Education in Canada

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Education in Canada
Transparent (1).png
Educational oversight
Provincial & Territorial
Ministers of Education:

National education budget (2016)
Budget6.0% of GDP [12]
General details
Primary languages English, French
System typeProvincially controlled
Literacy
Male99% [13]
Female99% [13]
Attainment
Secondary diploma 93% [14] [15]
Post-secondary diploma 68% [16] [17]
‡ Includes Elementary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.

Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, and is funded and overseen by provincial, territorial and local governments. [18] Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. [19] Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs. [20]

Contents

Education is compulsory in every province and territory in Canada, up to the age of 18 for Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nunavut, and Ontario, and up to the age of 16 for other jurisdictions, [21] [22] [23] [note 1] [24] or as soon as a high school diploma has been achieved. In some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14. Canada generally has 190 (180 in Quebec [25] ) school days in the year, officially starting from September (after Labour Day) to the end of June (usually the last Friday of the month, except in Quebec when it is just before June 24 Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day/Fête nationale du Québec). In British Columbia schools, the Ministry of Education sets the minimum number of instructional hours in a school year, while local school boards have the authority to determine the start and end of the school year, length of the school day, number of non-instructional days, etc. in order to meet the minimum number of instructional hours for that year. [26] While the school year typically runs from the start of September to mid/end of June, there exists local variation throughout the country.

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of Canadian 15-year-olds as the sixth best in the world. Canada is a well performing OECD country in reading literacy, mathematics, and science with the average student scoring 523.7, compared with the OECD average of 493 in 2015. [27] [28] In 2016, the country spent 6.0 percent of its GDP on all levels of education – roughly 1.0 percentage points above the OECD average of 5.0 percent. [12] In 2017, 68 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 attained some form of post-secondary education, which is 56.8 percent, or 12.4 percentage points, above the OECD average of 44 percent. [16] [17] 57 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 had attained a college diploma or university degree along with 11 percent of Canadians attaining certificates, diplomas, and apprenticeships from vocational institutions. [17] [29] 61 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 34 attained some form of tertiary education which is also one of the highest among OECD countries, ranking second behind South Korea. [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] 31 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 have earned a bachelor's degree or higher, which is the same as the OECD average of 31 percent. [16] [35] [36]

Assessment agencies

The Canadian Education Statistics Council (CESC) works in collaboration with provincial and territorial departments that are responsible for education and training, on the Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program (PCEIP). The CESC includes both the CMEC and Statistics Canada. [37] The CESC submits an annual report, Education Indicators in Canada: An International Perspective, [38] [39] "supports the comparison of educational systems in Canada's provinces and territories with member [OECD] countries". [37]

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) coordinates the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) that is intended to evaluate educational systems—OECD members and non-OECD members—by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading. [40] [41] [42]

Canada-wide

The federal government's responsibilities in education are limited to the Royal Military College of Canada, and funding the education of indigenous peoples; all other matters of education in Canada falls under provincial responsibility. As such, there is a lot of variation in the management of education from province to province.

1950 Canadian School Train. Pupils attend classes at Nemegos near Chapleau, Ontario. Train-classroom.jpg
1950 Canadian School Train. Pupils attend classes at Nemegos near Chapleau, Ontario.

In 2016, 8.5% of men and 5.4% of women aged 25 to 34 had less than a secondary school diploma (340,000 young Canadians). [43] In many places, publicly funded secondary school courses are offered to the adult population. The ratio of secondary school graduates versus non diploma-holders is changing rapidly, partly due to changes in the labour market that require people to have a secondary school diploma and, in many cases, a university degree. Nonetheless, in 2010, 51% of Canadians had completed a tertiary education, the highest rate in the world. [44] The majority of schools, 67%, are co-educational.

Canada spends about 5.4% of its GDP on education. [45] The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than US$20,000 per student). [46] Recent reports suggest that from 2006 the tuition fees of Canadian universities have increased by 40 percent. [47] Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada (if the population of children speaking the minority language justifies it), although French Second Language education/French Immersion is available to anglophone students across Canada. English Second Language education/English Immersion is also available in Quebec's french language schools.

According to an announcement of Canadian Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Canada is introducing a new, fast-track system to let foreign students and graduates with Canadian work experience become permanent eligible residents in Canada. [48]

Most schools have introduced one or more initiatives such as programs in Native studies, antiracism, Aboriginal cultures and crafts; visits by elders and other community members; and content in areas like indigenous languages, Aboriginal spirituality, indigenous knowledge of nature, and tours to indigenous heritage sites. [49] Although these classes are offered, most appear to be limited by the area or region in which students reside. "The curriculum is designed to elicit development and quality of people's cognition through the guiding of accommodations of individuals to their natural environment and their changing social order" [50]

Subjects that typically get assessed (i.e., language arts, mathematics, and science) assume greater importance than non-assessed subjects (i.e., music, visual arts, and physical education) or facets of the curriculum (i.e., reading and writing versus speaking and listening). [51]

Some scholars view academics as a form of "soft power" helping to educate and to create positive attitudes, [52] although there is criticism that educators are merely telling students what to think, instead of how to think for themselves, and using up a large proportion of classroom time in the process. [53] [54] Social promotion policies, grade inflation, lack of corrective feedback for students, teaching methods that slow the development of soft skills compared to past decades, reform mathematics, and the failure to objectively track student progress have also forced secondary schools and colleges to lower their academic standards. [55] [56] [57]

According to a November 2011 Maclean's opinion piece, Alberta's education system provides better results compared to other provinces, partially because of Alberta's rigorous "provincial standardized exams". [58] According to a 2011 study by the University of Saskatchewan, Albertans have higher grades in university due to the comprehensive education compared to other provinces. Grades are also notably boosted when applying for many universities in Canada to entice Albertan students to go to those universities, such as the University of British Columbia. [58] This also explains why the University of Alberta is quite competitive when applying with an out-of-province education.

Divisions by religion and language

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms includes provisions that guarantee English and French first language schools, and reaffirms the pre-existing right of separate schools where applicable. Every Canadian Needs A Copy.jpg
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms includes provisions that guarantee English and French first language schools, and reaffirms the pre-existing right of separate schools where applicable.

The Constitution of Canada provides constitutional protections for some types of publicly funded religious-based and language-based school systems.

Section 93 of the Constitution Act, 1867 contains a guarantee for publicly funded religious-based separate schools, provided the separate schools were established by law prior to the province joining Confederation. Court cases have established that this provision did not apply to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island, since those provinces did not provide a legal guarantee for separate schools prior to Confederation. [59] The provision did originally apply to Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Newfoundland and Labrador, since these provinces did have preexisting separate schools. This constitutional provision was repealed in Quebec by a constitutional amendment in 1997, [60] and for Newfoundland and Labrador in 1998. [61] The constitutional provision continues to apply to Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. There is a similar federal statutory provision which applies to the Northwest Territories. The issue of separate schools is also addressed in Section 29 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms , which reaffirms the rights of separate schools found in the Constitution Act, 1867.

Section 23(1)(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the right of citizens who were educated in the minority language in a particular province to have their children educated in the minority language in publicly funded schools. [62] In practice, this guarantee means that there are publicly funded English schools in Quebec, and publicly funded French schools in the other provinces and the territories.

Quebec students must attend a French school up until the end of secondary school unless one of their parents qualifies as a rights-holder under s. 23(1)(b) of the Charter. [63] In Ontario, French-language schools automatically admit students recognized under section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and may admit non-francophone students through the board's admissions committee consisting of the school principal, a school superintendent, and a teacher.

An example of how schools can be divided by language and religion is visible in Toronto, which has four public school boards operating in the city. They include two English first language school boards, the separate Toronto Catholic District School Board and secular Toronto District School Board; and two French boards, the separate Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir and secular Conseil scolaire Viamonde.

Length of study

As education is a provincial matter, the length of study varies depending on the province, although the majority of public early childhood, elementary, and secondary education programs in Canada begin in kindergarten (age five typically by 31 December of that school year) and end after Grade 12 (age 17 by 31 December). After completion of a secondary school diploma, students may go on to post-secondary studies.

Exceptions to the aforementioned length of study include the provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec, as well as the Northwest Territories. As opposed to the other provinces, the Kindergarten programs in the Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec consist of two years, with the first year open to students age four by 31 December. Ontario established its Junior Kindergarten program in the early 1940s. [64] In 2016, the Government of Nova Scotia announced an expansion of its Pre-Primary program to be made available throughout the province by 2020. [65] Implementation of Junior Kindergarten began in the Northwest Territories during the 2017–18 school year, an expansion of an earlier pilot project in several smaller communities in the territory. [66] In 2019, the Government of Quebec announced the creation of kindergarten classes for four-year-olds in the province's elementary schools. [67] [68] The length of study at the secondary level also differs in Quebec, with the final grade of secondary schools in the province being Grade 11/Secondaire V.

Conversely, in Ontario, a student may choose to lengthen their period of study in a secondary school for an additional number of years, colloquially referred to as a victory lap. From 1989 to 2003, secondary education in Ontario formally included a fifth year (intended for students preparing for post-secondary education), known as the Ontario Academic Credit (age 18 by 31 December). Prior to 1989 Ontario secondary schools included Grade 13 (leading to the Secondary School Honours Graduation Diploma). Although OAC was phased out in 2003, a study in 2010 published by academics with Lakehead University noted that the province was only partially successful in its efforts a significant minority of students opting to take a fifth year. [69] Approximately 14 percent of students in Ontario opting to take a fifth year as late as 2012. [70] In September 2013, the Government of Ontario introduced a 34-credit threshold (30 credits is required for the Ontario Secondary School Diploma) [note 2] in an effort to limit the length of study for its secondary school students and reduce the financial burden from students returning for a fifth year. [70] [71] A "resident pupil" of Ontario has the right to attend a public secondary school until they've received their 34th-course credit, attended the school for seven years, or are age 20 and have not been in a school in the last four years, after which the secondary school reserves the right to refuse further admission to the student. [72]

While the period of study in Canada begins as early as four years old, the age where a child's attendance becomes mandatory varies between the provinces and Canadian territories, ranging from ages five to seven. [73] Children who turn five by 31 December are required to begin schooling in British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Yukon; [73] although parents are able to apply for a deferment. In Alberta, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec, a child is required to attend school at the age of six. Manitoba and Saskatchewan are the only provinces where the minimum compulsory attendance age is seven. Attendance in school is compulsory up to the age of 16 in all provinces except Manitoba, New Brunswick, and Ontario, where attendance is compulsory until the student turns 18, [21] [22] [23] [note 1] or as soon as a secondary school diploma has been achieved.

Authorities

Normally, for each type of publicly funded school (such as Public English or Public French), the province is divided into districts (or divisions). For each district, board members (trustees) are elected only by its supporters within the district (voters receive a ballot for just one of the boards in their area). Normally, all publicly funded schools are under the authority of their local district school board. These school boards would follow a common curriculum set up by the province the board resides in. Only Alberta allows public charter schools, which are independent of any district board. Instead, they each have their own board, which reports directly to the province. [74]

History

Primary and secondary education

Primary education, Intermediate education, and secondary education combined are sometimes referred to as K-12 (Kindergarten through Grade 12). Secondary schooling, known as high school, collegiate institute, école secondaire or secondary school, consists of different grades depending on the province in which one resides. Furthermore, grade structure may vary within a province or even within a school division; as to whether or not they operate middle or junior high schools.

Kindergarten programs are available for children in all provinces in Canada and are typically offered as one-year programs for students who turn five in that year. However, the provinces of Nova Scotia, the Northwest Territories, Ontario, and Quebec operate two-year kindergarten programs, with the first year beginning at the age of four. The names of these programs, provincial funding, and the number of hours provided varies widely. For example, the Department of Education in Nova Scotia refers to Kindergarten as Grade Primary. [75] Full-day kindergarten programs are offered in all provinces except Alberta, Manitoba, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, and Yukon. Students in the Prairie provinces are not required by statute to attend kindergarten. As a result, kindergarten often is not available in smaller towns.

Since the 1940s, Ontario's kindergarten program has consisted of two years: junior kindergarten for four-year-olds- five-year-olds and senior kindergarten for five-year-olds – six- year olds. At Francophone schools in Ontario, these programs are called Maternelle and Jardin. [76] In 2017, Nova Scotia began to implement a kindergarten program (pre-primary, starting at age four), with provincial-wide service available since 2020. [77] In 2017, the Northwest Territories introduced its junior kindergarten program throughout the territory. [66] Quebec offers subsidized preschool programs and introduced an early kindergarten program for children from low-income families in 2013.

Grade 12 presently serves as the final grade in all provincial secondary curriculums, except Quebec, whose secondary schools ends after Secondary V/Grade 11 (age 16 by September 30, Quebec cut off date is earlier); after which, students who wish to pursue further studies may attend a post-secondary institution. Quebec is currently the only province where it treats Grade 12 as a part of the tertiary level of education. Grade 11 also served as the end of secondary education in Newfoundland and Labrador, until the province implemented Grade 12 in 1983. Conversely, from 1921 to 2003, Ontario's secondary curriculum lasted a year longer, with secondary schooling ending after Grade 13/Ontario Academic Credit (OAC). Grade 13 was reformed into OAC in 1988, and was offered in secondary schools until 2003, after which the grade was discontinued. A number of Canadian secondary schools offer the International Baccalaureate Program (IB) and Advanced Placement (AP) program. These courses prepare students for first-year university learning and can be used to replace or supplement existing courses in the curriculum. Many universities and colleges across North America offer advanced credits to students who excel in International Baccalaureate and Advanced Placement courses.

Students may continue to receive publicly funded secondary schooling until the ages of 19 to 21 (the cut-off age for secondary school varies between provinces). Dependent on the province, those who are the age of majority may continue to attend a standard secondary school, or may be required to attend an adult high school.

Students of secondary school age who have received long-term suspensions or have been expelled, or are otherwise unable or unwilling to attend conventional schools may be offered alternative learning options to complete their secondary education, such as drop-in programs, night school, or distance/online classes. An increasing number of international students are attending pre-tertiary courses at Canadian secondary schools.

Tertiary education

2005-2006 Canadian university enrollment in various subjects Enrolmentbysubject.jpg
2005–2006 Canadian university enrollment in various subjects

Post-secondary education in Canada is provided by universities (research universities, undergraduate universities, and university colleges) and vocational institutions (vocational colleges, career colleges, community colleges, institutes of technology or science, colleges of applied arts or applied technology, and in Quebec, collèges d’enseignement général et professionnel). [79] [80] Universities offer bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees as well as post-graduate certificates and diplomas while vocational institutions issue diplomas, associate degrees, certificates, and apprenticeships. [81] [82] Vocational institutions offer career-focused training that is often practical where these institutions train their graduates to work as semi-professionals in various fields such as the skilled trades and technical careers and for workers in support roles in professions such as engineering, information technology, accountancy, business administration, health care, architecture, and law. [79] University colleges and vocational institutions also offer degree programs where a student can take courses and receive credit that can be transferred to a university. [81]

Nearly all post-secondary institutions in Canada have the authority to grant academic credentials (i.e., diplomas or degrees). Generally speaking, universities grant degrees (e.g., bachelor's, master's, professional or doctorate degrees) while colleges, which typically offer vocationally oriented programs, grant diplomas, associate degrees, and certificates. However, some colleges offer applied arts degrees that lead to or are equivalent to degrees from a university. Private career colleges are overseen by legislative acts for each province. For example, in British Columbia training providers will be registered and accredited with the (PCTIA) Private Career Training Institutions Agency regulated under the Private Career Training Institutions Act (SBC 2003) [83] Each province with their own correlating agency. Unlike the United States, there is no "accreditation body" that oversees the universities in Canada. Universities in Canada have degree-granting authority via an Act or Ministerial Consent from the Ministry of Education of the particular province. Tertiary and post-secondary education in Canada is also the responsibility of the individual provinces and territories. Those governments provide the majority of funding to their public post-secondary institutions, with the remainder of funding coming from tuition fees, the federal government, and research grants. Compared to other countries in the past, Canada has had the highest tertiary school enrollment as a percentage of their graduating population. [84]

University

The traditional path to Canadian higher education is typically through university, as it is by far the most prestigious form of higher education in the country. There is no universally prescribed set definition to what constitutes a "university" in Canada as they come in various forms that serve the different educational needs of various Canadians. Each province has its own legislative meaning of the term but universities do intersect in terms of the types of degrees that they offer, research, competitiveness, location, and global institutional reputation. Canadian universities require students' senior secondary school transcript along with an application for admission. Admissions criteria to a university in Canada involve the grades earned in core senior secondary school courses taken, and an admission GPA based on their senior secondary school courses calculated in the form of a percentage. Applications for admission outline additional academic and extra-curricular achievements that cannot be expressed through a student's secondary school transcript. In the case of more prestigious and selective university programs, an essay, statement of intent, or personal statement of experience must be submitted directly to the university. In addition, letters of reference, examples of extracurricular activities, volunteering and community service endeavors, athletic participation, student awards, and scholarships are also required for acceptance to some of Canada's most prestigious university programs. Generally, Canadian universities base admission with great weight emphasized around a student's academic performance in core senior secondary school courses taken during their grade 11 and 12 years as a measure of academic rigor in addition to assessing a prospective students capability to challenge themselves as predictors of future academic performance at the university level. In addition, most universities in Canada also denote a standardized GPA or an admission average cutoff. This admissions cut off is established based on the competitiveness of applicants applying to individual programs offered at specific universities. A typical competitive program at an esteemed Canadian university could have an admissions cutoff of 90 percent or higher, while mid-tier universities have programs that maintain cut-offs around 80 percent. Lower tier and lesser-known Canadian universities with more liberal application processes could have admission cut offs as low as 65 to 70 percent.

Among the country's most prominent institutions are national research universities that are domestically and internationally ranked such as the University of Toronto and McGill University. Other types of universities across Canada include denomination universities (e.g., Redeemer University College, Yorkville University), undergraduate universities (e.g., Acadia University, MacEwan University, Mount Saint Vincent University, St. Francis Xavier University, University of Winnipeg, Wilfrid Laurier University), liberal arts colleges (e.g., University of Lethbridge, Bishop's University, Mount Allison University, Nipissing University, St. Thomas University, Trinity Western University), art schools (Alberta University of the Arts, Emily Carr University of Art and Design, LaSalle College Vancouver, Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Ontario College of Art and Design, Vancouver College of Art and Design), online universities with distance education (Athabasca University, University of Fredericton), and military schools (Royal Military College of Canada, which is the military academy of the Canadian Forces, a full degree-granting university, and the only federal institution with degree-granting powers) as well as institutions that serve people in more rural and remote parts of the country such as Brandon University, Royal Roads University, Thompson Rivers University, the University of Northern British Columbia, University of Prince Edward Island, University of the Fraser Valley, and Vancouver Island University. [85]

The quality of universities in Canada is internationally recognized and is home to some of the top universities in the world making it a global leader in scientific and technological research and adducing the delivery of higher education to promising Canadian students and prospective students around the world. There are 30 Canadian universities ranked in the 2023 QS World University Rankings, with the two top-ranking universities in the country being McGill University ranked 31st and the University of Toronto ranked 34th. [86]

Vocational

Vocational education in Canada is delivered through vocational colleges, career colleges, community colleges, institutes of technology or science, technical schools, colleges of applied arts or applied technology, and in Quebec through collèges d’enseignement général et professionnel. Though it is cheaper in terms of tuition, less competitive to get into, and not as prestigious as going to a four-year university, vocational schools adduce another post-secondary option for students seeking to enter the realm of Canadian higher education. Admissions to vocational schools in Canada have requirements that are less stringent than a university and vary more significantly, but unlike universities, qualifications and entrance standards into vocational institutions are more lax as they do not delineate admission cut-offs so as long as students meet the minimum average requirements and possess the prerequisite courses, they can gain admission to most vocational institutions across the country. Many vocational institutes such as George Brown College and Mohawk College accept a very high proportion of students with averages above 70 percent, although they may place no limiting minimum for acceptance, and consequently take students with averages below 60 percent.

The typical Canadian vocational institute is analogous to that of an American junior college or community college where they offer specialized vocational oriented certifications in an area of training. However, there are some institutions in Canada that offer both vocational training as well as a limited number of 4-year undergraduate university degrees such as Seneca College, Sheridan College, Centennial College of Applied Arts and Technology, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Vancouver Island University, and Thompson Rivers University. There are over 200 community colleges in Canada. They are less competitive to get into compared with universities and are often found in remote and rural parts of the country. [87]

Post-secondary vocational institutions in Canada offer apprenticeships, certificates, diplomas, and associate degrees. These are programs that offer specialized vocational education in specific employment fields related to the skilled trades and technical careers which generally last two years. [88] In studying at a vocational school, a student can take the necessary courses needed to earn a certification that will allow for entry into jobs (such as becoming a beautician, licensed practical nurse, drafter, web developer, computer network support specialist, paralegal, medical laboratory technician, cardiovascular technologist, optician, or diagnostic medical sonographer, healthcare assistant etc.) requiring some level of tertiary education but not a full four-year university degree. After graduating from a vocational institution, some students continue their education by transferring to a university to complete a bachelor's degree, while others choose to enter the workforce. Apprenticeships are another form of post-secondary vocational education training in Canada, as students combine in class instruction with practical workforce training for careers related to the skilled trades. In addition, a series of exams have to be passed before the student is certified as a journeyperson. Skilled trades programs in Canada typically take four years to complete and by finishing the last level, the person is granted a trades certificate and can work anywhere in Canada if a set known as the Red Seal exams are passed. [89]

Private schools

About 6% of Canadian grade ten students are in private schools, most of which are in Quebec. A Statistics Canada study from 2015 found that these students tend to have higher test scores and future educational attainment than their public school counterparts. Rather than enjoying superior resources and educational practices, the most likely explanation for this discrepancy is the higher expectation of success that students experience from their parents, teachers, and fellow students. [90]

Private universities

In the past, private universities in Canada maintained a religious history or foundation. However, since 1999, the Province of New Brunswick passed the Degree Granting Act [91] allowing private universities to operate in the Province. [92] [93] The University of Fredericton is the newest university to receive designation in New Brunswick.

Trinity Western University, in Langley British Columbia, was founded in 1962 as a junior college and received full accreditation in 1985. In 2002, British Columbia's Quest University became the first privately funded liberal arts university without a denominational affiliation (although it is not the first private liberal arts university). Many provinces, including Ontario and Alberta, have passed legislation allowing private degree-granting institutions (not necessarily universities) to operate there.

Many Canadians remain polarized on the issue of permitting private universities into the Canadian market. On the one hand, Canada's top universities find it difficult to compete with the private American powerhouses because of funding, but on the other hand, the fact that the price of private universities tends to exclude those who cannot pay that much for their education could prevent a significant portion of Canada's population from being able to attend these schools.

In addition to the issue of access, some Canadians take issue with protections instituted within the Charter of Rights and Freedoms as ruled by the Supreme Court of Canada in 2001 and consistent with federal and provincial law that (private) faith-based universities in Canada based on the long-established principles of freedom of conscience and religion can exempt itself from more recent human rights legislation when they insist in their "community covenant" code signed by staff, faculty and students that they act in accordance with the faith of the school. The covenant may require restraint from those acts considered in contradiction with the tenets of their faith such as homosexual relationships, sex outside marriage or more broadly abstain from consuming alcohol on campus or viewing pornography. [94] However, private-Christian based schools do not preclude homosexual or lesbian students from attending. [95] Some faith-based universities have been known to fire staff and faculty which refused to adhere or whose actions were in opposition with the tenets of the faith, although in some provinces, their dismissals have been successfully challenged in court based on the circumstances. [96]

Religious schools

Each province deals differently with private religious schools. In Ontario, the Catholic system continues to be fully publicly funded while other faiths are not. Ontario has several private Islamic, Christian and Jewish schools all funded through tuition fees. Since the Catholic schools system is entrenched in the constitution, the Supreme Court has ruled that this system is constitutional. However, the United Nations Human Rights Committee has ruled that Ontario's system is discriminatory, suggesting that Ontario either fund no faith-based schools, or all of them. [97] In 2002 the government of Mike Harris introduced a controversial program to partially fund all private schools, but this was criticized for undermining the public education system and the program was eliminated after the Liberals won the 2003 provincial election.

In other provinces, privately operated religious schools are funded. In British Columbia the government pays independent schools that meet rigorous provincial standards up to 50% of the per-student operating cost of public schools. The province has a number of Sikh, Hindu, Christian, and Islamic schools. Alberta also has a network of charter schools, which are fully funded schools offering distinct approaches to education within the public school system. Alberta charter schools are not private and the province does not grant charters to religious schools. These schools have to follow the provincial curriculum and meet all standards but are given considerable freedom in other areas. In all other provinces, private religious schools receive some funding, but not as much as the public system.

Levels in education

As the education system in Canada is managed by the varying provincial governments in Canada, the way the educational stages are grouped and named may differ from each region, or even between districts and individual schools. The ages are the age of the students when they end the school year in June.

Grade structure by province

The following table shows how grades are organized in various provinces. Often, there will be exceptions within each province, both with terminology for groups, and which grades apply to each group.

Flag of Alberta.svg Alberta
(source)
 ElementaryJunior HighSenior High 
 Kindergarten123456789101112 
Flag of British Columbia.svg British Columbia
(source)[ failed verification ]
 PrimaryIntermediate (Primary in Richmond)Secondary 
 Kindergarten123456789101112 
Flag of Manitoba.svg Manitoba [100]  Early YearsMiddle YearsSenior Years 
 Kindergarten123456789101112 
Flag of New Brunswick.svg New Brunswick
(source)
 ElementaryMiddle SchoolHigh School 
 Kindergarten123456789101112 
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg Newfoundland and Labrador
(source)
 PrimaryElementaryJunior HighSenior High 
 Kindergarten123456789Level I (10)Level II (11)Level III (12) 
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg Northwest Territories
(source)
 PrimaryIntermediateJunior SecondarySenior Secondary 
 Kindergarten123456789101112 
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg Nova Scotia
(source)
ElementaryJunior HighSenior High 
Pre-PrimaryPrimary123456789101112 
Flag of Ontario.svg Ontario [101] ElementarySecondary 
Junior KindergartenSenior Kindergarten123456789101112 
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg PEI
(source)
 ElementaryIntermediate SchoolSenior High 
 Kindergarten123456789101112 
Flag of Quebec.svg Quebec  Primary SchoolSecondary SchoolCollege
Garderie/Pre-MaternelleMaternelle1234567 (Sec I)8 (Sec II)9 (Sec III)10 (Sec IV)11 (Sec V)firstsecondthird
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg Saskatchewan
(source [ dead link ])
 Elementary LevelSecondary Level
Kindergarten123456789101112 
Flag of Yukon.svg Yukon
(source)
 ElementaryJunior SecondarySenior Secondary 
 Kindergarten123456789101112 

Notes:

Provincial and territorial departments and ministries

Provincial and territorial departments and ministries
Provincial Education(Wikipedia)Provincial Department Or Ministry(External Link)
Education in Alberta Alberta Education
Education in British Columbia Ministry of Education
Education in Manitoba Department of Education and Training
Education in New Brunswick Ministry of Education, Ministère de l'Éducation
Education in Newfoundland and Labrador Ministry of Education
Education in Northwest Territories Department of Education, Culture and Employment
Education in Nova Scotia Department of Education
Education in Nunavut Department of Education
Education in Ontario Ministry of Education
Education in Prince Edward Island Department of Education
Education in Quebec Ministère de l'Éducation
Education in Saskatchewan Ministry of Education
Education in Yukon Department of Education, Culture and Employment

[102] [103]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 In Ontario, if a 17 year-old student's birth date falls between end of the school year to 31 December, they may withdraw from the school at the end of that current school year.
  2. Exemptions to the credit threshold exists, which includes students with special education needs.
  3. In Ontario, a student may take up additional years of secondary education, commonly known as a victory lap. A "resident pupil" of Ontario may attend a public secondary school until they've received their 34th course credit, or have attended the institution for seven years, after which, the school reserves the right to refuse further admission. "Victory lappers" are typically grouped as a part of the Grade 12 student population, and make up an average of 4% of all students enrolled in Ontario secondary schools each year. [99]

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Community college</span> Educational institution

A community college is a type of educational institution. The term can have different meanings in different countries: many community colleges have an "open enrollment" for students who have graduated from high school. The term usually refers to a higher educational institution that provides workforce education and college transfer academic programs. Some institutions maintain athletic teams and dormitories similar to their university counterparts.

Education in Quebec is governed by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education. It was administered at the local level by publicly elected French and English school boards, changed in 2020 to school service centres. Teachers are represented by province-wide unions that negotiate province-wide working conditions with local boards and the provincial government of Quebec.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Student</span> Learner, or someone who attends an educational institution

A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">CEGEP</span> Publicly funded colleges in Quebec

A CEGEP, also written cégep, CÉGEP and cegep, is a publicly funded college providing technical, academic, vocational or a mix of programs; they are exclusive to the province of Quebec's education system. A loanword from French, it originates from the French acronym for Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel, sometimes known in English as a "General and Vocational College"—it is now considered a word in itself.

Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for England; whilst the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively.

State schools or public schools are generally primary or secondary schools that educate all students without charge. They are funded in whole or in part by taxation. State funded schools exist in virtually every country of the world, though there are significant variations in their structure and educational programmes. State education generally encompasses primary and secondary education.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Education in Hungary</span> Overview of education in Hungary

The educational system in Hungary is predominantly public, run by the Ministry of Human Resources. Preschool kindergarten education is compulsory and provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is also compulsory until age of sixteen. Primary education usually lasts for eight years. Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the Gymnasium enrols the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the secondary vocational schools for intermediate students lasts four years and the technical school prepares pupils for vocational education and the world of work. The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) rated 13–14-year-old pupils in Hungary among the best in the world for maths and science.

Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes nine levels of education in its International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) system. UNESCO's International Bureau of Education maintains a database of country-specific education systems and their stages.

Following independence from the Soviet Union, a major economic depression cut "public financing" for education in Kazakhstan, "which dropped from 6% of gross domestic product in 1991 to about 3% in 1994, before rising to 4% in 1999. Elementary- and secondary-school teachers remain badly underpaid; in 1993 more than 30,000 teachers left education, many of them to seek more lucrative employment.

Education in Alberta is provided mainly through funding from the provincial government. The earliest form of formal education in Alberta is usually preschool which is not mandatory and is then followed by the partially-mandatory kindergarten to Grade 12. This is managed by Alberta Education which has divided the province into 379 school authorities. Higher education in the province is managed by Alberta Advanced Education.

Education in Ontario comprises public and private primary and secondary schools and post-secondary institutions. Publicly funded elementary and secondary schools are administered by the Ontario Ministry of Education, while colleges and universities are administered by the Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. The current respective Ministers for each are Stephen Lecce and Ross Romano. The province's public education system is primarily funded by the Government of Ontario, with education in Canada falling almost entirely under provincial jurisdiction. There is no federal government department or agency involved in the formation or analysis of policy regarding education for most Canadians. Schools for Indigenous people in Canada with Indian status are the only schools that are funded federally, and although the schools receive more money per individual student than certain provinces, the amount also includes the operation and maintenance of school facilities, instructional services, students supports and staff. Most provincial allocations per students do not include the maintenance and operation of buildings, as most provincial governments offer additional grants.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cégep de Rimouski</span> Public college in Rimouski, Quebec

The Cégep de Rimouski is a post-secondary education institution located in Rimouski, Quebec, Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Higher education in Canada</span> Universities, colleges, trade schools and related

Higher education in Canada includes provincial, territorial, indigenous and military higher education systems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Higher education in Quebec</span>

Higher education in Quebec differs from the education system of other provinces in Canada. Instead of entering university or college directly from high school, students in Quebec leave secondary school after Grade 11, and enter post-secondary studies at the college level, as a prerequisite to university. Although both public colleges (CEGEPs) and private colleges exist, both are colloquially termed CEGEPs. This level of post-secondary education allows students to choose either a vocational path or a more academic path.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Higher education in Newfoundland and Labrador</span>

Newfoundland and Labrador has had the same growing pains as other provinces in developing its own form of education and now boasts a very strong, although relatively small, system. The direction of Newfoundland and Labrador's policy has evolved rapidly since the late 1990s, with increased funding, participation rates, accessibility and transferability. Many of the directives the government has been acting upon in the past 10 years have been a result of recommendations that stemmed from a 2005 white paper: Foundation for Success: White Paper on Public Post-Secondary Education. It set the course for furthering the strategic directives of the provincial post-secondary education sector. Some of its recommendations aimed to:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Higher education in Nova Scotia</span>

Higher education in Nova Scotia refers to education provided by higher education institutions. In Canada, education is the responsibility of the provinces and there is no Canadian federal ministry governing education. Nova Scotia has a population of less than one million people, but is home to ten public universities and the Nova Scotia Community College, which offers programs at 13 locations.

Cégep de Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu Public college in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec

The Cégep Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu is a post-secondary education institution located in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, province of Quebec, Canada. The enabling legislation is the General and Vocational Colleges Act

<span class="mw-page-title-main">College (Canada)</span> Type of tertiary school in Canada

In Canadian English, the term college usually refers to a technical, trades, college of applied arts or applied technology, or an applied science school. These are post-secondary institutions granting apprenticeships, certificates, diplomas, associate's degrees, bachelor's degrees, and graduate certificates.

In the Canadian province of Quebec, college education, is the level immediately after high school. It encompasses a range of technical, academic, and vocational education, including some specialized programs. The Quebec education system is unique in North America.

A high school diploma or high school degree is a North American academic school leaving qualification awarded upon high school graduation. The high school diploma is typically obtained after a course of study lasting four years, from grade 9 to grade 12. The diploma is awarded by the school in accordance with the requirements of the local state or provincial government. Requirements for earning the diploma vary by jurisdiction, and there may be different requirements for different streams or levels of high school graduation. Typically they include a combination of selected coursework meeting specified criteria for a particular stream and acceptable passing grades earned on the state exit examination.

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Further reading

Historiography