Secondary school

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Camberwell High School, a public secondary school in Australia Camberwell High School.jpg
Camberwell High School, a public secondary school in Australia

A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary education (ages 14 to 18) i.e. levels 2 and 3 of the ISCED scale, but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. In the UK, most state schools and privately-funded schools accommodate pupils between the ages of 11-16 or 11–18. Some elite UK private schools, i.e. public schools, admit pupils between the ages of 13 and 18. [1] [2] [3]

Contents

Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and prepare for vocational or tertiary education. Attendance is usually compulsory for students until age 16. The organisations, buildings, and terminology are more or less unique in each country. [4] [5]

Levels of education

In the ISCED 2011 education scale [6] levels 2 and 3 correspond to secondary education which are as follows:

Terminology: descriptions of cohorts

Within the English-speaking world, there are three widely used systems to describe the age of the child. The first is the 'equivalent ages'; then countries that base their education systems on the 'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the 'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as 'grades'. The Irish model is structured similarly to the English model, but have significant differences in terms of labels. This terminology extends into the research literature. Below is a comparison of some countries: [7]

Secondary cohorts
Equivalent age11–1212–1313–1414–1515–1616–1717–18
United States Grade6789101112
Nickname Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior
United Kingdom England/Wales: FormFirstSecondThirdFourthFifthLower SixthUpper Sixth
England/Wales: Year78910111213
Scotland S1S2S3S4S5S6
Northern Ireland: Year891011121314
Republic of Ireland Other nameJunior CycleJunior CycleJunior CycleTransition YearSenior CycleSenior Cycle
Class & year6th Class1st Year2nd Year3rd Year4th Year5th Year6th Year
Jamaica FormFirstSecondThirdFourthFifthLower Sixth (6B)Upper Sixth (6A)
Year78910111213
GroupingLower SchoolUpper SchoolSixth Form Programme
ISCED level2223333 [7]
Indonesia Grade6789101112
NicknameSD Kelas 6SMP Kelas 7SMP Kelas 8SMP Kelas 9SMA Kelas 10SMA Kelas 11SMA Kelas 12

Schools exist within a strict legal framework, where they may be answerable to the church, the state through local authorities and their stakeholders. In England (but necessarily in other parts of the United Kingdom) there are six general types of state funded schools running in parallel to the private sector. The state takes an interest in safeguarding issues in all schools. All state-funded schools in England are legally required to have a website where they must publish details of their governance, finance, curriculum intent and staff and pupil protection policies to comply with ' The School Information (England) (Amendment) Regulations 2012 and 2016 '. Ofsted monitors these. [8] [9]

Theoretical framework

High school in Bratislava, Slovakia (Gamca) Gymnazium Grosslingova.jpg
High school in Bratislava, Slovakia (Gamča)

School building design does not happen in isolation. The building (or school campus) needs to accommodate:

Each country will have a different education system and priorities. [10] Schools need to accommodate students, staff, storage, mechanical and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration. The number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed.

According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m2, or more generously 62 m2. A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m2, but 104 m2 for 3D textile work. A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m2. Examples are given on how this can be configured for a 1,200 place secondary (practical specialism). [11] and 1,850 place secondary school. [12]

Building design specifications

The first taxpayer-funded public school in the United States was in Dedham, Massachusetts. First school.jpg
The first taxpayer-funded public school in the United States was in Dedham, Massachusetts.
The red-brick building of the Kallavesi High School in Kuopio, Finland. Kallaveden lukio.jpg
The red-brick building of the Kallavesi High School in Kuopio, Finland.

The building providing the education has to fulfill the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community. It has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms, toilets and showers, electricity and services, preparation and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids. [13] An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have:

Government accountants having read the advice then publish minimum guidelines on schools. These enable environmental modelling and establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure that these standards are met but not exceeded. Government ministries continue to press for the 'minimum' space and cost standards to be reduced.

The UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050 m2 (+ 350 m2 if there is a sixth form) + 6.3 m2/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-old's + 7 m2/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m2. [14]

Secondary schools by country

Carl-von-Ossietzky-Gymnasium, located in Gorschstrasse, Berlin-Pankow Pankow Goerschstr Gymnasium.jpg
Carl-von-Ossietzky-Gymnasium, located in Görschstraße, Berlin-Pankow
Hugo Treffner Gymnasium in Tartu, Estonia TrefnGymn-2012-06.png
Hugo Treffner Gymnasium in Tartu, Estonia
Rangpur Cadet College is one of the Cadet colleges in Bangladesh, which is quite well known for its quality Secondary and Intermediate education, along with a well-disciplined boarding system. APC-4.jpg
Rangpur Cadet College is one of the Cadet colleges in Bangladesh, which is quite well known for its quality Secondary and Intermediate education, along with a well-disciplined boarding system.
Stiftsgymnasium Melk is a Roman Catholic Benedictine-run gymnasium located in Melk, Austria. The gymnasium is located within and run by the well-known monastery Melk Abbey. It was built around the 12th century and has been a public high school in its present-day format since 1707. Melk - Stift (0).JPG
Stiftsgymnasium Melk is a Roman Catholic Benedictine-run gymnasium located in Melk, Austria. The gymnasium is located within and run by the well-known monastery Melk Abbey. It was built around the 12th century and has been a public high school in its present-day format since 1707.

A secondary school locally may be called high school or senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education (ISCED 2) and (ISCED 3), here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school (ISCED 1) and high school.

Names for secondary schools by country

See also

Related Research Articles

Secondary education or post-primary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education is considered the second and final phase of basic education, and level 3 (upper) secondary education is the stage before tertiary education. Every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. In most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase around age 12. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19.

Student Learner, or someone who attends an educational institution

A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution.

Gymnasium (school) Type of school providing advanced secondary education in Europe

Gymnasium is a term in various European languages for a secondary school that prepares students for higher education at a university. It is comparable to the US English term preparatory high school. Before the 20th century, the gymnasium system was a widespread feature of educational systems throughout many European countries.

A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept, regulation and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between and sometimes within countries.

Education in Indonesia Overview of education in Indonesia

Education in Indonesia falls under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology and the Ministry of Religious Affairs. In Indonesia, all citizens must undertake twelve years of compulsory education which consists of six years at elementary level and three each at middle and high school levels. Islamic, Christian, Catholic, and Buddhist Schools are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Religious Affairs.

Eighth grade is the eighth post-kindergarten year of formal education in the US. The eighth grade is the ninth school year, the second, third, fourth, or final year of middle school, or the second and/or final year of junior high school, and comes after 7th grade. Usually, students are 13–14 years old in this stage of education. Different terms and numbers are used in other parts of the world.

Ninth grade, freshman year, or grade 9 is the ninth year of school education in some school systems. Ninth grade is often the first school year of high school in the United States, or the last year of middle/junior high school. In some countries, Grade 9 is the second year of high school. Students are usually 14–15 years old. In the United States, it is often called the freshman year.

Tenth grade or grade 10 is the tenth year of school post-kindergarten or the tenth year after the first introductory year upon entering compulsory schooling. In many parts of the world, the students are 15 or 16 years of age, depending on when their birthday occurs. The variants of 10th grade in various countries are described below.

Eleventh grade, 11th grade, junior year, or grade 11 is the eleventh, and for some countries final, grade of secondary schools. Students are typically 16–17 years of age, depending on the country and the students' birthdays.

Twelfth grade, 12th grade, senior year, or grade 12 is the final year of secondary school in most of North America. In other regions, it may also be referred to as class 12 or Year 13. In most countries, students are usually between the ages of 17 and 18 years old. Some countries have a thirteenth grade, while other countries do not have a 12th grade/year at all. Twelfth grade is typically the last year of high school.

Education in Spain is regulated by the Ley Orgánica 8/2013, de 9 de diciembre, para la mejora de la calidad educativa that expands upon Article 27 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The Spanish education system is compulsory and free for all children aged between 6 and 16 years and is supported by the national government together with the governments of each of the country's 17 autonomous communities.

Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes nine levels of education in its International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) system. UNESCO's International Bureau of Education maintains a database of country-specific education systems and their stages.

High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China High school in Beijing, China

The High School Affiliated to Renmin University Of China, known colloquially as Rendafuzhong (RDFZ), is the high school affiliated with Renmin University of China. RDFZ is situated in the Haidian District of Beijing, within the Zhongguancun Science and Technology Zone. RDFZ is a beacon high school accredited by the Beijing Municipal Commission of Education. The school is a member of the G30 Schools group. A 2016 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report described the school as among the most famous in China.

No.1 Senior High School of Ürümqi High school in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China

The No. 1 Senior High School of Ürümqi, literally Ürümqi No. 1 High School, colloquially abbreviated as "乌鲁木齐一中" or "乌市一中", sometimes called No. 1 Middle School of Urumqi, is a public high school in Ürümqi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, under the jurisdiction of the Urumqi Municipal Education Bureau. Founded in 1891 during the Qing Dynasty, it is the oldest school in Xinjiang.

Pei Chun High School (Independent) Chinese independent high school in Pontian, Johor, Malaysia

Pei Chun High School (Independent) was founded in 1962 after having been separated from Pei Chun School, located in Pontian, Malaysia. It has 1500 students as of January 2015.

The Spanish Baccalaureate is the post-16 stage of education in Spain, comparable to the A Levels/Higher (Scottish) in the UK, the French Baccalaureate in France or the International Baccalaureate. It follows the ESO. After taking the Bachillerato, a student may enter vocational training or take the "Selectividad" tests for admission to university.

References

  1. "The British Education System". The Headmasters’ and Headmistresses’ Conference. Archived from the original on April 25, 2019. Retrieved January 28, 2022. Most pupils begin their secondary education at the age of 11 (Year 7), but in some HMC schools pupils join the school at 13+ (Year 9).
  2. "Entry to Eton". Eton College. Archived from the original on December 14, 2021. Retrieved January 28, 2022. ... Eton College, a boarding school for boys aged between 13 and 18.
  3. "Admissions". Harrow School. Archived from the original on January 28, 2022. Retrieved January 28, 2022. Each year, the School admits about 160 boys into Year 9, in the September following their 13th birthday...
  4. "International Standard Classification of EducationI S C E D 1997". www.unesco.org. 11 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2017-03-19. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  5. Iwamoto, Wataru (2005). "Towards a Convergence of Knowledge Acquisition and Skills Development" (PDF). uis.unesco.org. UNESCO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  6. 1 2 3 "International Standard Classification of Education ISCED 2011" (PDF). UNESCO UIS. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2012. p. 38. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 26, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  7. 1 2 Ward, Ken. "British and American Systems (Grades)". trans4mind.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  8. "What academies, free schools and colleges should publish online". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  9. "What maintained schools must publish online". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  10. Liew Kok-Pun, Michael (1981). "Design of secondary schools:Singapore a case study" (PDF). Educational Building reports. Voume 17: UNESCO. p. 37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-04-04. Retrieved 3 April 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  11. "Baseline designs: 1,200 place secondary (practical specialism) - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  12. "Baseline design: 1,850 place secondary school - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. gov.uk. Archived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  13. 1 2 "Guidelines relating to planning for public school infrastructure". Department of Basic Education, Republic of South Africa. 2012. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  14. "Baseline designs for schools: guidance - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Education Funding Agency. 11 March 2014. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.