Military academy

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A graduation parade of the Royal Military College, Duntroon. RMC-D graduation parade 24 June 2008.jpg
A graduation parade of the Royal Military College, Duntroon.
Facade of the main building at the Ludovika Campus of National University of Public Service. Ludovika frontispiece.jpg
Facade of the main building at the Ludovika Campus of National University of Public Service.
Armenian soldiers at the Vazgen Sargsyan Military University in 2013. Armenian soldiers at the Vazgen Sargsyan Military Institute.jpg
Armenian soldiers at the Vazgen Sargsyan Military University in 2013.

A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.

The United States service academies, also known as the United States military academies, are federal academies for the undergraduate education and training of commissioned officers for the United States Armed Forces.

Contents

Three types of academy exist: pre-college-level institutions awarding academic qualifications, university-level institutions awarding bachelor's degree level qualification, and those preparing officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of the state.

A bachelor's degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years. In some institutions and educational systems, some bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate degrees after a first degree has been completed. In countries with qualifications frameworks, bachelor's degrees are normally one of the major levels in the framework, although some qualifications titled bachelor's degrees may be at other levels and some qualifications with non-bachelor's titles may be classified as bachelor's degrees.

Officer training refers to the training that most military officers must complete before acquiring an officer rank. A potential recruit becomes an officer cadet, someone in training. An officer in training can either be trained in a military college, such as West Point, or taken from the enlisted ranks. After this training is complete, the recruit in question becomes a fully fledged officer, taking on a commanding position in his or her military branch.

State (polity) Organised community living under a system of government; either a sovereign state, constituent state, or federated state

A state is a political organization with a centralized government that exerts authority within a certain geographical territory. There is not a single, undisputed, definition of what constitutes a state. A widely-used definition is a state being a polity that, within a given territory, maintains a monopoly on the use of force.

A naval academy is either a type of military academy (in the broad sense of that term) or is distinguished from one (in the narrow sense). In U.S. usage, the United States Military Academy and the United States Naval Academy are both service academies.

A naval academy is a national institution that provides undergraduate-level education for prospective naval officers.

In linguistics, a word sense is one of the meanings of a word. Words are in two sets: a large set with multiple meanings and a small set with only one meaning. For example, a dictionary may have over 50 different senses of the word "play", each of these having a different meaning based on the context of the word's usage in a sentence, as follows:

We went to see the playRomeo and Juliet at the theater.

The coach devised a great play that put the visiting team on the defensive.

The children went out to play in the park.

United States Military Academy U.S. Armys federal service academy in West Point, New York

The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy, or simply The Point, is a four-year federal service academy in West Point, New York. It was originally established as a fort that sits on strategic high ground overlooking the Hudson River with a scenic view, 50 miles (80 km) north of New York City. It is one of the five U.S. service academies.

History

The first military academies were established in the 18th century to provide future officers for technically specialized corps, such as engineers and artillery, with scientific training.

Artillery class of weapons which fires munitions beyond the range and power of personal weapons

Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications during sieges, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines. As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery cannons developed for battlefield use. This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the large share of an army's total firepower.

The Royal Danish Naval Academy was set up in 1701, making it the oldest military academy in existence. [1] The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich was set up in 1720 [2] as the earliest military academy in Britain. Its original purpose was to train cadets entering the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. In France, the École Royale du Génie at Mézières was founded in 1748, followed by a non-technical academy in 1751, the École Royale Militaire offering a general military education to the nobility. French military academies were widely copied in Prussia, Austria, Russia and even minor powers, including Turin and the Kingdom of Savoy, in the late 18th century.

Royal Danish Naval Academy Danish officers academy

The Royal Danish Naval Academy educates and commissions all officers for the Royal Danish Navy. Having existed for more than 300 years, it is the oldest still-existing officers' academy in the world.

Royal Military Academy, Woolwich military academy in Woolwich, in south-east London

The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It later also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. RMA Woolwich was commonly known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal.

Royal Artillery artillery arm of the British Army

The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army. The Royal Regiment of Artillery comprises thirteen Regular Army regiments, King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery and five Army Reserve regiments.

By the turn of the century, under the impetus of the Napoleonic Wars and the strain that the armies of Europe subsequently came under, military academies for the training of commissioned officers of the army were set up in most of the combatant nations. These military schools had two functions: to provide instruction for serving officers in the functions of the efficient staff-officer, and to school youngsters before they gained an officer's commission. [3] The Kriegsakademie in Prussia was founded in 1801 and the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr was created by order of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802 as a replacement for the École Royale Militaire of the Ancien Régime (the institution that Napoleon himself had graduated from).

Napoleonic Wars Series of early 19th century European wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).

The École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr is the foremost French military academy – often referred to as Saint-Cyr – located in Coëtquidan in Guer, Morbihan, Brittany, along with the École militaire interarmes. Its motto is Ils s'instruisent pour vaincre, literally meaning "They study to vanquish" or, more freely put, "Training for victory". French cadet officers are called saint-cyriens or cyrards.

Ancien Régime Monarchic, aristocratic, social and political system established in the Kingdom of France from approximately the 15th century until the later 18th century

The Ancien Régime was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the French Revolution. The Ancien Régime was ruled by the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The term is occasionally used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe. The administrative and social structures of the Ancien Régime were the result of years of state-building, legislative acts, internal conflicts, and civil wars, but they remained and the Valois Dynasty's attempts at re-establishing control over the scattered political centres of the country were hindered by the Huguenot Wars. Much of the reigns of Henry IV and Louis XIII and the early years of Louis XIV were focused on administrative centralization. Despite, however, the notion of "absolute monarchy" and the efforts by the kings to create a centralized state, the Kingdom of France retained its irregularities: authority regularly overlapped and nobles struggled to retain autonomy.

The Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England was the brainchild of John Le Marchant in 1801, [4] who established schools for the military instruction of officers at High Wycombe and Great Marlow, with a grant of £30,000 from Parliament. The two original departments were later combined and moved to Sandhurst. In the United States, the military academy at West Point was founded in 1802 and became popular in the 1860s.

Types

Pre-collegiate institutions

A military school teaches children (primarily boys) of various ages (elementary school, middle school or high school) in a military environment which includes training in military aspects, such as drill. Many military schools are also boarding schools, and others are simply magnet schools in a larger school system. Many are privately run institutions, though some are public and are run either by a public school system (such as the Chicago Public Schools) or by a state.

A common misconception results because some states have chosen to house their juvenile criminal populations in higher-security boarding schools that are run in a manner similar to military boarding schools. These are also called reform schools, and are functionally a combination of school and prison. They attempt to emulate the environment of military boarding schools in the belief that a strict structured environment can reform these children. This may or may not be true. However, their environment and target population are different from those of military schools. [5] [ better source needed ]

Popular culture sometimes shows parents sending or threatening to send unruly children off to military school (or boarding school) to teach them good behavior (e.g., in the "Army of One" episode of The Sopranos , Tony and Carmela Soprano consider sending their son, AJ, to the Hudson Military Institute). A similar situation appears in Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure , while other fictional depictions don't show military academies as punishment (threats) (ex. Damien: Omen II and The Presidio .

Adult institutions

A college-level military academy is an institute of higher learning of things military. It is part of a larger system of military education and training institutions. The primary educational goal at military academies is to provide a high quality education that includes significant coursework and training in the fields of military tactics and military strategy. The amount of non-military coursework varies by both the institution and the country, and the amount of practical military experience gained varies as well.

Military academies may or may not grant university degrees. In the U.S., graduates have a major field of study, earning a Bachelor's degree in that subject just as at other universities. However, in British academies, the graduate does not achieve a university degree, since the whole of the one-year course (nowadays undertaken mainly but not exclusively by university graduates) is dedicated to military training.

There are two types of military academies: national (government-run) and state/private-run.

List of military academies by countries

Afghanistan

Cadets of the National Military Academy of Afghanistan stand in formation awaiting dignitaries. The Academy was established in 2005. Cornerstone Laying ceremony of the National Military Academy of Afghanistan (4496292883).jpg
Cadets of the National Military Academy of Afghanistan stand in formation awaiting dignitaries. The Academy was established in 2005.

Albania

Angola

Argentina

Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner addresses the 2010 graduating class of Argentina's National Military College. Presidenta Kirchner en Colegio Militar.jpg
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner addresses the 2010 graduating class of Argentina's National Military College.

Argentine Army

Argentine Navy

Argentine Air Force

Armenia

Australia

The Australian Defence Force Academy is a tri-service military college. The Academy was established in 1986. ADFA Tri-Service Institution.jpg
The Australian Defence Force Academy is a tri-service military college. The Academy was established in 1986.

Austria

Azerbaijan

Bangladesh

Colours Contingent of the Bangladesh Military Academy. The Academy is a training institute for officers of the Bangladesh Army. Colours Contingent of BMA.jpg
Colours Contingent of the Bangladesh Military Academy. The Academy is a training institute for officers of the Bangladesh Army.

Cadet Colleges in Bangladesh

Belarus

The drummers of Minsk Suvorov Military School during the 2017 Minsk Independence Day Parade. The institution is the only military high school in Belarus. Parad po sluchaiu Dnia nezavisimosti Belorussii pri uchastii aviatsii ZVO (5).jpg
The drummers of Minsk Suvorov Military School during the 2017 Minsk Independence Day Parade. The institution is the only military high school in Belarus.
The Border Services Institute's headquarters in Minsk. Institution IPS.png
The Border Services Institute's headquarters in Minsk.

Belgium

Bolivia

Brazil

Cadets at Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras during a graduation ceremony. It is the largest military college operated by the Brazilian Army. Agulhas Negras.jpg
Cadets at Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras during a graduation ceremony. It is the largest military college operated by the Brazilian Army.

Has several military academies:

Bulgaria

Canada

Royal Military College of Canada band piper and bugler. Established in 1876, the College is Canada's only post-secondary military college with degree-granting powers. Royal Military College of Canada band piper and bugler, Remembrance Day.jpg
Royal Military College of Canada band piper and bugler. Established in 1876, the College is Canada's only post-secondary military college with degree-granting powers.

Canada currently has one military-theme private boarding school open for students at the pre-university level, Robert Land Academy (RLA), which is located in West Lincoln, Ontario. Founded in 1978, it is an all-boys' institute whose funding arises solely from tuition fees. The Academy is an institute fully accredited by the province of Ontario, which accepts students from Grade 6 to Grade 12 (the Ontario Academic Credit level).

Canada formerly had three university level service academies, the Canadian Military Colleges. These included the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) in Kingston, Ontario, Royal Roads Military College (RRMC) in Victoria, British Columbia and the Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean (CMR) in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec. RMC was founded in 1876, RRMC in 1941 and CMR in 1954. [11] By the 1960s all three institutions were providing military education to officer cadets of all three elements in the Canadian Forces; the navy, army and air force; and RMC received the authority to grant academic degrees in Arts, Science and Engineering. [12]

Graduates of the Colleges are widely acknowledged to have had a disproportionate impact in the Canadian services and society, thanks to the solid foundations provided by their military education. [13] Military discipline and training, as well as a focus on physical fitness and fluency in both of Canada's two official languages, English and French, provided cadets with ample challenges and a very fulfilling experience. [14] In 1995 the Department of National Defence was forced to close Royal Roads Military College and Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean due to budget considerations, but Royal Military College of Canada continues to operate. [15] Royal Roads reopened as a civilian university in the fall of 1995, and is maintained by the Government of British Columbia. In 2007, the Department of National Defence reopened Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean as a preparatory and first year college.

China, People's Republic of

Main gate of the PLA National Defence University. The institution is a national university administered by the People's Liberation Army. Gate of PLA-National Defence University.jpg
Main gate of the PLA National Defence University. The institution is a national university administered by the People's Liberation Army.

Colombia

The Honour Guard of Jose Maria Cordova Military School. Cadets undergo undergraduate studies at the institution. Jose Maria Cordova Military School Honor Guard.jpg
The Honour Guard of José María Córdova Military School. Cadets undergo undergraduate studies at the institution.

National Army of Colombia:

Colombian Air Force:

Colombian Naval Infantry and Colombian Navy:

National Police of Colombia:

Czech Republic

Denmark

Established in 1701, the Royal Danish Naval Academy is the oldest-still-existing officers' academy in the world. Royal Danish Naval Academy.jpg
Established in 1701, the Royal Danish Naval Academy is the oldest-still-existing officers' academy in the world.

Egypt

El Salvador

Estonia

The Baltic Defence College is a multinational military college established by the three Baltic states. Selline kevade algus 2010.jpg
The Baltic Defence College is a multinational military college established by the three Baltic states.

Finland

France

Students of Prytanee National Militaire having lunch, 1900. The institution is one of several military preparatory schools in France. PrytaneeStudents.jpg
Students of Prytanée National Militaire having lunch, 1900. The institution is one of several military preparatory schools in France.

High schools

Officer academies

Cadets of Ecole speciale militaire de Saint-Cyr during the 2008 Bastille Day military parade. The military college was established in 1802 by Napoleon. ESM close-up Bastille Day 2008.jpg
Cadets of École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr during the 2008 Bastille Day military parade. The military college was established in 1802 by Napoleon.
  • École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, literally the "Special Military School of St Cyr") is the French Military Academy. It is often referred to as "Saint-Cyr". Founded by Napoleon in 1802, and initially located in Fontainebleau, it was moved first to Saint-Cyr-l'École in 1808, and then to Coëtquidan (Brittany) in 1945.
  • École militaire interarmes (EMIA)
  • École des commissaires des armées (ECA), founded in 2013
  • École de l'air: the French Air Force Academy
  • École Navale: the French Naval Academy
  • École des officiers de la gendarmerie nationale (EOGN): gendarmerie commissioned officers academy
  • École Polytechnique (X): a French engineering grande école of military status. Though all of its French engineering students are enlisted and trained as officers, 5% of its graduates remain in the military after graduation. [16]
  • ENSTA Bretagne: a French engineering grande école of military status. Only 1/4 of its students are actual officers-in-training.
  • École de Santé des Armées: medical school of French army
  • National Military Infrastructure Engineers Academy: trains military engineers of the Armed Forces, opened 2013 (also one of the newest)

Postgraduate academies

  • École d'état-major (Staff school): first step of higher military studies, for officer of OF-2 rank.
  • École de Guerre (War School): second step of higher military studies, mainly for ranks OF-2 and OF-3 who want to continue the command track (e.g. to command battalion or regiment).
  • Collège d'enseignement supérieur de l'armée de terre (Army Higher Education College): second step of military education, but for officers whishing to achieve a high-level specialization.
    • Cours supérieur d'état-major (Advanced Staff Course)
    • Enseignement militaire supérieur scientifique et technique (Higher Technical and Scientific Education).
  • Centre des hautes études militaire (Center for Advanced Military Studies): final step of military education, for very few selected OF-5. Its students also attend the civilian institut des hautes études de défense nationale.

Georgia

National Defense Academy (NDA) of Georgia is a descendant of the first Georgian "Junker School" which was established in 1919 right after the declaration of independence. Establishment of the military school was very important for the identity of a new democratic nation-state. The school was abolished after Soviet occupation of Georgia in 1921.

"Davit Aghmashenebeli National Defense Academy of Georgia" was founded on May 28, 1993. The length of studies at the Academy had been defined for 4 years. In 2005, due to the need of the growth of the personnel strength of the Georgian Armed Forces (GAF), the system of the Academy has been transformed to retain only the 18-month-long officer training courses. A bachelor's degree has been defined as a prerequisite for the admission of the cadets.

In 2010, the NDA has undergone a new wave of the reforms to include entire officer education system. As a result, in 2011, Cadet Bachelor School, Junior Officer Basic School, Aviation and Air Defense Officer Basic School, Medical Officer School, Captain Career School, Command and General Staff School, School of Advance Defense Studies and Language Training School were included within the NDA. [17]

Upon entry into NDA, cadets sign a contract with the MoD for 10 years of military service, of which 4 years are dedicated to studies and 6 years – to consequent military service. Cadets receive the rank of Lieutenant upon graduation.

NDA is established by the MoD with the status of the Legal Entity of Public Law. At the same time, NDA maintains very strong link with The Ministry of Education and Science according to the process of Bologna.

Germany

The main complex of the Naval Academy Murwik of the German Navy. Rote Schloss, MSM zur Wasserseite (Flensburg-Murwik 2006).jpg
The main complex of the Naval Academy Mürwik of the German Navy.
Library of Bundeswehr University Munich. It provides post-secondary education to military personnel and civilians. Bundeswehr university main library.JPG
Library of Bundeswehr University Munich. It provides post-secondary education to military personnel and civilians.

Germany has a unique system for civil and military education. The only true military academy is the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr where mainly future staff officers and general staff officers are further trained.

The standard education in military leadership is the task of the Offizierschulen (officers' schools) run by the three branches. The contents differ from branch to branch. In the army all officers are at least trained to lead a platoon. There they also have to pass an officer exam to become commissioned later on.

Moreover, there exist so called Waffenschulen (school of weapons) like infantry school or artillery school. There the officers learn to deal with the typical tasks of their respective corps.

A specialty of the German concept of officer formation is the academic education. Germany runs two Universities of the German Federal Armed Forces where almost every future officer has to pass non-military studies and achieve a bachelor's or master's degree. During their studies (after at least three years of service) the candidates become commissioned Leutnant (second lieutenant).

The three officer's schools are:

Academic and staff education:

Greece

A sloop of the Hellenic Naval Academy sails past with a crew of naval cadet officers. The Academy is supervised by the Hellenic Navy. 20081004-Piraeus-HNA A233-0033.jpg
A sloop of the Hellenic Naval Academy sails past with a crew of naval cadet officers. The Academy is supervised by the Hellenic Navy.

The Hellenic Armed Forces have military academies supervised by each branch of the Armed Forces individually:

Hungary

India

Robin K. Dhowan, Chief of Naval Staff for India, reviews cadets during a passing out parade of the Indian Military Academy. The institution is a training academy of the Indian Army. Admiral RK Dhowan reviewing the Passing Out Parade at the Indian Military Academy, Dehradun 01.JPG
Robin K. Dhowan, Chief of Naval Staff for India, reviews cadets during a passing out parade of the Indian Military Academy. The institution is a training academy of the Indian Army.

Military Schools

Indonesia

Cadets of the Indonesian Military Academy in parade uniform during the Indonesian independence day ceremony. The institution is the military academy of the Indonesian Army. Taruna akmil.jpg
Cadets of the Indonesian Military Academy in parade uniform during the Indonesian independence day ceremony. The institution is the military academy of the Indonesian Army.
Cadets of the Indonesian Air Force Academy in formation before parading for the Air force anniversary ceremony. The Academy is operated by the Indonesian Air Force. Indonesian air force cadets.png
Cadets of the Indonesian Air Force Academy in formation before parading for the Air force anniversary ceremony. The Academy is operated by the Indonesian Air Force.

The Indonesian Military Academy [19] was founded in Yogyakarta, October 13, 1945 by the order off the then Chief of the General Staff of the People's Security Armed Forces Lieutenant General Urip Sumohardjo as the Militaire Academie (MA) Yogyakarta. It operated until 1950, when it was closed down.

Currently, the Tentara Nasional Indonesia or the "TNI" (Indonesian National Armed Forces), under the supervision of the Commandant General of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Academy (a three-star officer in billet) in the HQ of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has divided the academies into the three respective services:

Each service academy is headed by a two-star general, and his/her deputy is a one-star officer. All the students (cadets) are recruited from senior high school graduates from all over Indonesia. Shortly after graduation, they are commissioned as Letnan Dua (Second Lieutenant) in their respective services and get the Diploma IV (Associate degree, 4th Grade) comparable to civil academies or universities. The length term is 4 years and is divided into 5 grades of cadet's rank, starting from the lowest:

Taruna refers to cadets in the Military Academy, Kadet refers to cadets in the Naval Academy, and Karbol refers to cadets in the Air Force Academy, respectively.

Until 1999, before the Indonesian National Police officially separated from the armed forces, the Indonesian Police Academy ("AKPOL") also stood under the National Armed Forces Academy but now has separated from the Military and is under the auspices of the President of Indonesia controlled by the National Police Headquarters (Mabes Polri), where in the other hand the Armed Forces (Army, Naval, and Air Force) Academies of Indonesia is under the auspices of the Ministry of Defense controlled by the Armed Forces General HQ (Mabes TNI). Presently, the Police Academy is located in Semarang (Central Java), and is supervised under the supervision of the Chief of Indonesian National Police (Kapolri).

All 3 academies and the Police Academy have a joint 4th class cadet training program since 2008, after completing it the cadets go to their respective academies to continue with the 3 remaining years of study before commissioning.

Iran

Imam Ali Officers' University (Persian: دانشگاه افسری امام علی; acronym: [20] دا اف, DĀʿAF), formerly known as Officers' School (Persian: دانشکده افسری) is the military academy of Ground Forces of Islamic Republic of Iran Army, located in Tehran, Iran. Cadets of the academy achieve the second Lieutenant rank upon graduation and join one of Islamic Republic of Iran Army branches.

Italy

A cadet of Italy's Nunziatella military academy in 1787, the year the academy was established. Nunziatellais is the oldest military academy in the world still operating without interruption. Allievo della Nunziatella, 1787.jpg
A cadet of Italy's Nunziatella military academy in 1787, the year the academy was established. Nunziatellais is the oldest military academy in the world still operating without interruption.

High School level institutions (only for Classical and Scientific Liceum, starting from grade 10):

The 2009–2010 school year has been the first one with girls attending those schools.

University level institutions:

Japan

Kazakhstan

Cadets of the Military Institute of the Kazakh Ground Forces march in the 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade. Kazakh Cadets in Moscow Parade.jpg
Cadets of the Military Institute of the Kazakh Ground Forces march in the 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade.

[21]

Cadet Corps

Korea, North

Korea, South

Cadets of the Korean Military Academy during a visit to United Nations Command. KKMA Visit - 03 FEB 2010 (2).jpg
Cadets of the Korean Military Academy during a visit to United Nations Command.

The three main military academies:

Other military academies:

Kyrgyzstan

Cadets of the Military Institute during a parade. Victory Day Parade in Bishkek 2015 05.jpg
Cadets of the Military Institute during a parade.

Malaysia

Cadets of National Defence University of Malaysia on an exercise. The institution is a post-secondary school operated by the Malaysian Armed Forces. V3xn.jpg
Cadets of National Defence University of Malaysia on an exercise. The institution is a post-secondary school operated by the Malaysian Armed Forces.

Secondary level institutions:

University level:

Specialist training & staff institutions:

Reserve Officer Training Units (Malay : Pasukan Latihan Pegawai Simpanan or PALAPES) or ROTU exists only in public universities in Malaysia. This is a tertiary institution based officer commissioning program to equip students as officer cadets with military knowledge and understanding for service as Commissioned Officers in the reserve components of the various branches of the Malaysian Armed Forces.

Mexico

A cadet of Mexico's Heroic Military Academy with a golden eagle, the institution's mascot. Mexican cadet.jpg
A cadet of Mexico's Heroic Military Academy with a golden eagle, the institution's mascot.

Moldova

Mongolia

Myanmar

Namibia

Netherlands

Cadets in a classroom of the Netherlands' Royal Naval Institute. The academy is a part of Nederlandse Defensie Academie. Adelborsten in college.jpg
Cadets in a classroom of the Netherlands' Royal Naval Institute. The academy is a part of Nederlandse Defensie Academie.

New Zealand

Tier One – Initial Officer Training

Tier Two – Junior Officer Education

Tier Three – Senior Officer Education

Nigeria

Cadets in a lab of Nigeria's Air Force Military School, a boys-only military high school. Afmslab.jpg
Cadets in a lab of Nigeria's Air Force Military School, a boys-only military high school.

High school training

Undergraduate officer training

Postgraduate officer training

Norway

Buildings of the Norwegian Naval Academy, an undergraduate institution intended to instruct officers of the Royal Norwegian Navy. Wallemsviken.jpg
Buildings of the Norwegian Naval Academy, an undergraduate institution intended to instruct officers of the Royal Norwegian Navy.

Undergraduate officer training

Postgraduate training

  • Norwegian Defence Staff College, Oslo (Joint)
  • Norwegian National Defence College, Oslo (Civil Service/Very senior officers)

Pakistan

A passing out parade at Pakistan Military Academy. Kakul Passingoutprade Oweis.JPG
A passing out parade at Pakistan Military Academy.

Panama

Escuela de Policia National Dr. Justo Arosemena
http://www.policia.gob.pa/direcciones/dnrrhh/ces.html%5B%5D

Paraguay

The Francisco López Military Academy is located in Capiatá, Paraguay.

Peru

Undergraduate officer training

Philippines

Graduating cadets of Philippine Military Academy at a homecoming. Pma cadets.JPG
Graduating cadets of Philippine Military Academy at a homecoming.
The National Defense College of the Philippines is a graduate-level military college established in 1963. National Defense College of the Philippines in Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City.png
The National Defense College of the Philippines is a graduate-level military college established in 1963.

The Philippines patterned all its military academies after the United States Military Academy (WEST POINT) and the United States Merchant Marine Academy.

These colleges are operated by the Philippine Government which serves 4 years of different baccalaureate degrees:

Aside from the PMA and the PMMA, all three branches of the AFP have their own Officer Candidate Course Programs for both men and women, patterned after their US counterparts.

The nation's higher military colleges are:

Poland

Cadets of the Polish Naval Academy aboard the ORP Iskra, 1937. Zaloga iskra.jpg
Cadets of the Polish Naval Academy aboard the ORP Iskra, 1937.

Defunct

Portugal

Students of Colegio Militar on parade. The school is one of two pre-university institutions in Portugal. P3069432 (6249994461).jpg
Students of Colégio Militar on parade. The school is one of two pre-university institutions in Portugal.

Pre-University level institution

Undergraduate officer training

The Bemposta Palace of the Portuguese Military Academy, an undergraduate-level institution. Palacio da Bemposta 2.JPG
The Bemposta Palace of the Portuguese Military Academy, an undergraduate-level institution.

Postgraduate and staff training

No longer operational

  • Instituto Superior Militar, Águeda  – Undergraduate school for training NCOs to become officers;
  • Escola Superior Politécnica do Exército, Amadora – Undergraduate school for training NCOs to become officers.
  • Escola do Serviço de Saúde Militar, Lisbon Portuguese Armed Forces nurse and paramedic undergraduate school.
  • Instituto de Odivelas, Odivelas  – Pre-university level military school for girls;
  • Instituto de Altos Estudos Militares, Lisbon – Army graduate and staff college;
  • Instituto Superior Naval de Guerra, Lisbon – Navy graduate and staff college;
  • Instituto de Altos Estudos da Força Aérea, Sintra – Air Force graduate and staff college.

Romania

Russia

See also: Cadet Corps (Russia), Military academies in Russia

First stage of training

  • The Cadet Corps is an admissions-based military middle school for young boys that was founded in the Russian Empire in the year 1732, soon becoming widespread throughout the country.
  • Kronstadt S.C.C.
  • Moscow Representative Sea Cadet Corps of the Navigation and Mathematics School
  • Moscow Sea Cadet Corps Heroes of Sevastopol

Secondary education

A cadet of Moscow Suvorov Military School. The high school was the first of several Suvorov Military School established throughout Russia. MsSVU08.jpg
A cadet of Moscow Suvorov Military School. The high school was the first of several Suvorov Military School established throughout Russia.
  • Suvorov Military School are a type of boarding school in modern Russia for boys of 14-18. Education in such these schools focuses on military related subjects.

Post-secondary education

The Engineers Castle of Russia's Military Engineering-Technical University, with a monument to Peter the Great in the foreground. Saint Petersburg St Michael's Castle.jpg
The Engineers Castle of Russia's Military Engineering-Technical University, with a monument to Peter the Great in the foreground.
Established in 1832, the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia is a post-graduate military academy. General-staff-academy-building-moscow-russia-may-2016.jpg
Established in 1832, the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia is a post-graduate military academy.

Staff college

Serbia

Photo of cadets fencing at the Serbian Military Academy. Borenje sabljom.jpg
Photo of cadets fencing at the Serbian Military Academy.

Singapore

Somalia
  • Camp TURKSOM trains both officers and NCO's, offers a two-year course for officers and a one-year course for NCO's.
South Africa

Spain

Sri Lanka

The General Sir John Kotelawala Defense University, was established in 1980 and is named after Gen. Sri John Kotelawala the 2nd Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. Taking cadets from all three armed services, 3 non-university level Military Academies, one for each armed service providing basic training for officer and a Command and Staff College for senior officers of the three armed services.

University

Officer training

Staff training

Sweden

Undergraduate officer training

Karlberg Palace, home of Sweden's Military Academy Karlberg. Established in 1792, it is the oldest military academy in the world to remain in its original location. Karlbergs slott fran Stadshagen.jpg
Karlberg Palace, home of Sweden's Military Academy Karlberg. Established in 1792, it is the oldest military academy in the world to remain in its original location.

Postgraduate training

Taiwan

Tanzania

Thailand

Turkey

Cadets of the Turkish Military Academy at 2016 Sandhurst Competition at West Point. Cadets from the Turkish Military Academy.jpg
Cadets of the Turkish Military Academy at 2016 Sandhurst Competition at West Point.

Turkmenistan

Cadets of the Military Institute. Independence Day Parade - Flickr - Kerri-Jo (19).jpg
Cadets of the Military Institute.

Uganda

Uganda maintains the followings military training institutions, as of December 2010: [27]

Ukraine

A number of universities have specialized military institutes, such as the Faculty of Military Legal Studies at Kharkiv's National Yaroslav Mudryi Law Academy of Ukraine, however, the primary Ukrainian military academies are the following: [37]

Staff colleges

United Kingdom

Pre-University level institution

A parade at Welbeck Defence Sixth Form College. The College is one of two pre-university level institutions in the country. WelbeckParade.JPG
A parade at Welbeck Defence Sixth Form College. The College is one of two pre-university level institutions in the country.

There are also numerous Cadet forces that operate for all branches of the armed forces for children aged 10–20. These are not designed to recruit people into the armed forces but rather are simply Ministry of Defence sponsored youth organisations.

Undergraduate Service

Although an undergraduate degree is not a pre-requisite for Officer training, the majority of potential Officers will have attended University before joining the Armed Forces. At some universities there may be the option for people to join either a University Royal Naval Unit, a University Officer Training Corps (UOTC) or a University Air Squadron; which are designed to introduce students to life in the Forces and show them the careers that are available. People sponsored under the Defence Technical Undergraduate Scheme will join one of the four Support Units attached to universities participating in DTUS. There is a requirement for bursars of DTUS to join the military for 3 years after completion of their degree, there no requirement for students of any other organisation to join the military after they finish their degree programs; and the great majority have no further contact with the armed forces. Although service with these organisations may give some initial benefit to cadets attending the military colleges/academies, the next stage of the officer training programs assumes no prior military experience/knowledge, and those that did not partake in military activities at university are not disadvantaged.

Officer training

The Passing Out Parade at Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Sandhurst is one of four military academies in the United Kingdom. Sandhurst Royal Military Academy - geograph.org.uk - 44912.jpg
The Passing Out Parade at Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Sandhurst is one of four military academies in the United Kingdom.

There are now four military academies in the United Kingdom. Although the curriculum at each varies due to the differing nature of the service a man or woman is joining, it is a combination of military and academic study that is designed to turn young civilians into comprehensively trained military officers.

Officer Training for the Reserve Forces (e.g. Army Reserve, Royal Naval Reserve, RAF Reserves & Royal Marine Reserves) also takes place at the relevant military academies, but under a different curriculum and the courses tend to be concentrated into a much shorter period.

Postgraduate and staff training

The first RAF Staff College course at Andover, 1922. The staff college operated from 1922 to 1970. The first RAF Staff College course at Andover.jpg
The first RAF Staff College course at Andover, 1922. The staff college operated from 1922 to 1970.

No longer operational

United States

President Donald Trump poses for a photo with some graduates following the 2019 U.S. Air Force Academy Graduation Ceremony. The United States Air Force Academy Graduation Ceremony (47969062548).jpg
President Donald Trump poses for a photo with some graduates following the 2019 U.S. Air Force Academy Graduation Ceremony.

Introduction

In the United States, the term "military academy" does not necessarily mean a government-owned institution run by the armed forces to train its own officers. It may also mean a middle school, high school, or college, whether public or private, which instructs its students in military-style education, discipline and tradition. Students at such civilian institutions can earn a commission in the U.S. military through the successful completion of a Senior Reserve Officers' Training Corps program along with their college or university's academic coursework.

Most state-level military academies maintain both a civilian student body and a traditional corps of cadets. The only exception is the Virginia Military Institute, which remains all-military. [40]

Federal Service Academies

Cadets of the United States Military Academy (USMA) navigate the horizontal ladder and vertical rope obstacle of the Indoor Obstacle Course Test. USMA is one of five federal service academies. Horizontal Ladder and Vertical Rope USMA IOCT.JPG
Cadets of the United States Military Academy (USMA) navigate the horizontal ladder and vertical rope obstacle of the Indoor Obstacle Course Test. USMA is one of five federal service academies.

The colleges operated by the U.S. Federal Government are referred to as Federal Service Academies and are:

Post-graduate School

Senior and junior military colleges

Although Texas A&M University has transformed into a state university, it still maintains a corps of cadets along with a civilian student body. Fishreviewfall06.jpg
Although Texas A&M University has transformed into a state university, it still maintains a corps of cadets along with a civilian student body.
Cadets of Marion Military Institute after the Alumni Weekend parade. The Institute is one of four junior military colleges in the United States. MMI BC and Staff.jpg
Cadets of Marion Military Institute after the Alumni Weekend parade. The Institute is one of four junior military colleges in the United States.

There is one all-military state-sponsored military academy:

In addition, these five institutions that were military colleges at the time of their founding now maintain both a corps of cadets and a civilian student body. Many of these institutions also offer on-line degree programs:

Along with VMI, these institutions are known as the Senior Military Colleges of the US.

Today four institutions are considered Military Junior Colleges (MJC). These four military schools participate in the Army's two-year Early Commissioning Program, an Army ROTC program where qualified students can earn a commission as a Second Lieutenant after only two years of college. The four Military Junior Colleges are as follows:

Merchant Marine Academies that have military academy style operations

Cadets of the Great Lakes Maritime Academy learning how to row a boat. The institution is one of six military-styled maritime academies in the United States. TS State of Michigan on Grand Traverse Bay.jpg
Cadets of the Great Lakes Maritime Academy learning how to row a boat. The institution is one of six military-styled maritime academies in the United States.

There are six (6) state-operated Merchant Marine academies:

These merchant marine academies operate on a military college system. Part of the training that the cadets receive is naval and military in nature. Cadets may apply for Naval Reserve commissions upon obtaining their Merchant Marine Officer's licenses. Most if not all also offer some form of military commissioning program into the active duty US Navy, US Marine Corps, or US Coast Guard.

Staff Colleges

The United States staff colleges, mandated to serve the needs of officers for post-graduate studies and other such graduate institutions as mandated by the Department of Defense are:

United States Air Force Air University attached staff colleges
Staff Colleges of the United States Army
A classroom at the School of Advanced Military Studies, one of four staff colleges of the United States Army. Classroom Activities, School of Advanced Military Studies, Fort Leavenworth, 2 November 2010.jpg
A classroom at the School of Advanced Military Studies, one of four staff colleges of the United States Army.
Staff Colleges of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps
Joint Service staff colleges
The National War College, a school of the National Defense University is a multi-service staff college in the United States. National War College - Roosevelt Hall.jpg
The National War College, a school of the National Defense University is a multi-service staff college in the United States.

Other post-graduate colleges operated by the DoD

Uzbekistan

The Tashkent Higher Tank Command School during the soviet period. Tashkent Higher Tank Command School postwar.jpg
The Tashkent Higher Tank Command School during the soviet period.

Vietnam

Zimbabwe

See also

Related Research Articles

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The president of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States.

Officer Candidate School or Officer Cadet School (OCS) are institutions which train civilians and enlisted personnel in order for them to gain a commission as officers in the armed forces of a country. How OCS is run differs between countries and services. Typically, Officer Candidates are already Bachelor's Degree holders, and undergo a short duration of training which focuses primarily on military skills and leadership. This is in contrast with service academies which include academic instruction leading to a bachelor's degree.

Cadet an under training military officer

A cadet is a trainee. The term is frequently used to refer to those training to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. Its meaning may vary between countries. The term is also used in civilian contexts and as a general attributive, for example in its original sense of a branch of a ruling house which is not currently in the direct line of succession.

Officer cadet is a rank held by military cadets during their training to become commissioned officers. In the United Kingdom, the rank is also used by members of University Royal Naval Units, University Officer Training Corps and University Air Squadron however these are not trainee officers and most do not join the armed forces.

Commandant is a title often given to the officer in charge of a military training establishment or academy. This usage is common in English-speaking nations. In some countries it may be a military or police rank. It is also often used to refer to the commander of a military prison or prison camp.

Military academies in Russia Wikimedia list article

Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties. This article primarily lists institutions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation rather than those of the Soviet Armed Forces.

Staff colleges train military officers in the administrative, staff and policy aspects of their profession. It is usual for such training to occur at several levels in a career. For example, an officer may be sent to various staff courses: as a captain they may be sent to a single service command and staff school to prepare for company command and equivalent staff posts; as a major to a single or joint service college to prepare for battalion command and equivalent staff posts; and as a colonel or brigadier to a higher staff college to prepare for brigade and division command and equivalent postings.

Rashtriya Indian Military College

The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC) is a public school for boys situated in Doon Valley, Dehradun in India. The RIMC is a feeder institution for the National Defence Academy, Indian Naval Academy and subsequently the Indian Armed Forces. Rimcollians, the name by which alumni of the RIMC are usually denoted, have gone on to hold the highest ranks in the Army, Navy and the Air Force of India and Pakistan.

The Indian military services have established numerous academies and staff colleges across India for the purpose of training professional soldiers in military sciences, warfare command and strategy, and associated technologies.

A military reserve force is a military organization composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career. They are not normally kept under arms and their main role is to be available to fight when their military requires additional manpower. Reserve forces are generally considered part of a permanent standing body of armed forces. The existence of reserve forces allows a nation to reduce its peacetime military expenditures while maintaining a force prepared for war. It is analogous to the historical model of military recruitment before the era of standing armies.

The Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA) Kaduna, is the first of two Military universities in Nigeria. Nigerian Army University established in 2018 in Biu, Borno State is the other military university though it does not offer military training. The duration of training at the Nigerian Defence Academy is 5 years for Army cadets(4 years Academic + 1 year Military) and 4 years for Navy and Air force cadets after which they proceed to Nigerian Naval College, Onne, Port-hacourt and 301 Flying Training School(301FTS), Kaduna respectively for 1 year training at their respective services.

The Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy (RNoAFA) is the Norwegian Air Force’s college which conducts officer training for the RNoAF and the Norwegian Armed Forces. The school was established in 1949 and is one of the Armed Forces´ three military academies. The two others are the Army Academy and the Naval Academy. The students at the Armed Forces´ Academies are referred to as cadets and have full salary during education. The cadets at the RNoAFA have their own association, the Cadet Society (Kadettsamfunnet). The RNoAFA has a staff of 40 and a student body of 80 cadets and has since 1961 been located in Trondheim. The Commandant of the Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy is Colonel Ole Asbjørn Fauske.

The Sri Lankan military academies are military academies for the training and tertiary education of commissioned officers for the Sri Lankan armed forces.

Officer (armed forces) member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority

An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.

Reserve Officers Training Corps (Philippines)

Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) in the Philippines is one of three components of the National Service Training Program, the civic education and defense preparedness program for Filipino college students. ROTC aims to provide military education and training for students to mobilize them for national defense preparedness. Its specific objectives include preparation of college students for service in the Armed Forces of the Philippines in the event of an emergency and their training to become reservists and potential commissioned officers of the AFP.

Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps

The Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (JROTC) is a federal program sponsored by the United States Armed Forces in high schools and also in some middle schools across the United States and United States military bases across the world. The program was originally created as part of the National Defense Act of 1916 and later expanded under the 1964 ROTC Vitalization Act.

Indonesian Naval Academy

The Indonesian Naval Academy is a naval academy of the Indonesian Navy, the naval component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Academy System or the AKABRI. Its campus is located in Surabaya, East Java and trains men and women to become officers of the Navy, including the Indonesian Marine Corps, Fleet Forces, Naval Aviation and support branches.

Indonesian Air Force Academy

The Indonesian Air Force Academy is a military air force academy of the Indonesian Air Force, the air force component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Academy System or the AKABRI. Its campus is located in the Adisutjipto Air Force Base complex in Yogyakarta and trains men and women to become commissioned officers of the Indonesian Air Force. Of all the military academies in Indonesia, despite the AAU having been opened in November 1945, it has roots dating back to 1921.

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Further reading