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A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.
The United States service academies, also known as the United States military academies, are federal academies for the undergraduate education and training of commissioned officers for the United States Armed Forces.
Three types of academy exist: pre-school-level institutions awarding academic qualifications, university-level institutions awarding bachelor's degree level qualification, and those preparing officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of the state.
A bachelor's degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years. In some institutions and educational systems, some bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate degrees after a first degree has been completed. In countries with qualifications frameworks, bachelor's degrees are normally one of the major levels in the framework, although some qualifications titled bachelor's degrees may be at other levels and some qualifications with non-bachelor's titles may be classified as bachelor's degrees.
Officer training refers to the training that most military officers must complete before acquiring an officer rank. A potential recruit becomes an officer cadet, someone in training. An officer in training can either be trained in a military college, such as West Point, or taken from the enlisted ranks. After this training is complete, the recruit in question becomes a fully fledged officer, taking on a commanding position in his or her military branch.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
A naval academy is either a type of military academy (in the broad sense of that term) or is distinguished from one (in the narrow sense). In U.S. usage, the United States Military Academy and the United States Naval Academy are both service academies.
A naval academy is a national institution that provides undergraduate-level education for prospective naval officers.
In linguistics, a word sense is one of the meanings of a word. Words are in two sets: a large set with multiple meanings and a small set with only one meaning. For example, a dictionary may have over 50 different senses of the word "play", each of these having a different meaning based on the context of the word's usage in a sentence, as follows:
We went to see the playRomeo and Juliet at the theater.
The coach devised a great play that put the visiting team on the defensive.
The children went out to play in the park.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy, or simply The Point, is a four-year federal service academy in West Point, New York. It was originally established as a fort that sits on strategic high ground overlooking the Hudson River with a scenic view, 50 miles (80 km) north of New York City. It is one of the four U.S. military service academies, and one of the five U.S. service academies.
The first military academies were established in the 18th century to provide future officers for technically specialized corps, such as engineers and artillery, with scientific training.
Artillery is a class of heavy military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls, and fortifications, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines. As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery developed for battlefield use. This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the largest share of an army's total firepower.
The Royal Danish Naval Academy was set up in 1701, making it the oldest military academy in existence.The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich was set up in 1720 as the earliest military academy in Britain. Its original purpose was to train cadets entering the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. In France, the École Royale du Génie at Mézières was founded in 1748, followed by a non-technical academy in 1751, the École Royale Militaire offering a general military education to the nobility. French military academies were widely copied in Prussia, Austria, Russia and even minor powers, including Turin and the Kingdom of Savoy, in the late 18th century.
The Royal Danish Naval Academy educates and commissions all officers for the Royal Danish Navy. Having existed in more than 300 years, it is the oldest still-existing officers' academy in the world.
The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It later also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. RMA Woolwich was commonly known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal.
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army. The Royal Regiment of Artillery comprises thirteen Regular Army regiments, King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery and five Army Reserve regiments.
By the turn of the century, under the impetus of the Napoleonic Wars and the strain that the armies of Europe subsequently came under, military academies for the training of commissioned officers of the army were set up in most of the combatant nations. These military schools had two functions: to provide instruction for serving officers in the functions of the efficient staff-officer, and to school youngsters before they gained an officer's commission.The Kriegsakademie in Prussia was founded in 1801 and the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr was created by order of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802 as a replacement for the École Royale Militaire of the Ancien Régime (the institution that Napoleon himself had graduated from).
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).
The École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr is the foremost French military academy – often referred to as Saint-Cyr – located in Coëtquidan in Guer, Morbihan, Brittany, along with the École militaire interarmes. Its motto is Ils s'instruisent pour vaincre, literally meaning "They study to vanquish" or, more freely put, "Training for victory". French cadet officers are called saint-cyriens or cyrards.
The Ancien Régime was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the French Revolution. The Ancien Régime was ruled by the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The term is occasionally used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe. The administrative and social structures of the Ancien Régime were the result of years of state-building, legislative acts, internal conflicts, and civil wars, but they remained and the Valois Dynasty's attempts at re-establishing control over the scattered political centres of the country were hindered by the Huguenot Wars. Much of the reigns of Henry IV and Louis XIII and the early years of Louis XIV were focused on administrative centralization. Despite, however, the notion of "absolute monarchy" and the efforts by the kings to create a centralized state, the Kingdom of France retained its irregularities: authority regularly overlapped and nobles struggled to retain autonomy.
The Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England was the brainchild of John Le Marchant in 1801,who established schools for the military instruction of officers at High Wycombe and Great Marlow, with a grant of £30,000 from Parliament. The two original departments were later combined and moved to Sandhurst. In the United States, the military academy at West Point was founded in 1802 and became popular in the 1860s.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (June 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
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A military school teaches children (primarily boys) of various ages (elementary school, middle school or high school) in a military environment which includes training in military aspects, such as drill. Many military schools are also boarding schools, and others are simply magnet schools in a larger school system. Many are privately run institutions, though some are public and are run either by a public school system (such as the Chicago Public Schools) or by a state.
A common misconception results because some states have chosen to house their juvenile criminal populations in higher-security boarding schools that are run in a manner similar to military boarding schools. These are also called reform schools, and are functionally a combination of school and prison. They attempt to emulate the environment of military boarding schools in the belief that a strict structured environment can reform these children. This may or may not be true. However, their environment and target population are different from those of military schools. [ better source needed ]
Popular culture sometimes shows parents sending or threatening to send unruly children off to military school (or boarding school) to teach them good behavior (e.g., in the "Army of One" episode of The Sopranos , Tony and Carmela Soprano consider sending their son, AJ, to the Hudson Military Institute). A similar situation appears in Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure , while other fictional depictions don't show military academies as punishment (threats) (ex. Damien: Omen II and The Presidio .
A college-level military academy is an institute of higher learning of things military. It is part of a larger system of military education and training institutions. The primary educational goal at military academies is to provide a high quality education that includes significant coursework and training in the fields of military tactics and military strategy. The amount of non-military coursework varies by both the institution and the country, and the amount of practical military experience gained varies as well.
Military academies may or may not grant university degrees. In the U.S., graduates have a major field of study, earning a Bachelor's degree in that subject just as at other universities. However, in British academies, the graduate does not achieve a university degree, since the whole of the one-year course (nowadays undertaken mainly but not exclusively by university graduates) is dedicated to military training.
There are two types of military academies: national (government-run) and state/private-run.
Argentine Air Force
Has several military academies:
Canada currently has one military-theme private boarding school open for students at the pre-university level, Robert Land Academy (RLA), which is located in West Lincoln, Ontario. Founded in 1978, it is an all-boys' institute whose funding arises solely from tuition fees. The Academy is an institute fully accredited by the province of Ontario, which accepts students from Grade 6 to Grade 12 (the Ontario Academic Credit level).
Canada formerly had three university level service academies, the Canadian Military Colleges. These included the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) in Kingston, Ontario, Royal Roads Military College (RRMC) in Victoria, British Columbia and the Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean (CMR) in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec. RMC was founded in 1876, RRMC in 1941 and CMR in 1954.By the 1960s all three institutions were providing military education to officer cadets of all three elements in the Canadian Forces; the navy, army and air force; and RMC received the authority to grant academic degrees in Arts, Science and Engineering.
Graduates of the Colleges are widely acknowledged to have had a disproportionate impact in the Canadian services and society, thanks to the solid foundations provided by their military education.Military discipline and training, as well as a focus on physical fitness and fluency in both of Canada's two official languages, English and French, provided cadets with ample challenges and a very fulfilling experience. In 1995 the Department of National Defence was forced to close Royal Roads Military College and Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean due to budget considerations, but Royal Military College of Canada continues to operate. Royal Roads reopened as a civilian university in the fall of 1995, and is maintained by the Government of British Columbia. In 2007, the Department of National Defence reopened Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean as a preparatory and first year college.
National Army of Colombia:
Colombian Air Force:
Colombian Naval Infantry and Colombian Navy:
National Police of Colombia:
National Defense Academy (NDA) of Georgia is a descendant of the first Georgian "Junker School" which was established in 1919 right after the declaration of independence. Establishment of the military school was very important for the identity of a new democratic nation-state. The school was abolished after Soviet occupation of Georgia in 1921.
"Davit Aghmashenebeli National Defense Academy of Georgia" was founded on May 28, 1993. The length of studies at the Academy had been defined for 4 years. In 2005, due to the need of the growth of the personnel strength of the Georgian Armed Forces (GAF), the system of the Academy has been transformed to retain only the 18-month-long officer training courses. A bachelor's degree has been defined as a prerequisite for the admission of the cadets.
In 2010, the NDA has undergone a new wave of the reforms to include entire officer education system. As a result, in 2011, Cadet Bachelor School, Junior Officer Basic School, Aviation and Air Defense Officer Basic School, Medical Officer School, Captain Career School, Command and General Staff School, School of Advance Defense Studies and Language Training School were included within the NDA.
Upon entry into NDA, cadets sign a contract with the MoD for 10 years of military service, of which 4 years are dedicated to studies and 6 years – to consequent military service. Cadets receive the rank of Lieutenant upon graduation.
NDA is established by the MoD with the status of the Legal Entity of Public Law. At the same time, NDA maintains very strong link with The Ministry of Education and Science according to the process of Bologna.
Germany has a unique system for civil and military education. The only true military academy is the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr where mainly future staff officers and general staff officers are further trained.
The standard education in military leadership is the task of the Offizierschulen (officers' schools) run by the three branches. The contents differ from branch to branch. In the army all officers are at least trained to lead a platoon. There they also have to pass an officer exam to become commissioned later on.
Moreover, there exist so called Waffenschulen (school of weapons) like infantry school or artillery school. There the officers learn to deal with the typical tasks of their respective corps.
A specialty of the German concept of officer formation is the academic education. Germany runs two Universities of the German Federal Armed Forces where almost every future officer has to pass non-military studies and achieve a bachelor's or master's degree. During their studies (after at least three years of service) the candidates become commissioned Leutnant (second lieutenant).
The three officer's schools are:
Academic and staff education:
The Hellenic Armed Forces have military academies supervised by each branch of the Armed Forces individually:
The Indonesian Military Academywas founded in Yogyakarta, October 13, 1945 by the order off the then Chief of the General Staff of the People's Security Armed Forces Lieutenant General Urip Sumohardjo as the Militaire Academie (MA) Yogyakarta. It operated until 1950, when it was closed down.
Currently, the Tentara Nasional Indonesia or the "TNI" (Indonesian National Armed Forces), under the supervision of the Commandant General of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Academy (a three-star officer in billet) in the HQ of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has divided the academies into the three respective services:
Each service academy is headed by a two-star general, and his/her deputy is a one-star officer. All the students (cadets) are recruited from senior high school graduates from all over Indonesia. Shortly after graduation, they are commissioned as Letnan Dua (Second Lieutenant) in their respective services and get the Diploma IV (Associate degree, 4th Grade) comparable to civil academies or universities. The length term is 4 years and is divided into 5 grades of cadet's rank, starting from the lowest:
Taruna refers to cadets in the Military Academy, Kadet refers to cadets in the Naval Academy, and Karbol refers to cadets in the Air Force Academy, respectively.
Until 1999, before the Indonesian National Police officially separated from the armed forces, the Indonesian Police Academy ("AKPOL") also stood under the National Armed Forces Academy but now has separated from the Military and is under the auspices of the President of Indonesia controlled by the National Police Headquarters (Mabes Polri), where in the other hand the Armed Forces (Army, Naval, and Air Force) Academies of Indonesia is under the auspices of the Ministry of Defense controlled by the Armed Forces General HQ (Mabes TNI). Presently, the Police Academy is located in Semarang (Central Java), and is supervised under the supervision of the Chief of Indonesian National Police (Kapolri).
All 3 academies and the Police Academy have a joint 4th class cadet training program since 2008, after completing it the cadets go to their respective academies to continue with the 3 remaining years of study before commissioning.
Imam Ali Officers' University (Persian: دانشگاه افسری امام علی; acronym:دا اف, DĀʿAF), formerly known as Officers' School (Persian: دانشکده افسری) is the military academy of Ground Forces of Islamic Republic of Iran Army, located in Tehran, Iran. Cadets of the academy achieve the second Lieutenant rank upon graduation and join one of Islamic Republic of Iran Army branches.
High School level institutions (only for Classical and Scientific Liceum, starting from grade 10):
The 2009–2010 school year has been the first one with girls attending those schools.
University level institutions:
The three main military academies:
Other military academies:
Secondary level institutions:
Specialist training & staff institutions:
Reserve Officer Training Units (Malay : Pasukan Latihan Pegawai Simpanan or PALAPES) or ROTU exists only in public universities in Malaysia. This is a tertiary institution based officer commissioning program to equip students as officer cadets with military knowledge and understanding for service as Commissioned Officers in the reserve components of the various branches of the Malaysian Armed Forces.
Tier One – Initial Officer Training
Tier Two – Junior Officer Education
Tier Three – Senior Officer Education
Escuela de Policia National Dr. Justo Arosemena
The Francisco López Military Academy is located in Capiatá, Paraguay.
Undergraduate officer training
The Philippines patterned all its military academies after the United States Military Academy (WEST POINT) and the United States Merchant Marine Academy.
These colleges are operated by the Philippine Government which serves 4 years of different baccalaureate degrees:
Aside from the PMA and the PMMA, all three branches of the AFP have their own Officer Candidate Course Programs for both men and women, patterned after their US counterparts.
The nation's higher military colleges are:
See also: Cadet Corps (Russia), Military academies in Russia
The General Sir John Kotelawala Defense University, was established in 1980 and is named after Gen. Sri John Kotelawala the 2nd Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. Taking cadets from all three armed services, 3 non-university level Military Academies, one for each armed service providing basic training for officer and a Command and Staff College for senior officers of the three armed services.
Uganda maintains the followings military training institutions, as of December 2010:
A number of universities have specialized military institutes, such as the Faculty of Military Legal Studies at Kharkiv's National Yaroslav Mudryi Law Academy of Ukraine, however, the primary Ukrainian military academies are the following:
There are also numerous Cadet forces that operate for all branches of the armed forces for children aged 10–20. These are not designed to recruit people into the armed forces but rather are simply Ministry of Defence sponsored youth organisations.
Although an undergraduate degree is not a pre-requisite for Officer training, the majority of potential Officers will have attended University before joining the Armed Forces. At some universities there may be the option for people to join either a University Royal Naval Unit, a University Officer Training Corps (UOTC) or a University Air Squadron; which are designed to introduce students to life in the Forces and show them the careers that are available. People sponsored under the Defence Technical Undergraduate Scheme will join one of the four Support Units attached to universities participating in DTUS. There is a requirement for bursars of DTUS to join the military for 3 years after completion of their degree, there no requirement for students of any other organisation to join the military after they finish their degree programs; and the great majority have no further contact with the armed forces. Although service with these organisations may give some initial benefit to cadets attending the military colleges/academies, the next stage of the officer training programs assumes no prior military experience/knowledge, and those that did not partake in military activities at university are not disadvantaged.
There are now four military academies in the United Kingdom. Although the curriculum at each varies due to the differing nature of the service a man or woman is joining, it is a combination of military and academic study that is designed to turn young civilians into comprehensively trained military officers.
Officer Training for the Reserve Forces (e.g. Army Reserve, Royal Naval Reserve, RAF Reserves & Royal Marine Reserves) also takes place at the relevant military academies, but under a different curriculum and the courses tend to be concentrated into a much shorter period.
In the United States, the term "military academy" does not necessarily mean a government-owned institution run by the armed forces to train its own officers. It may also mean a middle school, high school, or college, whether public or private, which instructs its students in military-style education, discipline and tradition. Students at such civilian institutions can earn a commission in the U.S. military through the successful completion of a Senior Reserve Officers' Training Corps program along with their college or university's academic coursework.
Most state-level military academies maintain both a civilian student body and a traditional corps of cadets. The only exception is the Virginia Military Institute, which remains all-military.
The colleges operated by the U.S. Federal Government are referred to as Federal Service Academies and are:
There is one all-military state-sponsored military academy:
In addition, these five institutions that were military colleges at the time of their founding now maintain both a corps of cadets and a civilian student body. Many of these institutions also offer on-line degree programs:
Along with VMI, these institutions are known as the Senior Military Colleges of the US.
Today four institutions are considered Military Junior Colleges (MJC). These four military schools participate in the Army's two-year Early Commissioning Program, an Army ROTC program where qualified students can earn a commission as a Second Lieutenant after only two years of college. The four Military Junior Colleges are as follows:
There are six (6) state-operated Merchant Marine academies:
These merchant marine academies operate on a military college system. Part of the training that the cadets receive is naval and military in nature. Cadets may apply for Naval Reserve commissions upon obtaining their Merchant Marine Officer's licenses. Most if not all also offer some form of military commissioning program into the active duty US Navy, US Marine Corps, or US Coast Guard.
The United States staff colleges, mandated to serve the needs of officers for post-graduate studies and other such graduate institutions as mandated by the Department of Defense are:
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Officer Candidate School or Officer Cadet School (OCS) are institutions which train civilians and enlisted personnel in order for them to gain a commission as officers in the armed forces of a country. How OCS is run differs between countries and services. Typically, Officer Candidates are already Bachelor's Degree holders, and undergo a short duration of training which focuses primarily on military skills and leadership. This is in contrast with service academies which include academic instruction leading to a bachelor's degree.
A military band is a group of personnel that performs musical duties for military functions, usually for the armed forces. A typical military band consists mostly of wind and percussion instruments. The conductor of a band commonly bears the title of Bandmaster or Director of Music. Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of military marching bands in the world, dating from the 13th century.
A cadet is a trainee. The term is frequently used to refer to those training to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. Its meaning may vary between countries. The term is also used in civilian contexts and as a general attributive, for example in its original sense of a branch of a ruling house which is not currently in the direct line of succession.
Officer cadet is a rank held by military cadets during their training to become commissioned officers. In the United Kingdom, the rank is also used by members of University Royal Naval Units, University Officer Training Corps and University Air Squadron however these are not trainee officers and most do not join the armed forces.
Commandant is a title often given to the officer in charge of a military training establishment or academy. This usage is common in English-speaking nations. In some countries it may be a military or police rank. It is also often used to refer to the commander of a military prison or prison camp.
Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties. This article primarily lists institutions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation rather than those of the Soviet Armed Forces.
Staff colleges train military officers in the administrative, staff and policy aspects of their profession. It is usual for such training to occur at several levels in a career. For example, an officer may be sent to various staff courses: as a captain they may be sent to a single service command and staff school to prepare for company command and equivalent staff posts; as a major to a single or joint service college to prepare for battalion command and equivalent staff posts; and as a colonel or brigadier to a higher staff college to prepare for brigade and division command and equivalent postings.
The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC) is a public school for boys situated in Doon Valley, Dehradun in India. The RIMC is a feeder institution for the National Defence Academy, Indian Naval Academy and subsequently the Indian Armed Forces. Rimcollians, the name by which alumni of the RIMC are usually denoted, have gone on to hold the highest ranks in the Army, Navy and the Air Force of India and Pakistan.
The Indian military services have established numerous academies and staff colleges across India for the purpose of training professional soldiers in military sciences, warfare command and strategy, and associated technologies.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career. They are not normally kept under arms and their main role is to be available to fight when a nation mobilises for total war or to defend against invasion. Reserve forces are generally not considered part of a permanent standing body of armed forces. The existence of reserve forces allows a nation to reduce its peacetime military expenditures while maintaining a force prepared for war. It is analogous to the historical model of military recruitment before the era of standing armies.
The Sri Lankan military academies are military academies for the training and tertiary education of commissioned officers for the Sri Lankan armed forces.
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) in the Philippines is one of three components of the National Service Training Program, the civic education and defense preparedness program for Filipino college students. ROTC aims to provide military education and training for students to mobilize them for national defense preparedness. Its specific objectives include preparation of college students for service in the Armed Forces of the Philippines in the event of an emergency and their training to become reservists and potential commissioned officers of the AFP.
The Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (JROTC) is a federal program sponsored by the United States Armed Forces in high schools and also in some middle schools across the United States and United States military bases across the world. The program was originally created as part of the National Defense Act of 1916 and later expanded under the 1964 ROTC Vitalization Act.
The Military Academy is a military academy of the Indonesian Army, part of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Academy System or the AKABRI. Founded on the early stages of the Indonesian Revolutionary War and located in the city of Magelang in Central Java, its alumni forms a professional officer cadre for the army, with all Indonesian Army Chiefs of Staff since 1988 having graduated from Akmil.
The Indonesian Naval Academy is a naval academy of the Indonesian Navy, the naval component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Academy System or the AKABRI. Its campus is located in Surabaya, East Java and trains men and women to become officers of the Navy, including the Indonesian Marine Corps, Fleet Forces, Naval Aviation and support branches.
The Indonesian Air Force Academy is a military air force academy of the Indonesian Air Force, the air force component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Academy System or the AKABRI. Its campus is located in the Adisutjipto Air Force Base complex in Yogyakarta and trains men and women to become commissioned officers of the Indonesian Air Force. Of all the military academies in Indonesia, despite the AAU having been opened in November 1945, it has roots dating back to 1921.
Unlike other military colleges (the federal service academies), all of VMI’s students are members of the Corps of Cadets. This tradition of not offering civilian programs is in keeping with VMI efforts to offer students 'a Spartan, physically and academically demanding environment combined with strict military discipline.'
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