the study of the Confucian canon. It was the successor to Gukjagam from the Goryeo Dynasty (992). It was reopened as Sungkyunkwan University, a private Western-style university, in 1946.

Ancient Persia

The Academy of Gondishapur was established in the 3rd century AD under the rule of Sassanid kings and continued its scholarly activities up to four centuries after Islam came to Iran. It was an important medical centre of the 6th and 7th centuries and a prominent example of higher education model in pre-Islam Iran. [40] When the Platonic Academy in Athens was closed in 529, some of its pagan scholars went to Gundishahpur, although they returned within a year to Byzantium.


North Africa


Ancient Egyptians established an organization of higher learning – the Per-ankh, which means the “House of Life” – in 2000 BCE. [41] [42]

In the 3rd century BCE, amid the Ptolemaic dynasty, the Serapeum, Mouseion, and Library of Alexandria served as organizations of higher learning in Alexandria. [43] [42]

In Cairo, Al-Azhar, which was established in 970 CE, served as an organization of higher learning. [44] [42]


In Fez, Fatima al-Fihri established a mosque in 859 CE, which eventually became the organization of higher learning, the University of al-Qarawiyyin. [44] [42]


The Ez-Zitouna University, which was established in 732 CE, served as an organization of higher learning. [42]

West Africa


In the 12th century CE, the University of Sankore, which began as the Mosque of Sankore, served as an organization of higher learning in Timbuktu. [44] [42] The Mosque of Sankore, the Mosque of Sidi Yahya, and the Mosque of Djinguereber constitute what is referred to as the University of Timbuktu. [44] [42]

East Africa


In the 4th century CE, amid the reign of Emperor Ella Amida, the Axumite imperial church served as an organization of higher learning. [41] [42]

See also

Related Research Articles

An academy is an institution of secondary or tertiary higher learning, research, or honorary membership. The name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, founded approximately 385 BC at Akademia, a sanctuary of Athena, the goddess of wisdom and skill, north of Athens, Greece.

Nalanda Ancient University in India

Nalanda was a renowned Buddhist University in the ancient kingdom of Magadha in India. Pali was the main language of instruction, as evidenced by various Buddhist texts. These texts describe it as a Mahavihara, a revered Buddhist monastery. The university of Nalanda obtained significant fame, prestige and relevance during ancient times, and rose to legendary status due to its contribution to the emergence of India as a great power around the fourth century. The site is located about 95 kilometres (59 mi) southeast of Patna, and was one of the greatest centres of learning in the world from the fifth century CE to c. 1200 CE. Today, it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Taxila Ancient archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan

Taxila is a significant archaeological site in the modern city of the same name in Punjab, Pakistan. It lies about 25 km (16 mi) northwest of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, and 25 km (16 mi) southwest of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.

Magadha Kingdom in ancient India

Magadha was a region and one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas, 'Great Kingdoms' of the Second Urbanization in what is now south Bihar at the eastern Ganges Plain, north India. Magahi or Magadhi is the language of Magadh which is still spoken in southern Bihar. Magadh was ruled by the Pradyota dynasty, Barhadratha dynasty, Haryanka dynasty, and the Shaishunaga dynasty. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Their administrations were divided into executive, judicial, and military functions.

Pala Empire Empire in the Indian subcontinent

The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the post-classical period in the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. It is named after its ruling dynasty, whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix Pala. They were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. The empire was founded with the election of Gopala as the emperor of Gauda in 750 CE. The Pala stronghold was located in Bengal and Bihar, which included the major cities of Gauda, Vikrampura, Pataliputra, Monghyr, Somapura, Ramvati (Varendra), Tamralipta and Jaggadala.

Vikramashila Site of an ancient university in India

Vikramashila was one of the three most important Buddhist centres of learning in India during the Pala Empire, along with Nalanda and Odantapuri. Its location is now the site of Antichak village, Bhagalpur district in Bihar.

Bihar Sharif Sub-metropolitan city in Bihar, India

Bihar Sharif is the headquarters of Nalanda district and the fifth-largest sub-metropolitan area in the eastern Indian state of Bihar. Its name is a combination of two words: Bihar, derived from vihara, also the name of the state; and Sharif. The city is a hub of education and trade in southern Bihar, and the economy centers around agriculture supplemented by tourism, the education sector and household manufacturing. The ruins of the ancient Nalanda Mahavihara, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, are located near the city.

The history of education extends at least as far back as the first written records recovered from ancient civilizations. Historical studies have included virtually every nation.


Odantapuri was a prominent Buddhist Mahavihara in what is now Bihar, India. It is believed to have been established by Gopala I in the 8th century. It is considered the second oldest of India's Mahaviharas after Nalanda and was situated in Magadha.

Kahalgaon City in Bihar, India

Kahalgaon is a town and a municipality in Bhagalpur district in the state of Bihar, India. It is located close to the Vikramashila, that was once a famous centre of Buddhist learning across the world and in Buddha period commonly known as, along with Nalanda during the Pala dynasty. The Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power Plant (KhSTPP) is located near the town(3 km).

History of education in the Indian subcontinent Aspect of history

The history of education began with teaching of traditional elements such as Indian religions, Indian mathematics, Indian logic at early Hindu and Buddhist centres of learning such as ancient Takshashila and Nalanda Before the advent of Christianity and Christian missionaries.

Pushpagiri Vihara Buddhist site in Odisha, India

Pushpagiri was an ancient Buddhist mahavihara or monastic complex located atop Langudi Hill in Jajpur district of Odisha, India. Pushpagiri was mentioned in the writings of the Chinese traveller Xuanzang and some other ancient sources. Until the 1990s, it was hypothesised to be one or all of the Lalitgiri-Ratnagiri-Udayagiri group of monastic sites, also located in Jajpur district. These sites contain ruins of many buildings, stupas of various sizes, sculptures, and other artifacts.

Somapura Mahavihara

Somapura Mahavihara in Paharpur, Badalgachhi Upazila, Naogaon District, Bangladesh is among the best known viharas, monasteries, in the Indian Subcontinent and is one of the most important archaeological sites in the country. It is also one of the earliest sites of Bengal, where significant numbers of Hindu statues were found. It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985. It is one of the most famous examples of architecture in pre-Islamic Bangladesh. It dates from a period to the nearby Halud Vihara and to the Sitakot Vihara in Nawabganj Upazila of Dinajpur District.

Jagaddala Mahavihara

Jagaddala Mahavihara was a Buddhist monastery and seat of learning in Varendra, a geographical unit in present north Bengal in Bangladesh. It was founded by the later kings of the Pāla dynasty, probably Ramapala, most likely at a site near the present village of Jagdal in Dhamoirhat Upazila in the north-west Bangladesh on the border with India, near Paharapur. Some texts also spell the name Jaggadala.


Lalitagiri is a major Buddhist complex in the Indian state of Odisha comprising major stupas, 'esoteric' Buddha images, and monasteries (viharas), one of the oldest sites in the region, Significant finds at this complex include Buddha's relics. Tantric Buddhism was practiced at this site.

The Takshashila Institution is an independent, networked think tank and public policy school based in India. It focuses on strategic affairs, public policy and governance. The Takshashila Institution is registered as a non-profit trust.

Mahavihara is the Sanskrit and Pali term for a great vihara and is used to describe a monastic complex of viharas.

Nava Nalanda Mahavihara A Deemed university in Bihar

Nava Nalanda Mahavihara (NNM) is an institute deemed to be university located in Nalanda, Bihar, India. It was established in 1951 under Rajendra Prasad to revive the ancient seat of learning in Nalanda.

University of ancient Taxila ancient university in the Indian subcontinent

The university of ancient Taxila was an ancient Indian university located in the city of Taxila, on the eastern bank of the Indus river. The earliest evidence about Taxila comes from Valmiki Ramayana. According to Ramayana the city of Takṣaśilā (तक्षशिला) was founded by Bharata, the son of Kekaya and younger brother of Rama. Along with Nalanda, Taxila was one of the seats of higher learning in Indian subcontinent. It became the capital of the Achaemenid territories in northwestern Indian subcontinent following the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley around 515 BCE. Taxila was at the crossroad of the main trade roads of Asia, was probably populated by Persians, Greeks, Scythians and many ethnicities coming from the various parts of the Achaemenid Empire.

The Indian subcontinent has a long history of education and learning from the era of Indus Valley Civilization. Important ancient institutions of learning in Indian subcontinent are as follows:



  1. Stephen C. Ferruolo, The Origins of the University: The Schools of Paris and Their Critics, 1100-1215, (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1985) pp. 4-5 ISBN   0-8047-1266-2
  2. Hilde de Ridder-Symoens (1994). A History of the University in Europe: Universities in the middle ages / ed. Hilde de Ridder-Symoens. ISBN   978-0-521-36105-7.
  3. Ellwood P. Cubberley (2004). The History of Education. Kessinger Publishing. p. 50. ISBN   978-1-4191-6605-1.
  4. Howard Eugene Wilson (1939). Harvard Educational Review. Harvard University.
  5. "Plato: The Academy". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  6. "Plato: The Academy". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  7. 336 BC: Furley 2003a , p. 1141; 335 BC: Lynch 1997 , p. 311; 334 BC: Irwin 2003
  8. Constantinides, C. N. (2003). "Rhetoric in Byzantium: Papers from the Thirty-Fifth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies". In Jeffreys, Elizabeth (ed.). Teachers and students of rhetoric in the late Byzantine period. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 39–53. ISBN   0-7546-3453-1.
  9. Riché, Education and Culture, pp. 126-7.
  10. Riché, Education and Culture, pp. 282-90.
  11. Riché, Education and Culture, pp. 290-8.
  12. Pedersen, Olaf (1997). The First Universities: Studium Generale and the Origins of University Education in Europe. pp. 130–31. ISBN   978-0-521-59431-8.
  13. The rise of universities. Cornell University Press. 1957. pp. 12–16. ISBN   978-0-8014-9015-6.
  14. Binayak Misra (1986). Indian culture and cult of Jagannātha. Punthi Pustak.
  15. "Orissa's treasures". February 2005. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007.
  16. H. K. Mohapatra (December 2004). "Great Heritages of Orissa" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2009.
  17. "ASI hope for hill heritage – Conservation set to start at Orissa site". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 29 January 2007.
  18. "Archaeological Survey of India takes over Orissa Buddhist site". 17 November 2006.
  19. Thomas E. Donaldson (2001). Iconography of the Buddhist Sculpture of Orissa: Text. Abhinav Publications. p. 4. ISBN   978-81-7017-406-6.
  20. Pratapaditya Pal; Marg Publications (2001). Orissa revisited. Marg Publications. ISBN   978-81-85026-51-0.
  21. 1 2 Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1965). Education in Ancient India, Sixth, Varanasi: Nand Kishore & Bros.
  22. "Really Old School," Garten, Jeffrey E. New York Times, 9 December 2006.
  23. OpEd in New York Times: Nalanda University
  24. "Official website of Nalanda University". Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  25. "History and Revival". Nalanda University. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  26. Allen, Charles. The Buddha and the Sahibs.
  27. Scott, David (May 1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". p. 141. Digital object identifier:10.1163/1568527952598657
  28. Gertrude Emerson Sen (1964). The Story of Early Indian Civilization. Orient Longmans.
  29. 1 2 Scharfe, Hartmut; Bronkhorst, Johannes; Spuler, Bertold; Altenmüller, Hartwig (2002). Handbuch Der Orientalistik: India. Education in ancient India. p. 141. ISBN   978-90-04-12556-8.
  30. "History of Education", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  31. Marshall 1975:81
  32. Kautilya Archived 10 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine . Encyclopædia Britannica.
  33. Mookerji, Radhakumud (1966). Chandragupta Maurya And His Times. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. p. 17. ISBN   978-81-208-0405-0.
  34. 1 2 Mookerji, Radhakumud (1990). Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. pp. 478–489. ISBN   978-81-208-0423-4.
  35. Sanderson, Alexis. "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009. Institute of Oriental Culture Special Series, 23, pp. 89.
  36. "Excavated Remains at Nalanda". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  37. "TELHARA (NALANDA) EXCAVATION A Brief Report" (PDF). Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  38. "Telhara University's ruins older than Nalanda, Vikramshila". firstpost. 14 December 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  39. "Introduction of Hunan University". Hunan University.
  40. Salari, H. "University in Iran". paper. jazirehdanesh. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  41. 1 2 Lulat, Y. G.-M. (2005). A History of African Higher Education from Antiquity to the Present: A Critical Synthesis. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 44.
  42. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Alemu, Sintayehu Kassaye. "The Meaning, Idea And History Of University/Higher Education In Africa: A Brief Literature Review" (PDF). Institution of Education Sciences. FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education.
  43. Cunningham, Jeffrey J. "The role of learning institutions in Ptolemaic Alexandria". WWU Graduate School Collection. Western Washington University.
  44. 1 2 3 4 Peters, Michael A. "Ancient centers of higher learning: A bias in the comparative history of the university?". Taylor & Francis Online. Educational Philosophy and Theory.